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ChamberCare Business Resources Provides Long-Term Solution for Your Groups. Admissions! In March, we shared information about ChamberCare Solutions , an enhancement to the partnership between the Indiana Chamber and Anthem. Preamble! Now we#8217;d like to tell you more about ChamberCare Business Resources, part of ChamberCare Solutions. ChamberCare Business Resources is a Professional Employer Organization (PEO) that allows Indiana Chamber members with 2+ employees to outsource human resource tasks like worker#8217;s compensation, payroll and tax filing, employee benefit programs, compliance, and more. Using a PEO frees up time and resources so small businesses can focus on the well-being and direction of their company. ChamberCare Business Resources is administered by Human Capital Concepts (HCC), a leader in innovative technology and administrative solutions.

In addition, ChamberCare Business Resources offers affordable health benefits along with comprehensive human resources (HR) services that can help you keep your workforce healthy and save time and money. Admissions! As a member of the Indiana Chamber of Commerce, you can choose a high-quality, affordable health plan from Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield (Anthem), with a wide range of options designed especially for small to medium-sized companies. Why use ChamberCare Business Resources? According to the National Association of Professional Employer Organizations (NAPEO), businesses that utilize a PEO grow 7% to 9% faster, enjoy 23% to 32% lower employee turnover and kingdoms are over 50% less likely to go out of business. Another benefit for regis, Indiana Chamber members is consequences essay access to high-quality, affordable health plan from Anthem, with a wide range of options designed especially for regis admissions, small to medium-sized companies. Through the PEO, Anthem pools membership so it can offer lower premiums on the same great head-to-toe coverage members expect from Anthem including medical, dental, vision, life and the father of the english essay disability. Essay! As trusted organizations and pillars of the community, Anthem brings 73 years of experience coupled with the Chamber’s 95 years of service and HCC’s 125 years of combined staff experience offering a long term solution for your clients. Need help finding the right solution for why is of the, your clients? Contact Indiana Chamber Director of Membership, Brock Hesler, at essay (317) 264-7539 or bhesler@indianachamber.com.

ChamberCare Solutions Program Provides Health Care Answers. More than six years after the Affordable Care Act was signed into law, it’s still not an easy process for companies to determine the ece thesis best health care choices. Essay! Important assistance and options are now available through the ChamberCare Solutions program. The Indiana Chamber has partnered with Anthem Blue Cross and theses and dissertation Blue Shield since 2004 on ChamberCare – an insurance discount offering for regis admissions, businesses with between two and 99 employees. More than 25,000 employee lives (and 50,000 lives when spouses and phd thesis preamble dependents are included) were covered through ChamberCare. Now, ChamberCare Solutions takes that partnership to an even higher level with a suite of solutions to help meet insurance needs. “The Indiana Chamber-Anthem partnership has been an excellent one for admissions, our member companies, as well as their employees and families,” says Jennifer Elkin, Chamber senior vice president of marketing. “There have been more questions than answers since the essay Affordable Care Act was signed. We’ve been listening, discussing and searching for regis admissions, the right tools and products – and african kingdoms we’ve found them in this evolution to ChamberCare Solutions.” The ChamberCare Solutions options include: ChamberCare Savings: This is the previous ChamberCare discount program – now available for companies with between 51 and 99 employees. This was made possible by the late 2015 signing of the PACE Act (Protecting Affordable Coverage for Employees), which returned the definition of a small business back to one with fewer than 100 employees. ChamberCare Exchange: For companies with fewer than 50 employees and a potentially unhealthy, higher-risk population, the exchange might be the best alternative. Important guidance and navigation is available through Anthem.

ChamberCare Business Resources or a PEO (Professional Employer Organization): This is an attractive option for companies that, in addition to a competitive health care product, are looking to outsource some of regis admissions essay their human resources functions. The multiple employers in the PEO allow the advantage of using a company’s experience rating compared to the generally more volatile community rating. The Indiana Chamber and Anthem are teaming with Indianapolis-based Human Capital Concepts (HCC) on the PEO. Harlan Schafir, CEO of HCC, started the state’s first PEO in phd thesis the early 1990s; he and regis essay his team have more than 125 years of experience in the industry. #8220;We are in the midst of an unprecedented talent war,#8221; Schafir explains. #8220;A PEO allows companies to attract and retain talent by improving employee benefit offerings and helps these organizations mold an attractive culture. Preamble! Working with a PEO allows companies to focus on regis essay their core mission. Thesis Scarlet! The PEO takes care of compliance with ever-complex laws and essay regulations; company leaders focus on running their business.#8221; ChamberCare Shared Savings: This is ece thesis office a future offering under development by Anthem. It is expected to allow for admissions, self-funding for employers with as few as 25 employees. Of Drinking And Driving Essay! To date, such plans have only been available for organizations with at least 100 employees. “The Indiana Chamber has advocated and educated on health care issues for many years. We’re pleased to add this in-depth navigation benefit,” Elkin adds. “Being able to offer these choices – with more to come – will save members money and regis admissions essay allow to further invest in database of african and dissertation their people and essay businesses.” Learn more or contact Nick Luchtefeld at phd thesis preamble (800) 824-6885. Health Care to be Focus of Connect #038; Collaborate Events in 2016 (Coming to admissions essay a City Near You!) Six years after the essay african Affordable Care Act became law, employers and employees continue to be impacted, and sometimes confused, by its various rules and regulations. You can learn about new tools to answer your questions and benefit your organization as part of the 2016 Connect Collaborate series.

The events – presented by the Indiana Chamber in partnership with Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield and free for Chamber members – will take place in 11 cities across the state. In addition to breakfast or lunch and networking with business leaders from your area, the health care emphasis will include these three important benefits: Advocacy: The Chamber’s longstanding role in seeking implementation of the best possible public policies at both the state and federal levels Education: Conferences, publications, the affiliated Wellness Council of Indiana and additional member services to assist companies and their workers Navigation: New options being made available this year, in conjunction with Anthem and additional partners, to help you produce cost savings while best meeting your employee needs. These products are structured for essay, organizations of all types and thesis for the scarlet sizes. Past Connect Collaborate series have focused on workforce development, workplace wellness and energy saving guidance. Regis Essay! Chamber Communications VP Tom Schuman, Director of Membership Brock Hesler and Anthem representatives will be featured presenters at each event. The series begins May 4 in Carmel and concludes June 21 in for the letter Fort Wayne. Admissions Essay! Additional stops are Terre Haute, Richmond, Anderson, Lafayette, Bloomington, Evansville, Gary, Winona Lake and Elkhart.

Pre-registration is required for the 90-minute programs. Full lineup and registration . If you have additional questions, contact Nick Luchtefeld (nluchtefeld@indianachamber.com) at office (317) 264-6898. Add Chamber Membership to Your 2010 Business Plan: It Costs Less Than You#8217;d Think. Regis! When times are tough, many members turn to the Indiana Chamber for phd thesis preamble, unique membership benefits and discount programs to help their businesses. ChamberCare, our discount health insurance program with Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, is regis admissions essay available to businesses outside of Marion County with 2-99 employees. Over 2,200 member companies currently enjoy a significant discount on their Anthem insurance as a result of our partnership. Consequences! (Read about the benefits here.) Average Chamber Member Savings: $20,565. It seems the essay price of everything is going up and up. The Chamber offers a variety of ways to stem this rising tide. Take advantage of the special discounts available as a member of the Indiana Chamber. Anthem, Enterprise, Office Max, and TruPay are consistently recognized as leaders in their areas of service.

With Indiana Chamber membership, you can save up to: * 5% on why is called the father essay health care insurance with Anthem, a national leader in regis admissions essay the insurance industry. * 10% on car rentals with Enterprise, the essay for west kingdoms largest rental car company in North America. * 20% on paycheck services with TruPay, an Indiana-based company is located in Mishawaka. * 60% on office supplies and regis essay printing with Office Max, a leader in both business-to-business office solutions and products. With no enrollment fees or purchasing quotas, you can save big when you choose to use Indiana Chamber discount programs. Just visit our web site for more information. Utilizing the discounts offered with your Indiana Chamber membership, the average member has realized savings of $20,565. Phd Thesis! ChamberCare Could Aid Your Health Care Woes. Regis Admissions Essay! In a shaky economy, most small business owners are searching for new avenues to be more frugal and to and driving essay cut costs. The Indiana Chamber recognizes the need to save in these rollercoaster times. We#8217;ve introduced a number of value added tools in essay recent years to help your bottom line. Health insurance continues to be at the top of the theses spending list for Indiana businesses. We encourage you to consider our ChamberCare health insurance discount program.

Members of the Indiana Chamber have the opportunity to save 5% off of Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield health insurance just by keeping their Indiana Chamber dues current. The program applies for new Anthem accounts with 2-99 employees who are located outside of Marion County. The savings from ChamberCare could allow you to reinvest the money in a variety of areas. Numerous members have mentioned the savings with ChamberCare allowed them to offer salary increases, Christmas bonuses and reinvest the money in equipment and admissions training. Membership with the ece thesis office Indiana Chamber also provides you with a number of free services like the HR HELPLINE and regis admissions the Business Research Center.

A discount on health insurance, questions answered on HR topics at no charge and free lists from our Business Research Center can provide a strong ROI to your company in database of african theses and dissertation just a matter of days.

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Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Computer technology made its way into writing instruction and assessment with spelling and essay grammar checkers decades ago, but more recently it has done so with automated essay evaluation (AEE) and diagnostic feedback. And although many programs and tools have been developed in preamble the last decade, not enough research has been conducted to support or evaluate the claims of the developers. This study examined the effectiveness of automated writing instructional programs in consistent scoring of admissions essays and appropriate feedback to student writers. It examined the scoring and instructional program called MY Access! Home Edition , which has an error feedback tool called My Editor to address these issues. The study combined a quantitative study of agreement and correlational analyses with an and driving essay analysis of content and topic. Participants included 114 English language learners who wrote 147 essays to three writing prompts, which were graded by trained EFL raters and MY Access . From the sample, 15 randomly selected essays were also used for an error analysis comparing My Editor with human annotations to examine My Editor ’s accuracy.

The main findings were that MY Access scoring was only correlated moderately with human ratings. Furthermore, because MY Access scoring is regis admissions limited to the recognition of content words, not how these words are organized at the discourse level, it did not detect slightly off-topic essays and plagiarism. Finally, My Editor ’s error feedback, with 73% precision and 30% recall, did not meet the expectations of an accurate tool. Theses And Dissertation? In conclusion, the home edition of MY Access was not found to be useful as an essay independent instructional tool. Ece Thesis? These findings give us pause regarding the effectiveness of MY Access . Computer technology is increasingly becoming part of essay language learning and writing, despite initial rejections and lingering skepticism over the last few decades (Dikli, 2006 Dikli, S. ( 2006 ). Essay African Kingdoms? An overview of automated scoring of essays . The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 5(1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1640/1489 [Google Scholar] ; Xi, 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). It was first used in writing classes with spelling and grammar checkers, which eased worries about “minutiae (such as how to spell minutiae) while composing, or even when revising and regis essay polishing” (Calfee, 2000 Calfee, R. ( 2000 , September ). To grade or not to essay african, grade . In M. A. Hearst (Ed.), The debate on automated essay grading ( pp. 35–37 ). Regis Admissions Essay? IEEE Intelligent Systems, 15 , 22–37. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Educational Activities Department. [Google Scholar] , p. 35).

Recently, it has taken on a bigger role in writing assessment in the form of automated evaluation of bacon the father of the english essay essays. This has attracted much attention from the assessment industry, writing instructors, and other stakeholders in an ongoing debate about the value of automated essay scoring, now known as automated essay evaluation (AEE). AEE applications include scoring engines with instructional programs in regis essay Criterion, MY Access , and of african WriteToLearn . These programs, with their combination of automated scoring, automated feedback, and writing instruction tools, have gained ground at different educational levels in the United States. Since the pioneering work on the Project Essay Grade by Ellis Page in 1965, many automated essay evaluation initiatives have emerged. Regis Admissions? These included ETS’ e-rater , Pearson’s Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), Bayesian Essay Test Scoring System (BETSY), and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric . A review of AEE developmental and research histories shows a tilted playing field toward the assessment industry that has dominated the debate. As Warschauer and essay african Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. Admissions? ( 2006 ). The Father English? Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, the majority of research validating different AEE systems is admissions vendor funded and carried out to “demonstrate that it [AES software] ‘works’ either in the sense that its ratings correlate with those of ece thesis office human ratings or that particular features or aspects function as desired” (p. 166). However, voices from the instructional side were first heard in Ericsson and Haswell’s book (2006) Machine Scoring of Student Essays: Truth and Consequences in which many writing instructors reported AEE failures in scoring essays satisfactorily. Admissions? This study emerged from a similar concern: that AEE systems are not able to do a satisfactory job as writing instructors would expect. It examined this concern with a study of MY Access , which uses Vantage Learning’s proprietary IntelliMetric scoring system.

We selected MY Access for called the father english essay, analysis because it is a popular program in the United States. Researchers have adopted different terminology to categorize AEE systems, depending on how they were developed. Brent and Townsend categorized ( 2006 Brent, E. , Townsend, M. ( 2006 ). Automated essay grading in regis admissions the sociology classroom: Finding common ground . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 177–198 ). Database Theses? Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) AEE systems as statistics-based and rule or knowledge-based approaches, whereas Ben-Simon and Bennett ( 2007 Ben-Simon, B. Regis? , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ) categorized them based on methods, namely, brute-empirical and thesis scarlet hybrid methods.

Statistics-based programs create scoring models based on a large set of pre-scored essays of 300 or more. This input is essay processed by the scoring system, such as IntelliMetric or e-rater , which extracts the predictive features from texts that lead to the assigned ratings for new essays. The primary focus in statistics-based programs remains on linguistic considerations, such as mechanics, syntax, and writing conventions. The extracted features (usually more than 50) are then boiled down to 8–12 most dominant ones that are analyzed by using linear multiple regression equations to decide their best weightings in why is bacon called the father english essay predicting the ratings for new essays. The set of finalized predictive features varies from one scoring model to another. Until now, these models are prompt-based as the system is regis essay trained using different sets of graded essay responses to specific prompts.

By this definition, ETS’ e-rater and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric are statistics-based because they extract features and their optimal weightings using statistical calculations instead of why is bacon called english building on theory and indicators of good writing. Regis Admissions? Therefore, IntelliMetric belongs to the brute-empirical method . Rule-based or knowledge-based systems are trained on a large domain-representative text, such as textbooks or articles. The input for these systems is an expert knowledge base that results in a grading rubric detailing the thesis scarlet, criteria to score constructed essay responses. IEA, a scoring machine for discipline-specific courses (now known as Knowledge Analysis Technologies), has at admissions its core Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), a machine-learning method that characterizes a word used in a sentence, passage, or essay based on semantic associations (Landauer, Foltz, Laham, 1998 Landauer, T. K. , Foltz, P. African Kingdoms? W. , Laham, D. Regis? ( 1998 ). Database Theses? The intelligent essay assessor: Applications to educational technology. Essay? Interactive Multimedia Educational Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, 1 (2). Retrieved from why is called of the http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/1999/2/04/ [Google Scholar] ). LSA claims to be the only evaluation system in which meaning is dominant.

Simply put, “it promises to help teachers and regis essay learners by evaluating essays based on what their authors appear to know about thesis for the letter a topic” (McGee, 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. Regis Admissions Essay? Ericsson , R. Bacon? H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] , p. 83). Finally, IEA and the later versions of e-rater , with their smaller set of theoretically grounded features linked to good writing characteristics, are hybrid method- based systems. Hybrid methods start with a set of features that are judged by regis admissions writing experts to be indicative of good writing skills. These features serve as the blueprint on which the database of african, scoring rubric of admissions automated scoring systems is generated. Either a set of pre-scored essays or an ece thesis office expert knowledge base is used to extract the optimal weightings for different features in the final scoring rubric. Admissions Essay? The combination between theoretically based features and statistical calculations to generate a scoring model leads to what is called “hybrid approaches.”

Objections to computer-automated essay evaluation. Despite all the advances, objections to computer-automated essay evaluation have been formidable. There are two main objections: humanist and defensive objections. First, there is the office, well-known objection from the Conference on College Composition and Communication ( 2004 Conference on College Composition and Communication. ( 2004 ). CCCC position statement on teaching, learning, and assessing writing in essay digital environments . Retrieved from http://www.ncte.org.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/cccc/resources/positions/digitalenvironments [Google Scholar] ): “Because all writing is social, all writing should have human readers, regardless of the purpose of writing” (p. 36; cited in Carr, 2014 Carr, N. ( 2014 ). Computer-automated scoring of writing responses . In A. J. Ece Thesis Office? Kunnan (Ed.), The companion to language assessment ( pp. Essay? 1063–1078 ). Malden, MA : Wiley . [Google Scholar] ). Generally, various studies on AEE systems have responded to humanist objections, mainly challenging the validity of fairly strong relationships between human ratings and AEE ratings in several corporate-conducted studies. But the correlations and and driving essay agreement studies have not always shown high indices.

Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. Regis Admissions Essay? , Kunnan, A. J. Of African Theses And Dissertation? ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of regis automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) reported that correlations between human ratings and automated scoring by three AEE systems are high: .79 to .87 for e-rater (Burstein et al ., 1998 Burstein, J. , Braden-Harder, L. , Chodorow, M. , Hua, S. , Kaplan, B. , Kukich, K. , … Wolff, S. ( 1998 ). Computer analysis of essay content for automated score prediction (Research Report 98-15). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ), .93 (average) for Intellimetric (Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] ), and of african theses .76 to .95 for regis, IEA (Foltz, Lochbaum, Rosenstein, 2011 Foltz, P. W. Of Drinking And Driving? , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. R. ( 2011 , April). Regis Admissions? Analysis of student ELA writing performance for ece thesis, a large scale implementation of regis formative assessment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . Essay African? [Google Scholar] ). She also noted that exact agreement percentages are 45–59% for e-rater and 76% for Intellimetric (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. Admissions? ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Theses And Dissertation? Journal of Technology, Learning, and regis admissions essay Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ) and 50–81% for IEA (Foltz et al ., 2011 Foltz, P. Phd Thesis Preamble? W. , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. R. ( 2011 , April). Analysis of student ELA writing performance for regis essay, a large scale implementation of formative assessment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ) but for adjacent agreements the the father of the english essay, percentages are very high: 87–97% for regis, e-rater , 99% for ece thesis office, Intellimetric , and 91–100% for essay, IEA (from the same authors). Furthermore, it is widely known that high reliability or agreement does not equal validity. Landauer, Laham, and Foltz ( 2003 Landauer, T. K. , Laham, D. , Foltz, P. ( 2003 ). Automated essay assessment . Essay For West African Kingdoms? Assessment in Education , 10, 295 – 308 . Regis? doi: 10.1080/0969594032000148154 [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) commented on this problem, “The fact that all these disparate methods [human judges and automated essay scoring] produce similar results at essay for west kingdoms least raises the suspicion that one could get acceptable reliability results with the essay, use of variables that are not conceptually valid [emphasis added]” (p. 305–306). As Koskey and Shermis ( 2013 Koskey, K. L. K. , Shermis, M. D. ( 2013 ). Scaling and thesis for the letter norming for automated essay scoring . In M. Regis Admissions? D. Phd Thesis? Shermis , J. Admissions? Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation: Current applications and why is of the essay new directions ( pp.

199–220 ). New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) pointed out, the scoring of essays by admissions essay automated essay evaluation is based on mainly quantitatively assessing the observed variables in essays. For The Letter? These variables are often referred to as “proxies” as opposed to “trins,” which are the latent and real underlying variables that we are interested in regis essay measuring. They cited a system that claims to count the number of times “but” is used in an essay as a proxy for called the father of the essay, sentence complexity. Moreover, because developers usually publicize scoring rubrics but choose to keep the weightings of these variables confidential, Coniam ( 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Admissions? Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ece thesis office ESL student writing scripts . Regis? ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) commented in thesis for the scarlet letter his study with BETSY that “despite high correlations with a human rater, computer programs still lack transparency in terms of how they achieve the grades they award. This creates a validity problem as we do not know how ratings are achieved” (p. 276). Second, defensive objections are more problematic.

McGee’s ( 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. Admissions Essay? Ericsson , R. H. Preamble? Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of regis admissions student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) experiments challenged all the claims about IEA. He found the “meaning” implicated by IEA to for the, totally disregard cohesion and coherence, which are of great importance to the meaning construction of any text. Such findings make sense, because the most well-known approach to admissions, assign ratings to essays in AEE systems is the regression approach to predict the quality of an essay. And Driving Essay? However, the scoring of content always poses a bigger challenge for these systems than other observed variables, such as the number of commas, the number of regis essay sentences, or the use of verb/noun agreement. Thus, to evaluate the content of an ece thesis essay, AEE systems use an regis admissions additional technique, such as those used by LSA to supplement their prediction weightings of this variable. They base their evaluation of bacon of the content on an analysis of keywords and synonyms or sets of keywords and synonyms in an essay and compare their Euclidean distance to the words on a master list. On the basis of such an approach, the appropriacy of the factual content in an esssay is measured in terms of its similarity of lexical choices to admissions, a corpus at the expense of coherence and cohesion. The “meaningful factual content” carried by the AEE system is, therefore, independent of phd thesis any factual accuracy.

As a result, a “bad faith essay” can easily trick the system into assigning a high score for a mechanically written essay. Such findings have resulted in resistance from writing instructors. The recent Handbook of automated essay evaluation (Shermis Burstein, 2013 Shermis, M. D. , Burstein, J. (Eds.). ( 2013 ). Handbook of automated essay evaluation . New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) showed the recent advances and continuing evolution in regis essay recent years and its awareness of the objections presented above. A few of the scarlet letter, questions they raised were: “Can systems be gamed? Does the use of AEE foster limited signaling effects by encouraging attention only to essay, formal aspects of writing, excluding richer aspects of the writing construct?

Does AEE subvert the writing act fundamentally by depriving the student of a true ‘audience’?” (p. 2). In the last 45-year period of AEE systems, validation research of automated scoring has provided many findings. Yang, Buckendahl, Juszkiewicz, and Bhola ( 2002 Yang, Y. , Buckendahl, C. W. , Juszkiewicz, P. J. , Bhola, D. S. ( 2002 ). A review of strategies for validating computer-automated scoring . Applied Measurement in ece thesis Education , 15, 391 – 412 . doi: 10.1207/S15324818AME1504_04 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) identified three broad approaches. First, much of the research on automated scoring systems has been devoted to demonstrating correlations or agreements between automated ratings and human ratings. The second group of studies has investigated the relationship between AEE ratings and external indicators, such as teachers’ judgments of admissions student writing skills or other test results (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . Office? doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2007 Vantage Learning. ( 2007 ). MY access!® efficacy report . New Hope, PA: Vantage Learning. Regis Essay? Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/school/research/myaccess.html [Google Scholar] ; Weigle, 2002 Weigle, S. C. ( 2002 ). Assessing writing . Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). External factors that have been researched include multiple-choice tests, grades in courses dependent on of african theses writing, teachers’ ratings of student writing skills, and students’ self-evaluations (Ben-Simon Bennett, 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. E. Regis Admissions Essay? ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and scarlet Assessment, 6 (1). Regis Admissions Essay? Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ). The third approach has explored the scoring process and for west mental models used by AEE systems.

For example, one concern about AEE scoring is the weighting of length as a scoring trait because length was found to be a highly predictive feature in e-rater (Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . Admissions Essay? [Google Scholar] ). In Jones’s ( 2006 Jones, E. ( 2006 ). ACCUPLACER’s essay-scoring technology: When reliability does not equal validity . Essay For West African? In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Essay? Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). And Dissertation? Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) study scored by WritePlacer Plus , ACCUPLACER’s program using IntelliMetric as its automated scoring system, 85% of the variance in essay ratings was accounted for by length. 1 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winner’s technique was simply to write a paragraph and regis repeat it 37 times. Phd Thesis? E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it “1,” creating the maximum discrepancy of admissions essay five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. , Burstein, J. C. , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. E. , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the validity of ece thesis automated essay scoring . Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 – 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). View all notes.

Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated scoring, in the same way questions are asked in a validity argument (as proposed by Chapelle, Enright, Jamieson, 2008 Chapelle, C. , Enright, M. , Jamieson, J. Regis Essay? (Eds.). ( 2008 ). Building a validity argument for TOEFL . New York : Routledge/Taylor and and driving Francis Group . [Google Scholar] ). These questions included underrepresentation or misrepresentation of regis constructs and writing tasks, validity and consistency of scoring, and whether test takers’ knowledge of the office, scoring algorithms would impact their writing. AEE systems and non-native student writers of English. Particularly relevant to this study is the performance of automated scoring systems on non-native (ESL and admissions EFL) student essay responses. However, this dimension of AEE systems has received little attention (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). African Kingdoms? Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Instead of building systems to directly target non-native English speaker responses, models for regis admissions, native speaker essays have been used for comparisons with non-native counterparts. Phd Thesis? As Warschauer and regis admissions essay Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, none of the AEE systems were originally built for the EFL/ESL population, but their development gradually has accommodated the needs of this population. This is demonstrated in the various feedback options, including first language feedback now available for speakers of Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, and office Korean in MY Access . Essay? Yet questions still remain whether these accommodations, well intentioned as they are, really help EFL/ESL students improve their writing skills. Weigle ( 2013 Weigle, S. Why Is Called? ( 2013 ). Essay? English as a second language writing and for west automated essay evaluation . Regis Admissions Essay? In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation ( pp. Phd Thesis Preamble? 36–54 ). New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) also pointed out the need for “the applicability of automated essay scoring (AES) systems to regis, non-native speakers (NNSs)” (p. Ece Thesis Office? 36). Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. Admissions Essay? , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Essay For West? Investigating the regis admissions essay, applications of bacon called of the automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . Regis? CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) found that WriteToLearn with Chinese undergraduate study participants was consistent but highly severe compared to the four trained human raters in scoring essays but, more importantly, it failed to score seven essays.

EFL teachers and independent researchers’ studies. A number of EFL researchers have recently reported results of their student writers’ reaction to MY Access and its instructional applications, including My Editor, MY Access ’ text analyzer and proofreading tool, and My Tutor , the writing instructional tool generating feedback. In Chen and Cheng’s ( 2006 Chen, C. E. For West African? , Cheng, W. ( 2006 , May ). The use of computer-based writing program: Facilitation or frustration? Paper presented at the 23rd International Conference on regis essay English Teaching and Learning , Republic of China . [Google Scholar] ) investigation of 68 students who reflected on their use of MY Access in phd thesis their writing classes, students expressed concerns about two aspects: the unfairness of MY Access ’ grading and its inability to judge the essay, content of essays. In addition, after the why is bacon called the father, initial excitement, students started to feel the repetition and generality of the diagnostic feedback that they felt was not personalized enough to be useful for essay revision. Admissions? Fang’s ( 2010 Fang, Y. ( 2010 ). Perceptions of the computer-assisted writing program among EFL college learners . Educational Technology Society , 13, 246 – 256 . Consequences? [Web of regis Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) study focused on student perceptions about using different tools on MY Access among 45 junior college students. The students found MY Access a useful writing tool, especially its grammatical proofreading tool, My Editor , but they were not totally happy with its essay scoring system. Students also thought MY Access helped them more with locating and revising form than content. Such results were reinforced by Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). The nature of automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . Why Is Bacon The Father English? doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) investigation into essay the nature of My Editor and why is of the essay My Tutor ’s feedback to regis admissions, ESL student essays. This study found significant differences between MY Access and office written teacher feedback as well as students’ more positive response to the latter. The cutting edge work of AEE systems may yet be in providing diagnostic feedback to writers.

Some error detection programs have been making improvements over the last few decades to improve their specificity together with precision. Leacock and admissions Chodorow ( 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. Why Is The Father? ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . Regis Admissions? In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. 195–208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ) argued that the value of error diagnosis depends on for the scarlet letter how specific and informative it is. They take the regis essay, position that generic responses, such as “something is wrong here,” are inferior to essay for west, specific comments, such as “this is a subject-verb agreement error.” With the latter kind of feedback, students are provided more cues to improve their writing. Assessment of Lexical Knowledge is reported to achieve a precision level of regis admissions 80% in pointing out errors.

This still means that 20% errors flagged are actually well-formed constructions (Leacock Chodorow, 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . Theses And Dissertation? In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. Regis Admissions? 195–208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ). Their study also showed that the four most predictive error types for student essays are agreement, ill-formed modals, ill-formed infinitive clauses, and preamble ill-formed participles. MY Access has an error feedback tool called My Editor . It detects spelling, grammar, and punctuations errors. It also diagnoses vocabulary choice and sentential-level errors. As students click on My Editor when they work on their drafts or revise an already submitted essay, a computer screen shows the students their essays with errors.

Automated feedback can thus be used as an initial response to regis admissions essay, student writing. The possible quick generation of feedback to student essays also is phd thesis preamble better than the notoriously time-consuming nature of writing instructors giving feedback, especially in large classes. Of course, the expectation is that diagnostic feedback will help student writers, although the written error feedback literature poses some concerns. Research in admissions essay the area of written corrective feedback (WCF) has not been conclusive in what extent student writers benefit from WCF or even whether they benefit at all (see Ferris, 1999 Ferris, D. ( 1999 ). The case for grammar correction in L2 writing classes: A response to Truscott (1996) . Journal of Second Language Writing , 8, 1 – 11 . doi: 10.1016/S1060-3743(99)80110-6 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] , 2004 Ferris, D. ( 2004 ). The “grammar correction” debate in L2 writing: Where are we, and where do we go from here? (and what do we do in the meantime…?) . Journal of of african theses and dissertation Second Language Writing , 13, 49 – 62 . doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2004.04.005 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2006 Ferris, D. ( 2006 ). Does error feedback help student writers? New evidence on the short- and long-term effects of written error correction . In K. Hyland , F. Hyland (Eds.), Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues ( pp. 81–104 ). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ; Shintani, Ellis, Suzuki, 2014 Shintani, N. , Ellis, R. , Suzuki, W. ( 2014 ). Effects of written feedback and revision on learners’ accuracy in using two English grammatical structures . Language Learning , 64, 103 – 131 . doi: 10.1111/lang.2014.64.issue-1 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The picture is further complicated because most automated error feedback is in English, with a very limited range of first language options. This is in line with Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). The nature of automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) findings in regis admissions her study, which suggested that systems need to consequences and driving essay, improve their feedback to non-native essays by giving shorter and less redundant feedback using simpler language and adding feedback for off-topic or repetitive essays. Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated feedback: whether automated feedback system accurately identifies writers’ errors, whether it can do this consistently, and whether the feedback is regis essay meaningful, and database of african theses whether the feedback results in improved writing. Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Admissions Essay? Investigating the the father of the essay, applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) found in regis their examination of WriteToLearn’s feedback, overall precision and recall of consequences of drinking errors were only 49% and 18.7% respectively.

These figures did not meet the minimum threshold of 90% precision (set by Burstein, Chodorow, Leacock, 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. Regis Essay? , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) for for west, it to be considered a reliable error detecting tool. Furthermore, it had difficulty in essay identifying errors in database of african theses and dissertation the use of regis admissions articles, prepositions, word choice, and expression. On the basis of the issues raised in automated scoring and preamble diagnostic feedback, we decided to examine the following research questions. What do the agreement and strength of the relationship between human ratings and MY Access ’ scores reveal about MY Access ’ rating? How does MY Access address content as a scoring trait? How does it treat off-topic essays? How accurate is My Editor ’s feedback when compared to regis essay, that of writing instructors?

Data were collected from a total of why is bacon the father english essay 114 EFL and admissions essay ESL student writers. The participants contributed 147 essays from three prompts, 105 essays based on two prompts from the list of 90 preloaded prompts on MY Access! Home Edition and 42 essays based on one end-of-term essay prompt that was not a pre-loaded prompt. The sample included 97 Vietnamese EFL students and 17 ESL students in the United States. The Vietnamese EFL students were either second- or third-year English majors at essay for west african kingdoms a university in regis essay central Vietnam pursuing a 4-year BA program. The 17 ESL students were level four and five (intermediate to advanced) students in an Intensive English Program (IEP) at a State University in California. The large majority of of drinking and driving these ESL students were Asian, with Chinese as the biggest group.

Three prompts were used in all. Two prompts from MY Access were selected from a list of admissions 90 pre-loaded prompts based on their genres: one informative and essay for west african kingdoms one argumentative. Prompt 1 was titled What have you learned? Prompt 2 was titled Internet classrooms vs. Essay? Traditional classrooms . The third writing prompt was not on the list of 90 pre-loaded topics on of drinking essay MY Access . It was an end-of-term exam prompt administered at admissions essay the university in Vietnam. Prompt 3 was titled Milestones . Kingdoms? Prompts 1 and regis admissions 2 as they appeared on MY Access are presented in Appendix A and Prompt 3 is presented in Appendix B. Experimental prompts used by essay for west african the researcher. A total of 42 end-of-term exam essays were submitted to three different MY Access prompts, two of which were pre-loaded topics on MY Access (one persuasive “Challenges of Parenthood” and admissions essay one informative “Power sources in ece thesis the Year 2050”) serving as “false” prompts for these essays, and the other was the teacher-created prompt (the real topic). The researcher used the teacher-created topic function on MY Access to add the following end-of-term exam prompt: “What are the admissions, important milestones in a person’s life in your culture?

Give the reasons why they are important.” These essays submitted to this newly created prompt in the system produced a set of 42 scores. Afterward, these essays were submitted to the two false prompts, called the first and second experimental prompts. These experimental prompts and the teacher-created topic are presented in Appendix B. The two essay prompts from MY Access were administered as either homework practice or in-class essays, depending on the genres each class was working on database of african in their curriculum and regis admissions their class schedules. More specifically, the homework essays were keyed in by the student writers and sent to the teachers in the Word file, which were then forwarded to the researcher. Of The Essay? The in-class essays were handwritten and submitted to the teachers. Afterward, these essays were typed up and double-checked for fidelity to regis admissions, the original handwritten versions. The third group of essays written to the teacher-created prompt included student essays written in a 90-minute exam for the previous semester. The variation in essay writing conditions among the participants does not interfere with the results of the study because MY Access is designed to database, facilitate self-conducted writing practice, and timing or the resources students get access to while writing are all acceptable, as long as the final essays are typed in regis and submitted online to the system. The scoring of the 105 essays written to the two prompts from MY Access was based on a holistic rubric posted on MY Access website (see Appendix C). The rubric used was a 1–6 scoring scale with five major traits of writing: Focus and Meaning, Content and Development, Organization, Language Use and Style, Mechanics and Conventions.

Corresponding to each score point was a brief description of each trait. For example, to achieve a “6,” an and driving essay establishes and admissions essay maintains “an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the essay for west kingdoms, purpose and audience [in terms of Focus and Meaning]” or “contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics [in terms of Mechanics and Conventions].” On the other hand, “1” indicated an essay that inadequately communicated the writer’s message and failed to admissions essay, support ideas with details and/or examples (in Content and Development). After the essays were put together, coded, and ece thesis office printed out, they were sent to two human raters for essay, scoring. The raters were both non-native EFL instructors with MA degrees in TESOL with about 5 years of teaching experience at the tertiary level in Vietnam. Prior to the actual scoring, the raters worked together to clarify the guidelines of the holistic scoring rubric posted on MY Access . They also went through some essays that had been rated by MY Access to get an overview of how Intellimetric rated these essays based on for west african the set of criteria in admissions essay the rubric.

After that, the raters piloted their ratings on a small set of four essays and analyzed the differences in their ratings to resolve any problems regarding their interpretation of the rubric. The scoring rubrics were examined to thesis letter, see if there were high agreements between human ratings and MY Access ratings. Double ratings from regis two trained EFL teachers were obtained and averaged for the set of essays written to the two prompts on MY Access . Ece Thesis Office? An inter-rater agreement analysis (exact, adjacent, and discrepant) and correlation analyses were conducted. In addition, the effects of prompts and raters on ratings and the effect of admissions essay essay length on consequences essay ratings were examined by using ANOVA. Forty-two essays written for the end-of-term exam were collected. Because these essays were written to regis admissions essay, a topic other than the 90 ones pre-loaded on MY Access , they provided a tool to reveal the phd thesis preamble, way IntelliMetric deals with content in assigning ratings. Admissions Essay? Pearson correlations were calculated between the ratings these essays received when they were submitted to the real topic (using the teacher-created function on MY Access ) and the ratings MY Access generated as these same essays were submitted to the two experimental (or false) topics on the system. In addition, with the help of the corpus-based vocabulary tool Compleat Lexical Tutor (Lextutor at the father essay http://www.lextutor.ca/), which uses the one-million-word Brown corpus, quantitative statistics were generated for word frequencies and keywords used in the texts created from the essays. This analysis provided clues regarding how MY Access dealt with off-topic essays by examining data from the content analysis of the 42 end-of-term essays. Two theoretical concepts termed precision and recall were examined for this question.

Specifically, precision is the number of admissions essay cases in which My Editor and phd thesis the human annotator agree are errors divided by the total number of cases that My Editor flags as errors (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). Recall is the number of cases correctly identified by My Editor (the hits) divided by the total human annotator-flagged cases. That is, the number of My Editor ’s hits divided by the total of hits and misses (i.e., cases identified by the human annotator but overlooked by My Editor ). In this analysis, 15 essays were randomly selected from the regis admissions, sample. Essay For West African? The first EFL teacher annotated errors using the admissions essay, same system of error tags adopted by office My Editor . Essay? Error tagging was based on four major trait feedback categories: grammar, usage, mechanics, and style. Only the first three traits were focused on. The trait of style was intentionally left out of this analysis because it constitutes an ambiguous aspect of writing (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of thesis letter student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). For the purpose of this basically quantitative analysis, judgments about good or bad writing style may be too subjective to be suitable. Errors identified were tallied for the calculation of precision and regis admissions essay recall . Before the actual coding of errors took place, the for west african kingdoms, human annotator underwent a self-training process to familiarize herself with MY Access ’ error tagging system.

She submitted 10 essays from the collected data (other than the 15 essays in the subsample) to MY Access to regis admissions essay, have a thorough look at the feedback generated by My Editor . Through this, a list of error tags were noted down, including 16 categories: spelling, capitalisation, article, preposition, run-on sentence, fragment, consistency, contraction, punctuation, subject-verb agreement, word form, mass and essay for west african kingdoms count nouns, wrong word choice, confused word, comparative, and superlative. The actual error annotation was done with constant reference to reliable sources of essay grammar and English language use, some of which include Raymond Murphy’s ( 1994 Murphy, R. ( 1994 ). English grammar in use: A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students ( 2nd ed .). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Google Scholar] ) English Grammar in Use , Michael Swan’s ( 2005 Swan, M. ( 2005 ). Practical English usage ( 3rd ed .). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press [Google Scholar] ) Practical English Usage , and John Eastwood’s ( 1999 Eastwood, J. Of African Theses? ( 1999 ). Oxford practice grammar ( 2nd ed .). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press . [Google Scholar] ) Oxford Practice Grammar . Research question 1: MY Access ’s rubrics for scoring essays. Descriptive statistics of human ratings and MY Access ratings. Descriptive statistics for the three sets of ratings by human Ratings 1 and regis admissions essay 2 and MY Access are shown in Table 1. The results show very similar mean ratings from the two human raters, while MY Access appears to be more generous. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of thesis scarlet MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). In general, ratings from the admissions, two human raters, their averaged ratings, and MY Access ratings met the necessary assumptions regarding normal distribution, linearity, and of african and dissertation range on regis the 1–6 scale.

Therefore, correlations, ANOVA, and simple linear regression could be calculated. Table 2 reports the exact and adjacent agreement percentages (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. Consequences Of Drinking Essay? ( 2006 ). Essay? Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). For The Scarlet? Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. Regis? 73). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ) between the two human ratings and between the averaged human ratings with MY Access ratings. Generally, there was better agreement between the two human ratings than their agreement with MY Access . An exact plus adjacent agreement statistic of phd thesis 71.4% and a disparate statistic of 28.6 % between human and MY Access scoring are not very convincing results.

Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Correlations between human ratings and MY Access’s scoring. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between the two human ratings and between the human ratings and MY Access ratings. Table 3 shows a fairly strong correlation between Human Rater 1 and Rater 2 ( r = .783, p .05), but the correlations between Human Rater 1 and MY Access ( r = .672, p .05) and Human Rater 2 and MY Access ( r = .629, p .05) were both moderate. Furthermore, correlation between Averaged human Rater 1 and Rater 2 ratings and MY Access ’ ratings was also moderate ( r = .688, p .05).

Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 3. Admissions? Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings. Difference between human ratings’ average and MY Access ratings. A paired-samples t- test was computed to compare the means of human ratings’ average and MY Access ratings. Database Theses? The mean of the averaged human ratings’ was 3.76 (SD = 1.18), and the mean of MY Access ratings was 4.09 (SD = 1.19).

The t -test showed that there is a statistically significant mean difference between the human ratings and MY Access : ( t (104) = ?3.538, p .05). The effects of prompts and raters on ratings. A 2 ? 3 mixed-design ANOVA was calculated to examine the effects of the prompts (Prompt 1 and Prompt 2) and ratings (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ) on regis essay ratings. The dependent variables (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ratings) in the ANOVA test met the assumptions of being normally distributed and phd thesis measured on an interval scale. The main effect for rater ( F (2,103) = 7.516, p .01) and the main effect for prompt ( F (1,103) = 18.912, p .01) were statistically significant but the prompt x rater interaction ( F (2,206) = 1.259, p .01) was not significant. Essay length as a predictive feature. A simple linear regression was calculated predicting essay ratings assigned by essay both human raters and MY Access based on essay length (i.e., the number of words in each essay). A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 118.002, p .05) with an R 2 of .534.

The predicted score of an essay (assigned by the human raters) is equal to 1.302 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for of the essay, each extra word. A simple linear regression was then calculated predicting MY Access ratings based on essay length. Regis? A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 116.719, p .05), with an R 2 of .531. The predicted score of an ece thesis essay (assigned by MY Access ) is equal to 1.610 + .008 (length) points when length is essay measured in number of words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. As can be seen in the results above, about 53% of the office, variance in both the averaged human ratings and MY Access ratings could be accounted for by essay length. Therefore, length was found to be an admissions equally strong predictor of the ratings assigned by both MY Access and consequences essay the human raters. Research question 2: Content in MY Access ’s scoring models. Descriptive statistics of the three sets of ratings submitted to three MY Access prompts.

As shown in Table 4, the mean score of the 42 essays was highest when they were submitted to the teacher-created prompt. This set of score is termed the real score, followed by the mean score as the same essays were submitted to the first experimental prompt, then to the second experimental prompt. Informed by prior research on admissions other automated scoring programs and phd thesis a strong feeling that essays written to admissions essay, teacher-created topics on MY Access cannot be “comprehended” by the system, the researcher played a trick to confirm her doubts. Forty-two essays were submitted to three different prompts in MY Access and the results are presented here. Experimental topic 1: Challenges of parenthood.

When the essays answering the teacher-created topic on “Important milestones in your culture” were submitted to the first experimental prompt “The challenges of (teenage) parenthood,” only of african theses and dissertation, 11 essays (26%) were flagged as off-topic while 27 received the feedback “great job”; the remaining four were given “1 s” due to “major syntax problems” (“great job” and “major syntax probems” are generic diagnostic feedback phrases used by regis essay MY Access to describe essays earning high overall score and those having poor grammar use, respectively). Preamble? When the two prompts were compared, the real topic and the first experimental one, there was possible overlapping content in student essay responses. An examination of the admissions essay, 42 essays showed that 24 essays mentioned “becoming a parent” or at least “becoming a parent after getting married” as one of the most important milestones in their culture. Furthermore, most of the essays frequently referred to words like grandparents, parents, adulthood/adult, married , and teenage/teenager . Below is the list of word frequency derived from the submission of all the essays (making a 15580-word text) to the corpus-based Compleat Lexical Tutor ( Lextutor ) that counts words in preamble texts and lists their keywords based on the obtained word frequencies. It then compares these keywords, which are the words in the texts that are far more frequent, proportionally, than they are in a general reference corpus. Lextutor uses the Brown corpus, whose one million words comprise 500 texts of 2000 words on regis admissions a broad range of topics.

Figure 2 lists the 30 most frequent words for this 15580-word text, with those most likely to appear frequently in essays written to the first experimental prompt in bold. To interpret the number preceding each word listed in for west kingdoms Figure 1 and 2, it is instructive to consider the explanation cited from Lextutor : The number accompanying each word represents the number of regis admissions essay times more frequent the phd thesis, word is in regis essay your text than it is in the Brown corpus. Of Drinking And Driving Essay? For example, the first item in the output 1364.00 milestone is calculated on the basis that milestone has 4 natural occurrences in the Brown’s 1 million words, but 85 occurrences in your 15580-word text. Essay? These 85 occurrences are proportionally a lot more than the 4 occurrences in the Brown. Taken as a proportion of 1,000,000 words, these 85 occurrences represent 85/15580 ? 1,000,000 = 5456 virtual occurrences.

These 5456 occurrences are 1364.00 times more numerous than the 4 occurrences in Brown. [www.lextutor.ca/keywords/freak.pl] Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of office 42 essays. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Figure 2. Most frequently used words in the combined text of admissions 11 off-topic essays. Figure 2. Why Is Called Essay? Most frequently used words in admissions essay the combined text of phd thesis 11 off-topic essays. Judging from the regis admissions, corpus comparison and the possible overlapping content areas between these two prompts, MY Access ’s failure to recognize the off-topicness of 31 of the 42 essays seems predictable. The 11 essays flagged as off-topic were then put together in a subtext of consequences of drinking 3,969 words and submitted to Lextutor for the frequency list. Again, the 30 most frequent words in this subtext are shown in Figure 2. What can be seen from the comparison of the two lists is that words more relevant to the expected content area of becoming parents during the teenage years have disappeared, including babies, grandparents, spouse, parents, eighteen , and happiness . Table 5 presents a few of the mismatches between human ratings and MY Access ratings for off-topic essays. The ratings assigned by MY Access are much higher for all off-topic essays.

Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 4. Descriptives of essay ratings for same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of essay african MY Access. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. Experimental topic 2: Power sources in the year 2050. When the same set of essay essays was submitted to why is bacon english, the second experimental prompt about “Power sources in the Year 2050,” a totally irrelevant focus compared to the real topic, 40 essays were flagged as “off-topic”; only two received 1 s due to essay, “major syntax problems.” In contrast, none of the submissions to the teacher-created (real) topic “Important milestones in your culture” was flagged as “off-topic,” with 36 receiving “great job,” and six given 1 s due to essay for west kingdoms, “major syntax problems.”

My Editor ’s error feedback: Accuracy. Table 6 presents precision and recall measures of the admissions, human annotator and for the letter My Editor ’s error feedback. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 6. Human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback results. In this subsample of 15 essays, students made far more mistakes with articles (124 errors) than with any other error type. Admissions? Punctuations and run-on sentences were next on the list.

Subject-verb agreement was the fourth problematic area that needed attention. The number of the phd thesis preamble, errors found in each of the other types ranged from 0 to 36. Of the total number of errors in each error type identified by the human annotator, My Editor demonstrated quite an regis uneven performance. My Editor was most precise in its identification of open or closed spelling errors, although in this subsample, it corrected only database and dissertation, two cases ( part time to part-time and regis essay everyday to every day ), both of which matched the human annotator. However, the system also missed a lot of open/closed spelling cases that needed corrections with the recall of only 28.6%, which means it missed 71.4% of the total human-flagged cases. Database? My Editor also did well with article errors, with the precision of 96.9%. Regis Admissions Essay? However, similar to open/closed spelling errors, the system missed 75% errors of theses this type the human annotator identified.

Capitalization and regis admissions run-on sentences were the two error types that showed a similar pattern in essay for west african kingdoms My Editor ’s performance: a precision of around 80% accompanied by admissions the missing level of about 50% of all the why is bacon the father english essay, cases flagged by the human annotator. Spelling and consistency, which combined the two subtypes of verb group consistency and noun phrase consistency errors, exhibited the smallest number of regis essay cases overlooked by My Editor with recall values of 76.9 and preamble 70.2, respectively. Of all the cases tagged by My Editor in regis essay these two types, around 80% were precise diagnoses. In addition, My Editor failed to essay for west african kingdoms, read the essays at the sentence and discourse level. Admissions? It was least precise with its diagnosis of confused words errors with precision of only 28.6% and recall of 11.1%. This means that of all errors in this category flagged by My Editor , only for west kingdoms, 28.6% were really errors; the rest were false positives.

It also missed almost 89% cases of this type compared to the human annotator. Overall, My Editor was 73% precise in flagging errors of the 16 error types designated for this analysis and covered 39.6% of all the errors the human annotator flagged. Regis Essay? In other words, it missed 60.4% errors that should be attended to ece thesis, according to regis admissions, the human judgment. Researchers on error feedback tools maintain that they would choose to err on the side of thesis for the precision over recall (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. Regis Admissions? , Chodorow, M. Database Of African? , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of regis admissions student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . Essay Kingdoms? [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow, Gamon, Tetreault, 2010 Chodorow, M. , Gamon, M. , Tetreault, J. ( 2010 ). The utility of article and preposition error correction systems for admissions essay, English language learners: Feedback and assessment . Language Testing , 27, 419 – 436 . Office? doi: 10.1177/0265532210364391 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), which “means that we [they] would rather miss an error than tell the student that a well-formed construction is ill-formed” (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Regis Essay? Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on ece thesis office Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] , p. 6). In studying Criterion , Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. Regis Admissions? , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of thesis scarlet letter student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on essay Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . Database Theses? [Google Scholar] ) set the minimum threshold of 90% precision for the tool to admissions, be useful for students. If My Editor is judged by essay kingdoms these criteria, it falls short. My Editor ’s feedback offers suggestions for possible errors rather than dictating corrections to the writers.

Students can click on regis essay any error tagged by My Editor , and a smaller screen pops up to explain the problem. After the brief diagnosis, there are some suggestions that students can choose from. The screen also demonstrates the scarlet letter, rule that explains more generally how My Editor identifies and deals with that error type (e.g., spelling, preposition, etc.). General examples and regis ways to correct the errors in the examples are also provided. With this diagnosis-suggestions-example-rule approach, students can learn to database of african and dissertation, judge for themselves if they have really made a mistake and choose among the given correction options. Regis Essay? However, certain gaps in MY Editor ’s feedback can be addressed to database theses, better accommodate the ESL/EFL learners’ needs. What was noticeable about My Editor ’s feedback about noun phrase consistency was its double flagging of the same errors: It is sure that there are many Mass vs. count errors conflict Noun phrase consistency errors. The word conflict in the above sentence should agree in number with its plural determiner many . Therefore, labeling it as noun phrase consistency (implying inconsistent number agreement) is the best way to draw the student’s attention to regis, his/her mistake.

However, the first label mass vs. count errors on the same word suggesting “if the sentence requires a singular noun, consider [much] or [many a] instead of ‘many’” goes against essay, the second suggestion of consistency. Regis? Such conflicting comments can confuse the student who may think that they need to thesis scarlet, fix two errors. Double flagging also occurred among Subject-Verb Agreement errors. For example, in the next sentence, “Argument Subject-verb agreement errors take Subject-verb agreement errors place,” it is suggested that argument be changed to arguments to regis admissions essay, agree with the plural verb form take , while in database of african theses the second place, it is suggested that take (which should be grammatically correct now after the change of the subject noun) be changed to regis, takes to agree with the essay for west, original subject noun argument . Along with articles, the English tense-aspect system is problematic for EFL learners, especially those from Asian first language backgrounds. Admissions? Yet My Editor does not seem to be programmed to deal with tense and phd thesis aspect errors, except for its two rare attempts at regis admissions essay diagnosing cases related to tense errors, both of which failed.

The first one was a false positive where the of the essay, system traced back to the preposition at in the phrase at regis essay childhood and assumed that at and dissertation refers to the past. It thus suggested the inappropriate use of could have become . Here is MY Access ’s annotation. At childhood, we are taught carefully by parents, teachers. Regis Essay? We are take Verb group consistency errors care of or bring up carefully from many peoples around. That is a good environment so that The child can become Incorrect use of office past tense a good person at regis admissions first life.

The second attempt successfully located the error and offered a usable suggestion, but its flagging term was misleading for the student as this error is not about tense: Besides, students haven’t Verb tense, instead of consequences and driving essay ‘have not’, consider using the admissions essay, more standard [do not have] to pay for buying books, textbooks are in the Internet too. Except for these two cases, nowhere else in phd thesis all the essays could feedback be found about inconsistent or wrong tense usage. In essay ESL2-14, the use of tenses was a major issue, but MY Access overlooked them. Essay? The adverbial phrase in the past is clear evidence of past tense.

My Editor did not identify the phd thesis preamble, error. In the past, all the students have to take the traditional classroom. Many students sit in regis admissions the classroom. There is for west kingdoms blackboard Missing articles, computer, desks and chairs. All the regis admissions essay, students take the class in the classroom like that . (From Essay ESL2-14) These gaps in My Editor ’s feedback can be attributed to its inability to handle information across sentences at the discourse level. As long as words or phrases were grammatically correct, meaning and content were ignored. In the first research question, the essay, exact plus adjacent agreement between human ratings and MY Access were moderate (71.4%) and admissions the correlations between human ratings and MY Access were also moderate (r = .688). But the difference between the preamble, averaged human rater score and essay MY Access was found to be statistically significant. Thesis For The Scarlet Letter? These findings do not provide adequate support for any implicit claims of MY Access that it can score essays like human raters.

In addition, a feature shared by human and automated scoring is that 53% of the variance in both ratings could be accounted for by the length of the essays. Overall, the agreement and correlational findings in this study were not very different from those found in earlier studies of e-rater and regis IEA systems. Why Is Bacon Called The Father? But Vantage Learning’s ( MY Access’s developer) findings of .93 correlation and 76% exact agreement and 99% for regis essay, adjacent agreement were not found in this study. And Driving? Thus, the high agreements and correlation indices found in regis admissions studies conducted by MY Access developers (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Database Of African And Dissertation? Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. Regis Admissions Essay? ( 2006 ). Thesis For The? Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] , as cited in Liu Kunnan, 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. Regis Essay? ( 2016 ). Bacon? Investigating the applications of regis admissions automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of for west WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . Regis Admissions Essay? [Google Scholar] ) could not be confirmed. In the second research question of how MY Access dealt with content, the results show that My Access scores off-topic essays more generously because it is unable to systematically flag the essay african, essays as off-topic. It is obvious MY Access “read” the essays in admissions mathematical models of syntax, lexis, mechanics, and discourse.

This is for west african a real problem because the regis, ability to thesis for the letter, identify off-topic essays is a capability that trained human raters are expected to have and any AEE system that is developed to either supplement or replace human raters must have. Regis Admissions Essay? With cutting-edge developments in why is bacon called the father of the english essay the field of computational linguistics and corpus linguistics, it is hoped that off-topic essays can be identified in the future in the same way human readers can by reading and judging essays for their overall meaning and other features, such as persuasiveness and regis admissions voice. The third research question examined MY Access ’s automated feedback in accuracy and phd thesis potential gaps compared to regis admissions essay, human annotators of errors in the essays. Its instructional tool, called My Editor , is uneven in its ability to detect errors correctly and provide appropriate corrective feedback. Phd Thesis Preamble? Specifically, its accuracy in many grammatical areas is low and uneven. Furthermore, its standard as a useful error feedback tool is too low by the 90% standard set up by researchers such as Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. Regis Admissions? , Chodorow, M. Essay For West African Kingdoms? , Leacock, C. Essay? ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of thesis for the letter student essays . Regis Essay? Proceedings of the of african, 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). My Editor ’s plausible four-step sequence (clarification-suggestions-example-rule) in generating error feedback is supposed to turn errors into learning opportunities not only by scaffolding students’ judgments about possible errors in regis admissions essay their essays but also by providing them with linguistic knowledge as they work their way through the feedback. However, this approach presents two possible problems. First, the metalanguage used to describe the errors, offer suggestions, and state the rules may challenge ESL/EFL students’ comprehension due to their limited knowledge of the for the letter, target language. Second, such an approach does not discriminate between error types.

For example, the way article errors are dealt with should not be identical to regis, the way spelling errors are treated. While the former constitutes a highly problematic area for EFL/ESL students and thus cannot be simply pointed out without clarification, the latter is usually straightforward and only needs flagging for students to easily correct themselves. Thus, the meaningfulness of error feedback has to be addressed in essay for west kingdoms AEE systems. Furthermore, prioritization of admissions errors is necessary in the feedback system (e.g., syntactic errors vs. usage errors vs. discourse coherence errors); this prioritization needs to match the priorities of consequences essay writing for a particular purpose and essay proficiency level. We conducted this study from the perspective of EFL writing instruction. The findings of the study point to two practical implications for EFL teachers who may use AEE. And Driving? First, the regis admissions essay, diagnostic feedback MY Access generated was not individualized, simple, and accurate enough for home tutoring purposes, although it would serve as a good companion to writing instructors to for west, offer instant and intial diagnostic feedback.

At the same time, as Whithaus ( 2006 Whithaus, C. ( 2006 ). Always already: Automated essay scoring and grammar-checkers in regis admissions college writing courses . Database And Dissertation? In P. Regis Admissions Essay? F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 166–176 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) puts it, “When software is used as a tool for assessment, response, or revision, it is not necessarily opposed to effective composition pedagogies” (p. 170). The optimum choice could be a combined pedagogy where the writing instructor acts as the facilitator between students and AEE systems prior to and while using it in preamble the writing class. Second, the question of how AEE systems should be incorporated in EFL writing instructors’ lesson plans is admissions partially answered. It is worth stressing that at this moment in the development of the AEE, it would be unwise to paddle against the current by refusing AEE systems as part of database and dissertation instruction.

In the United States, AEE systems have been making a presence at essay different educational levels from middle schools to tertiary institutions to assess writing in placement or practice tests. Similarly, EFL writing classes can benefit from helpful features of AEE systems, such as its instant scoring and feedback, which make regular practice possible without adding to the workload of classroom instructors. But for this to happen, AEE systems have to offer a more conducive computer-mediated and Web-based environment where teaching and thesis letter learning take place. Beyond this study, there are some positives to using AEE systems. First, providing scores and feedback instantly (even if it is on word and sentence-level errors) can clearly reduce the burden of writing instructors’ grading work so that they can deal with other critical aspects of writing after the AEE feedback and possible revisions. Second, offering automated feedback without the instructor could be useful in contexts where loss of admissions face is a major consideration for students. To illustrate, some students might be willing to accept repeated error correction and ece thesis low grades from an AEE system instead of regis essay receiving similar criticisms from an instructor.

But many persistent questions remain: Would AEE systems be more suitable for formative and in-class writing assessments? Could AEE systems be used for other types of essay writing tasks, such as short answer or descriptive responses? Could AEE systems cause unintended consequences, such as changes in admissions essay students’ writing strategies? Could AEE systems evaluate writing styles or approaches from students around the world without bias to any sub-groups? Could AEE systems become transparent enough to bacon called of the english, allow assessment professionals to examine the suitability of the systems for use in their own contexts? These questions need to be pursued.

This research was funded by The Fulbright Vietnamese Student Program. Prompts used in the study (from MY Access ) Prompt 1 (Informative) What Have You Learned? Although school may not always be fun, it’s essential for our education and development. School teaches us really important lessons that will help us later in regis admissions life. What is the most important thing you have learned in school so far? Write a multi-paragraph essay in which you discuss one thing school has taught you and its importance to your life and your future. Use specific examples and details to support your response.

Prompt 2 (Argumentative) Internet Classrooms vs. Essay For West? Traditional Classrooms. With advancements in technology, some students have chosen to complete their schoolwork through the Internet, rather than in traditional classrooms. Those who support a traditional classroom approach to learning argue that it provides more of an opportunity for regis admissions essay, students to interact with the teacher and other students. Those who feel that learning over the Internet is why is the father of the essay better argue that it allows students to learn anytime and anywhere they choose. Do you feel education is regis admissions better provided in traditional classrooms or when offered over the Internet?

Write an essay to be read by for the scarlet letter a classroom teacher in which you persuade the reader that either traditional classroom education or Internet-based learning is better. Experimental and real prompts used in the study. Experimental Prompt 1: (Persuasive) Challenges of Parenthood. Many people believe that being a parent today is one of the most difficult jobs you can have. Some teens believe that they are old enough to face the challenges of parenthood; others do not. State your position on the issue and provide reasons for your decision.

Discuss the regis essay, factors you took into consideration in making your decision. Experimental Prompt 2: (Informative) Power Sources in the Year 2050. Picture yourself living in the year 2050. Power sources operating in your house have changed. Describe the new power sources used to phd thesis, make your home run more efficiently. Explain how these power sources are different from what we use in our homes today. Write about the benefits and disadvantages of admissions essay this new technology and phd thesis preamble how it will affect future generations. Real prompt: (Teacher-created topic function on MY Access ) What are the regis admissions essay, important milestones in a person’s life in your culture? Give the reasons why they are important. MY Access’ s 6-point Holistic Rubric.

Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). Note . H1 = Human Rating 1, H2 = Human Rating 2, AVE = Averaged ratings of Human Raters 1 and phd thesis 2, MA = MY Access ratings. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Note . Exact agreement: the essay, proportion of times Rater 1 ratings exactly matched Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access exactly matched the averaged human ratings; adjacent agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings were within one point of called the father english essay Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access were within one point of the averaged human ratings; if two scores assigned to the same essay were more than one point apart, they were considered disparate ratings. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and regis MY Access ratings. Note . H1 = Rater 1’s ratings, H2 = Rater 2’s ratings, AVE = Averaged human ratings, MA = MY Access ratings. *Correlations are significant at the .01 level (2-tailed). Table 4. Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42).

Note . REALSCORE = ratings for submissions to the teacher-created (real) prompt. Experimental1 = ratings for the first experimental prompt, Experimental2 = ratings for the second experimental prompt. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. HR 1 = Human Rater 1 score, HR 2 = Human Rater 2 score. Table 6. Human annotator and phd thesis My Editor ’s error feedback results. Note. Precision = Hits divided by My Editor’s total (example: 2 ? 2 = 100); Recall = Hits divided by human annotator’s total (example: 2 ? 7 = 28.6) Establishes and maintains an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the essay, purpose and audience.

Develops ideas fully and artfully with a wide variety of details. Demonstrates a logical, cohesive organizational structure and sequence with an effective use of transitions. Provides precise descriptive language use, artful word choice, a defined voice, and office well-structured and varied sentence types. Contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes and admissions maintains a clear controlling or central idea and demonstrates a basic understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas fully and clearly with extensive detail.

Demonstrates a logical organizational structure and sequence with consistent use of transitions. Provides precise language use, appropriate word choice, some evidence of voice, and well-structured sentences with some variety. Contains few errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes a controlling or central idea and demonstrates some understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas adequately using sufficient appropriate details. Demonstrates an appropriate organizational structure and sequence; however, may lack transitions or be inconsistent. Provides appropriate language use, word choice, control of ece thesis voice, and essentially correct sentences with some variety. Contains occasional errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics, but the errors do not make comprehension difficult. Establishes a controlling or central idea but demonstrates little understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas briefly and inconsistently. Demonstrates an attempt at an organizational structure and regis admissions essay sequence, but lacks transitions, and may not be unified or consistent throughout.

Contains simple language use, word choice, an awareness of voice, and relies on simple sentences. Contains errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and for west african kingdoms mechanics. Suggests a controlling or central idea but demonstrates minimal understanding of the admissions, purpose and audience. Develops ideas incompletely or inadequately using few, if any, details and/or examples. Suggests but does not maintain a basic organizational structure and sequence. Contains unclear or inappropriate language usage, word choice, and theses few, if any, sentence types. Contains serious errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics (errors may make comprehension difficult). Fails to establish a controlling or central idea or show understanding of the regis essay, purpose and audience. Fails to support ideas with details and/or examples. Shows no evidence of a unified structure, and no evidence of transitional devices. Demonstrates unclear or incoherent language use and major errors in sentence structure, word choice and usage.

Major errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics significantly interfere with the communication of the message. 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winner’s technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times. E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it “1,” creating the preamble, maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. , Burstein, J. Essay? C. , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. E. , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the why is called of the english, validity of regis automated essay scoring . Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 – 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Registered in England Wales No. 3099067.

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Plagiarism - What it is and admissions essay, how to avoid it. Plagiarism is a serious academic offence. Of Drinking Essay. Each year a number of cases of plagiarism are brought to the attention of the Dean of Arts and the President#146;s Office. Depending on the severity of the offence, students found guilty of plagiarism may lose credit for the assignment in question, be awarded a mark of zero in the course, or face suspension from the University. Most simply, plagiarism is intellectual theft. Regis Essay. Any use of another author#146;s research, ideas, or language without proper attribution may be considered plagiarism. Because such definitions include many shades of consequences of drinking and driving essay, accidental or intentional plagiarism, these need to be described more fully. This is the most obvious case: a student submits, as his or her own work, an essay that has been written by someone else. Usually the original source is a published journal article or book chapter.

The use of unpublished work, including the work of regis admissions essay, another student , is consequences of drinking and driving just as serious. In such cases, plagiarism cannot be avoided by paraphrasing the original or acknowledging its use in footnotes . The work is the regis property of another author and should not be used. See Example #1. A student may also lift portions of another text and use them in bacon english essay, his or her own work. Regis Essay. For example, a student might add her or his own conclusions or introduction to an essay. Or a student might scatter his or her own comments through a text taken substantially from another source. These practices are unacceptable.

Even with some attribution, the bulk of the work has been done by another. See Example #1. In many cases, a student will lift ideas, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs from a variety of phd thesis preamble, sources and stitch them together into an essay. These situations often seem difficult to assess. Most essays, after all, are attempts to bring together a range of sources and arguments. But the line between plagiarism and original work is not difficult to draw. Regis Admissions Essay. See Example #2. Lazy plagiarism crops up in many student essays, and is usually the result of sloppy note-taking or research shortcuts. Examples include:

inadvertent use of another#146;s language, usually when the database theses and dissertation student fails to distinguish between direct quotes and general observations when taking notes. In such cases, the presence of a footnote does not excuse the use of another#146;s language without quotation marks. use of admissions, footnotes or material quoted in phd thesis preamble, other sources as if they were the regis results of your research. Office. sloppy or inadequate footnoting which leaves out sources or page references. Although it may not be the student#146;s intention to deceive, it is often difficult for instructors to admissions distinguish between purposeful and accidental plagiarism. See Example #3. This is not intended to discourage students from pursuing specific interests.

If you want to use a previously completed essay as a starting point for new research, you should receive the instructor#146;s approval and provide her or him with a copy of the original essay. If you want to use substantially similar essays to of drinking essay satisfy the requirements of two related courses, you should get approval from all the instructors concerned. It is regis admissions essay not hard to draw the distinction between original and thoroughly plagiarized work. But the ece thesis office grey areas between these extremes are more vexing. Students should avoid any hint of dishonesty by maintaining good research habits and paying attention to a few basic rules of writing and documentation. Most written assignments begin with the collection of research notes -- a combination of ideas or quotes from other sources, and the student#146;s own ideas. Whether you keep notes on index cards, in a loose-leaf binder, or on old envelopes in a desk drawer, it is important to record and organize them in such a way that vital information is not lost.

Keep careful and complete track of regis, sources. Accurately copy the author, title, and other information about the source publication, including the number(s) of the page(s) from which notes or quotes were taken. Distinguish carefully between your ideas and the ideas of others. This is a simple question of intellectual honesty. If you use another#146;s conclusions, acknowledge them. If you come to the same conclusions as another on your own, you should still acknowledge the of african and dissertation agreement. Distinguish carefully between your own words and those of others. Essay. If necessary, highlight or use coloured index cards for directly quoted material. As you begin to tie your ideas together in written form, consider the following: Begin by organizing your essay in an original manner . Avoid mimicking the pattern or order of argument used by others. Remember: this is your humble contribution to a debate or a body of research; it is not (in most case) an attempt to summarize or paraphrase the work of others.

As you weave the ideas and language of why is bacon called of the english essay, others into your work, make clear choices about the use of quoted material . In other words, either quote directly, or state the idea(s) in your own language. Do not mess around with close paraphrases or purely cosmetic changes. See Example #4. Read the regis essay first draft carefully . Is the distinction between your work and the work of others clear and unambiguous? You might even take an early draft and highlight all those passages that summarize, paraphrase, or quote other sources. Is there enough of your own work left in the essay? Many cases of plagiarism occur in thesis scarlet, the documentation rather than the body of the essay.

You should have a clear idea of the variety of purposes a footnote (or endnote) may serve, and many different ways you can acknowledge the work of others. For specific cases See Example #5 . Also note the following: Always record your source of the information; never use or rely on another author#146;s footnotes. The footnote should allow the reader to find or check the material being cited. Provide exact page numbers for direct quotes, and a range of page numbers for regis admissions more general points.

If you included more than one source or reference in consequences of drinking and driving essay, a footnote, the relevance or order of the various sources should be clear to the reader. Once your essay is regis essay complete, consider each portion that is drawn from another source, and ask yourself the following: Is the theses idea or argument expressed entirely my own? Is the regis admissions essay general language or choice of words (including even phrases or rough paraphrases) my own? If either answer is no, the work must be credited to the original author. Essay For West African. And if the answer to the second question is regis no, the passage should either be quoted directly or rewritten in the student#146;s own words and theses and dissertation, credited directly. Complete or Near-Complete Plagiarism. Despite minor changes to the text, the passages are substantially unchanged. In the first case, the regis essay plagiarist also lifts the called the father of the footnote from the essay original. Note that the use of even very brief passages (such as the wings of aspiration) constitutes plagiarism.

Use of such passages throughout an essay would constitute complete plagiarism ; use of such passages occasionally would constitute near-complete plagiarism . [This example is drawn from a longer discussion regarding plagiarism in the graduate school essays of Martin Luther King Jr. Students interested in why is the father of the english, a well-illustrated discussion of student plagiarism, might want to consult this: Becoming Martin Luther King -- Plagiarism and Originality: A Round Table, Journal of regis, American History (June 1991, pp. 11-123. Thesis Scarlet Letter. The example used below is on p. Admissions. 25.] The second case illustrates a more typical instance of student plagiarism.

Even the footnote to the original does not excuse the substantial use of the original#146;s language. It is of drinking and driving essay Eros, not Agape, that loves in regis admissions, proportion to the value of its object. By the pursuit of value in its object, Platonic love is let up and away from the world, on wings of aspiration, beyond all transient things and persons to thesis the realm of the admissions Ideas. Agape, as described in the Gospels and Epistles, is why is called of the english spontaneous and #145;uncaused#146;, indifferent to human merit, and creates value in those upon whom it is bestowed out of pure generosity. It flows down from God into this transient, sinful world; those whom it touches become conscious of their own utter unworthiness; they are impelled to forgive and love their enemies. because the God of grace imparts worth to them by the act of loving them.* [footnote* is to Anders Nygren, Agape and Eros . (New York, 1932), pp. Essay. 52-56] As Nygren set out to contrast these two Greek words he finds that Eros loves in proportion to the value of the object. By the pursuit of office, value in its objects. Platonic love is regis admissions let up and away from the world, on wings of aspiration, beyond all transient things and persons to the realm of the Ideas. Agape as described in the Gospels and Epistles, is spontaneous and uncaused, indifferent to human merit, and essay for west african kingdoms, creates value in those upon whom it is bestowed out of pure generosity. It flows down from God into the transient, sinful world; those whom it touches become conscious of their own utter unworthiness; they are impelled to forgive and essay, love their enemies, because the God of Grace imparts worth to them by the act of loving them.*

[Footnote* is to Nygren, Agape and letter, Eros , pp. 52-56] The strike officially began on May 29, and on June 1 the manufacturers met publicly to plan their resistance. Their strategies were carried out on two fronts. They pressured the proprietors into regis admissions, holding out phd thesis preamble, indefinitely by refusing to send new collars and cuffs to any laundry.

Also the manufacturers attempted to undermine directly the union#146;s efforts to admissions essay weather the strike. They tried to create a negative image of the union through the press, which they virtually controlled. Essay For West Kingdoms. They prevented a few collar manufacturers in regis essay, other cities from patronizing the ece thesis office unions#146; cooperative laundry even though it claimed it could provide the regis admissions essay same services for 25 percent less. Under these circumstances, the collar ironers#146; tactics were much less useful. The strike began on May 29, and on June 1 the manufacturers met publicly to plan their response. Bacon Called Of The English. They had two strategies. Regis. They pressured the proprietors into holding out indefinitely by refusing to send new collars and cuffs to any laundry, and they attempted to undermine directly the ece thesis union#146;s efforts to weather the strike. They also tried to create a negative image of the union through the newspapers, which they virtually controlled.

They prevented a few collar manufacturers in other cities from using the unions#146; cooperative laundry even though it could provide the same services for 25 percent less. Under these circumstances, the collar ironers#146; tactics were much less useful. 1. 1. Carole Turbin, And We are Nothing But Women: Irish Working Women in Troy, pp. 225-26 in Women of essay, America . Phd Thesis. Edited by Mary Beth Norton (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979). Here two sources are combined to create a new passage. As it stands, the passage is clearly plagiarized. If a footnote were added acknowledging the regis admissions essay sources, the substantial use of the of drinking and driving essay language of the original passage would still open the student to charges of plagiarism. An example of an honest and acceptable use of the information derived from these sources is provided at the bottom of the regis page. Phd Thesis. Note that the essay acceptable version uses the facts of the original sources, but organizes and expresses them in the student#146;s own language. Despite the strong public opposition, the theses and dissertation Reagan administration continued to admissions essay install so many North American men, supplies, and facilities in Honduras that one expert called it the USS Honduras , a [stationary] aircraft carrier or sorts. (Walter LaFeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), 309.)

By December 1981, American agents--some CIA, some U.S. Special Forces--were working through Argentine intermediaries to set up contra safe houses, training centres, and essay for west african kingdoms, base camps along the Nicaraguan-Honduran border. (Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in admissions essay, Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), 139.) Despite strong public opposition, by December 1981 the Reagan Administration was working through Argentine intermediaries to install contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps in Honduras. One expert called Honduras the USS Honduras , a stationary aircraft carrier or sorts. In the thesis scarlet letter early 1980s, the Reagan Administration made increasing use of Honduras as a base for the contra war. The Administration set up a number of military and training facilities--some American, some contra, and some housing Argentine mercenaries--along the border between Nicaragua and Honduras. The country, as one observer noted, was little more than a [stationary] aircraft carrier, which he described as the USS Honduras . 2. 2. Regis. See Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 307-310 (quote p. 309); and Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), 139. In this example, the student may have made a sincere effort to write an original passage, but sloppy research and documentation raise the possibility of plagiarism. Note the characteristic errors: confusion of original and student#146;s language, quotation marks in the wrong place, improper or incomplete footnotes. Despite the strong public opposition, the Reagan administration continued to install so many North American men, supplies, and facilities in Honduras that one expert called it the USS Honduras , a [stationary aircraft carrier of sorts. (Walter LaFeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), 309.)

By December 1981, American agents--some CIA, some U.S. Special Forces--were working through Argentine intermediaries to set up contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps along the phd thesis Nicaraguan-Honduran border. (Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), 139.) Despite strong public opposition, the Reagan Administration continued to install so many North American men, supplies, and facilities in Honduras that one expert called it the USS Honduras, a stationary aircraft carrier or sorts. 3. In December 1981, American agents--some CIA Special Forces--were working through Argentine intermediaries to set up contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps along the regis essay Nicaraguan-Honduran border. 4. 3. Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 309. 4. Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983). Students anxious about african, committing plagiarism often ask: How much do I have to change a sentence to be sure I#146;m not plagiarizing? A simple answer to this is: If you have to regis admissions ask, you#146;re probably plagiarizing.

This is important. Avoiding plagiarism is not an exercise in inventive paraphrasing. There is no magic number of phd thesis preamble, words that you can add or change to make a passage your own. Regis Essay. Original work demands original thought and organization of thoughts. In the essay african following example, although almost all the words have been changed, the student has still plagiarized. An acceptable use of this material is also provided below. Shortly after the two rogues, who pass themselves off as a duke and a king, invade the raft of Huck and Jim, they decide to raise funds by performing scenes from Shakespeare#146;s Romeo and Juliet and Richard III . That the presentation of Shakespeare in regis, small Mississippi towns could be conceived of as potentially lucrative tells us much about the position of Shakespeare in the nineteenth century. (Lawrence Levine, Highbrow, Lowbrow: The Emergence of a Cultural Hierarchy in America (Cambridge, 1986), p. 10)

Soon after the two thieves, who pretend they are a king and a duke, capture Huck and Jim#146;s raft, they try to ece thesis office make money by putting on two Shakespeare plays ( Romeo and Juliet and Richard III ). Because the production of Shakespeare in tiny Southern towns is seen as possibly profitable, we learn a lot about the admissions status of Shakespeare before the essay twentieth century. As Lawrence Levine argues, casual references to Shakespeare in popular nineteenth century literature suggests that the identification of highbrow theatre is a relatively recent phenomenon. 5. Note that this version does not merely rephrase or repeat the material from the passage cited above, but expands upon it and places it in admissions essay, the context of the student#146;s work. Varieties of Footnotes.

The use of sources can be clarified in a number of ways through careful footnoting. Consider the different forms of documentation and acknowledgement in the following: With the election of Ronald Regan, covert operations in Latin America escalated rapidly. 6 The influx of and driving, American funds, notes Peter Kornbluh, determined the frequency and destructiveness of contra attachs. 7 In the early 1980s, the Regan Administration increasingly used Honduras as a base for the contra war. The Administration set up a number of military and regis, training facilities--some American, some contra , and some housing Argengine mercenaries--along the border between Nicaragua and essay kingdoms, Honduras. Regis Essay. [T]he USS Honduras , as one observer noted, was little more than a [stationary] aircraft carrier. 8 These strategies seemed to represent both a conscious acceleration of American involvement in the region, and english essay, the inertia of past involvements and failures.

9. 6. The following paragraph is drawn from Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 307-310; and Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), pp. 139-149. Note: FOOTNOTE 6 provides general background sources. 7. Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in admissions, Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), p. 139. Note: FOOTNOTE 7 documents a quoted passage, noting the and driving exact page location. 8. Observer quoted in Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 309.

Note: FOOTNOTE 8 documents a secondary quotation. 9. Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), stresses the renewal of counterinsurgency under Reagan; Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions , stresses the ongoing interventionism of the U.S. Regis Admissions Essay. (New York, 1989), p. 307-310. Note: FOOTNOTE 9 distinguishes your argument from preamble that of your sources. Dr. Colin H. Admissions. Gordon. (Department of History, UBC)

Professor Peter Simmons. (President#146;s Advisory Committee on Student Discipline, UBC)

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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. Essay! She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Causal analysis essays answer the question, Why? Many times, answer to this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is called a speculating about causes essay. Essay For West! To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the cause, providing support for your answer with reasons and evidence. • Why do people do that? • Why does this happen? • Why is this a trend? • Why does it occur? What causes people to develop phobias? Why do some people become addicted to gambling when others can gamble and not become addicted? What causes people to rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the chemical causes of falling in love?

What causes feeling of romantic attraction to fade? What causes love at first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older? Why do people need to regis admissions essay sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for some repetitive actions?

Why do people experience nightmares? Why do some marriages last for a lifetime? Why do we have short and long term memory? Why do people get dyslexia? Why do we respond physically to fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)? Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching? What makes some people introverts and others extroverts? Why is methamphetamine so addictive?

Why do people crave sugar? Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't? Why do first born children tend to be achievers? Why do people snore? Why do people lie?

Why do people blush? Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against their parents? Why do teens get acne? Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide? Why do teens engage in sexting? Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer? Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks?

Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs? Why do young people make graffiti? Why do fewer young people vote (compared to older generations)? Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors?

Why don't teenage relationships last? Why don't teenagers read? Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at learning languages than older people? Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age? Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities? Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys?

Why do adolescents need to establish their own identity? What type of Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails? Why do some animals like to letter be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and happier lives?

Why are pets good for essay kids? Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and poop? Why do cats show pleasure by purring and kneading? Why do cats like to sleep in bacon called the father english boxes and other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt? Why do birds build elaborate nests? Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and bees live in admissions colonies? Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and african, breed them to become dogs? Why do some insects and admissions essay, jellyfish glow?

What causes tides? Or the wind? What causes insects like crickets and cicadas to consequences of drinking and driving make such loud noises? Why are animals used in research? Why are animals afraid of humans? Why is larger size an advantage for animals in colder climates? Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs? Why are some animals becoming endangered?

Why is nature so therapeutic? Why are insects attracted to light? Why are insects the most successful animals on earth? Why are microbes important to human beings? Why are so many Americans against the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)? Why are some Euro countries like Greece in regis admissions essay such economic turmoil? Why are rates of AIDS transmission higher in Africa than elsewhere? Why do Japanese couples delay marriage? Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries?

Why are large typhoons and hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently? What has caused the unrest in the Middle East which resulted in thesis for the scarlet the Arab Spring Movement and Syria's civil war? What caused the Great Recession of 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in the U.S.? What causes terrorist groups to target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the U.S. government shut down of 2013? Why is North Korea so closed to the rest of the world? Or why is it becoming more belligerent toward other nations? Why are more and more people moving to large cities and away from rural areas? (You could talk about this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the world.) Why has the neo-conservative movement developed in regis admissions American politics? Why has neo-Nazism been on the rise in why is bacon called english essay Germany?

Why is China going to regis admissions ease up on the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in the 2016 election? Why have the police been targeted by gunmen recently in the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to use vehicles as weapons? Why did the office Arab Spring movement not lead to successful democratic societies? Why is Twitter the medium of regis choice for thesis Donald Trump? What caused the French Revolution? What caused the development of admissions American slavery system? What caused the settlement of Australia by ece thesis the English? What caused the colonization of Africa? Why does English have so many words of French origin?

Why is English the regis main language used around the bacon called the father english essay world in business and science? Why does India have a caste system? Why are the Chinese still interested in religion after years of atheist communism? What caused the great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward? What caused the black plague of the Middle Ages to stop? What caused Great Britain to admissions essay adopt the parliamentary system? Why does America have an office educational system that is different from the European system used by most of the rest of the essay world? Why, according to the 2000 U.S. Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at 10%, and African American was third at thesis scarlet, 8%)?

Why did Japan attack the U.S. at Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to end the war? Why is it important to study history? (Depending on how you answer, this could be worked into regis admissions essay a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to get some ideas of possible answers. Title: The causal question makes a great title for your essay. However, you should probably make the question as short as possible for the title. Called The Father Of The English Essay! Your answer to essay the question will be the thesis of your paper.

Introduction: Start your introduction by interesting your reader in database and dissertation the topic and regis, describing the situation or effect. Theses! See the chart for easy introduction and conclusion ideas. The end of your introduction will be your cause question and thesis. Thesis: Start your thesis by regis admissions asking your question and then answering it. To make your thesis into thesis for the scarlet letter a clear roadmap of what you will talk about in your essay, add a because followed by the three reasons you will give in the body of your essay.

Body: Be careful to regis write the reasons in parallel format. Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at essay african kingdoms, a horror movie? Humans enjoy scary movies because they feel an emotional release in watching and regis admissions, talking with other people about the experience, and they get a vicarious thrill in of african theses and dissertation seeing the forbidden on the screen. Regis! (Of course, you can have more than just three reasons, and you may have several paragraphs on ece thesis office one reason if you have several parts of that reason to discuss.) Topic Sentences of regis Body: For your body paragraphs, take your three reasons and turn them into full sentences. For West African! Those are your topic sentences for the body paragraphs of your essay. Gather evidence from your own observations and regis admissions, from research. Thesis For The Letter! Conclusion: In the conclusion, you want to either urge the regis admissions reader to believe your reasons or give a final point. See ideas in the chart below. Easy Introductions and Conclusions.

100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by phd thesis Virginia Kearney 42. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. by regis admissions essay Virginia Kearney 6. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. Consequences Of Drinking And Driving Essay! 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. Regis Essay! this really helped! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. Letter! I have many more articles about writing. Please look at my How to admissions Write a Cause Essay for essay for west african introduction and conclusion ideas and Technology Topics for Research Essays for more topics. Sajib 23 months ago from admissions essay, Bangladesh. Thanks a lot for posting such a wonderful and helpful post!

It will help us a lot who always look to create great casual analysis essays. Really you have some excellent and breathtaking ideas! These questions always come to phd thesis our mind but very few us are able to admissions essay find the answers. I hope you will also shed some light on the following issues: 1. A few similar questions on database of african theses and dissertation the technology niche. 2. A few exciting ideas about the regis admissions body like the thesis for the letter introductory and concluding ideas. If I get these things it will help me specially and lot of others. Hoping to have some more great things from essay, you! Kathryn Lane 23 months ago. This was really helpful, thank you! Thank you so much! Kader 3 years ago from consequences of drinking essay, Algeria.

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Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people. So many of the regis admissions people who teach the beginning levels of college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves. I know how hard it can be to come up with good lesson plans and instructions. Essay! That is admissions why I've decided to essay kingdoms post my own notes and instructions that I've developed in teaching for regis admissions over 20 years. Hezekiah 3 years ago from Japan. Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at Uni or High School. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and for the scarlet, respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.

HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. Admissions! HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on for the letter affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Admissions Essay! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and thesis for the, respective owners.

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Conclusions On Mummies Essays and Research Papers. Poor or middle income group people 5. Businessmen 6. Creating Brands 7. Adds and promotions 8. Low price strategy 9. Regis Admissions? Varieties available . for different age groups 10. Various schemes for pre-paid and post paid customers Conclusion and why is the father english Recommendation. Bharti Airtel , Cellular network , GSM 827 Words | 5 Pages. CONCLUSION Angiosperms (flowering plant) include in regis admissions essay phylum Anthophyta.Angiosperms are plant that have flowers and fruit. Their part of . the flower is why is english a carpel which surrounds and protects the regis, ovules and seeds. Ece Thesis? The fruit surrounds the regis, embryo and aids seed dispersal.

The great majority of angiosperms are classified either as monocots or eudicots.Monocot embryos have a single seed leaf (cotyledon), and pollen grains with a single groove while eudicots (true dicots) have two cotyledons, and bacon called of the english essay pollen. Dicotyledon , Flower , Flowering plant 719 Words | 3 Pages. Conclusion In part A of this experiment, we transformed the bacteria into an antibiotic resistant form by inserting a plasmid into it. We . used heat shock in order to make the bacteria capable to uptake a plasmid in the presence of calcium ions that help disrupt the cell membrane (heat shock is the regis essay, combination of altering hot and why is bacon called english essay cold). When they are capable of accepting plasmids, the admissions essay, bacteria are incubated with plasmids that carry the resistance to a particular antibiotic, in this case ampicilin. Agar plate , Antibiotic resistance , Bacteria 970 Words | 3 Pages. When you think of thesis a mummy what comes to mind? Most of us usually picture an Egyptian mummy wrapped in bandages and regis admissions essay buried deep . inside a pyramid. While the Egyptian ones are the most famous, mummies have been found in many places throughout the preamble, world, from Greenland to China to the Andes Mountains of regis South America.

A mummy is the body of a person (or an animal) that has been preserved after death. Normally when we die, bacteria and other germs eat away at why is of the essay, the soft tissues (such as skin and muscles). Ancient Egypt , Death , Egyptians 1295 Words | 4 Pages. Mummies The people of ancient Egypt believed that upon death, a person’s soul split into several parts, and continued to live on in an . Essay? afterlife. Three of the more well-known forms of the theses and dissertation, spirit were the ba, the akh, and the ka. The ba was the personality. It was shown as a bird with a human head- in admissions essay particular, the head of the person to which it belonged. The akh was represented by a type of bird called a crested ibis. At the moment of death, the akh left the body and flew to the stars to spend. Ancient Egypt , Cadaver , Egyptian soul 479 Words | 2 Pages.

Hemet called Mummy Case of Paankhenamun, found in the Art Institute of Chicago. The case of the Mummy Paankhenamun is one of the . most exquisite pieces of art produced by the Egyptian people during the time before Christ. This coffin belonged to a man named Paankhenamun, which translates to database of african and dissertation He Lives for Amun (Hornblower Spawforth 74). Paankhenamun was the admissions, doorkeeper of the temple of the god Amun, a position he inherited from thesis, his father. Interestingly, X-rays reveal that the regis, mummy case of Paankhenamun. Akhenaten , Amun , Ancient Egypt 1094 Words | 3 Pages. Coming to Conclusions The conclusion of an essay is a key factor of the overall effectiveness of an essay. Often seen as a . brief summary of the paper, the conclusion frequently revisits the preamble, thesis of the paper, sometimes repeating lines or words from the regis admissions, introduction verbatim. This almost textbook-like format can be effective but is by no means the only option there is for west when a writer concludes an essay. Admissions? In fact, the title of “the conclusion ” can be quite misleading.

Many types of conclusions do not. Conclusion , Essay , Reader 979 Words | 3 Pages. The Art of the Conclusion The conclusion of an bacon the father essay should establish a sense of closure or completeness that leaves the reader . with lingering thoughts about the topic. Each writer has their own approach in composing a conclusion that they feel solidifies their argument; every approach makes different demands of a reader because of the moves the writer chooses to make. The essays “How to Tame a Wild Tongue” by Gloria Anzaldua, “Translating Translation” by Alberto Alvaro Rios, and “Joyas Voladoras”. Conclusion , Essay , Essays 1160 Words | 3 Pages. around the shootings circumstances. There lacks an indisputable, completely factual account of the regis, shooting and its preceding events. Without the phd thesis, support of . concrete evidence murder can not be proven beyond a reasonable doubt. Regis Admissions Essay? I intend to show the conclusion , that George Zimmerman should not go to jail, is true because the argument is sound. I think my argument is valid because of the premises that support it.

The first premise being that the Stand Your Ground Law in Florida permits the use of preamble a fire. Causality , Compatibilism and incompatibilism , Determinism 979 Words | 3 Pages. HINTS FOR WRITING A CONCLUSION Hint #1 Conclusion Words - Sometimes “ conclusion ” words like these will help you . write the conclusion of an essay. Most of the admissions essay, time, using the word or phrase in the middle of a sentence is better than making it the called of the english, first word of the conclusion . in fact in conclusion for these reasons as a result of in effect Hint #2 altogether indeed surely clearly to sum up overall truly all in all due to obviously definitely ultimately thus in effect consequently Four Strategies. Conclusion , Phrase , Sentence 842 Words | 2 Pages.

Introductions and regis admissions Conclusions Introductions and conclusions play a special role in thesis letter the academic essay, and they frequently . demand much of your attention as a writer. A good introduction should identify your topic, provide essential context, and admissions essay indicate your particular focus in theses the essay. Essay? It also needs to of drinking engage your readers' interest. A strong conclusion will provide a sense of closure to the essay while again placing your concepts in a somewhat wider context. It will also, in some instances. Conclusion , Essay , Essays 992 Words | 3 Pages. ?Results and Conclusion : Childhood Obesity As previously discussed childhood obesity is a major illness in the United States mainly but also . all over the world.

While childhood obesity has increased rapidly over the years, many wonder what can be done in order to fix this issue. Can a child`s cafeteria at school make a difference? If so, are there healthier options for children to essay choose from? Throughout the preamble, paper, the author will touch base on how the results of the data collection method, the. Cafeteria , Childhood , Childhood obesity 1175 Words | 3 Pages.

Conclusions : We learned that some nasty stains can come out with some unorthodox products. We used on our stain Isopropyl alcohol (rubbing . Admissions Essay? alcohol), bleach, and consequences shout. The product that did the regis admissions, best at pulling out stains was the consequences of drinking and driving, Isopropyl alcohol. Isopropyl alcohol is admissions essay a clear, colorless, flammable, mobile liquid, (CH3)2CHOH, used in antifreeze compounds, in lotions and cosmetics, and as a solvent for gums, shellac, and essay african kingdoms essential oils. It did great job at pulling stains right out of the cloth. This. Alcohol , Ethanol , Isopropyl alcohol 523 Words | 3 Pages. Running Heading: hypothesis and conclusion Unit 4 Short Paper: Hypothesis and Conclusion Kaplan University Ashley Gramma . CJ499: Bachelors Capstone in Criminal Justice Professor Christopher Elg March 12, 2013 Science proceeds by a continuous, incremental process that involves generating hypotheses, collecting evidence, testing hypotheses, reaching evidence based conclusions . (Michael, 2002).

The scientific process typically involves making observations, asking questions, forming hypotheses. Empiricism , Falsifiability , Hypothesis 1039 Words | 3 Pages. ? Conclusions of research Valuable first-hand knowledge of the industry in which the products will be used was gained through talking to . physiotherapists and doctors. Essay? Completed questionnaires can be found in the appendix. Essay? An NHS muscular skeletal physiotherapist, Mrs R Townsend, said that the regis admissions, most common area she has to rehabilitate is the why is bacon called, knee. This is most commonly done through stretches and slowly increasing joint range through the regis admissions, use of a theraband. Other products are available to carry out these. Ankle , Foot , Human leg 873 Words | 2 Pages.

Mummy: Ancient Egypt and Mummification. The Importance of Mummification One of the first thoughts that usually comes to an individuals mind when thinking about Egyptian history is pharaohs, . pyramids and mummies . Ece Thesis Office? This is a common thought that has led many historians and archaeologist to study Egyptian history. My research will be focused on mummies . Mummification is admissions essay one of the most mysterious aspects of Egypt’s past. I hope to show you how important mummification was for the Egyptians by my research done on the history, purpose and. Ancient Egypt , Burial , Coptic language 2169 Words | 6 Pages. #9920023 English 197 D Essay #1 – Final Draft Mise-en-scene in The Mummy The horror genre of the 1930’s, although stylized in . comparison to today’s present films are effective in their use of cinematic technique to portray emotions, ideologies, and preamble personify characters. During this time period a wave of admissions anti-immigration sentiments became mainstream ideals, a phenomenon that is present within The Mummy . Phd Thesis Preamble? It is apparent in the mesmerizing scene, where Ardath chants over admissions the scrolls to.

Close-up , Dimension , Evil 1379 Words | 5 Pages. DREAM OCCUR? IV. SLEEP A.STAGES OF SLEEP B.REM SLEEP C.NON REM SLEEP D.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN REM SLEEP AND NON REM SLEEP V. TYPES OF DREAMS A.LUCID DREAM . B.NON LUCID DREAM C.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LUCID AND NON LUCID D.DAYDREAM E.NIGHTMARE VI. CONCLUSION I.INTRODUCTION Many people are interested about the meaning of their dreams, dreams that occur in different time, different situation and ways.

It was an intriguing topic for most people, specially psychologist.Many spend much time and effort. Daydream , Dream , Dreaming 1953 Words | 7 Pages. ? Conclusion As with all failures the problems can be viewed from the inappropriate model for for the, the strategic analysis. To understand the root . Regis? cause of problems, we calculate the essay for west african kingdoms, overhead allocation rate for regis admissions, each of the model years from 1988 through 1990: 1987 1988 1989 1990 OH Rate 435% 435% 575% 565% It can be seen from the table that, after outsource of Muffler-exhaust systems and oil pans, the overhead rate was dramatic increase from 435 % in 1988 to of drinking and driving essay 575% in1989. The overhead costs. 1901 , 1903 , 1904 413 Words | 4 Pages. Conclusion and Recommendations.Docx.

Conclusion and Recommendations Introduction This is the final chapter of this research with an objective to conclude the regis admissions, thought i.e. IT . competencies and phd thesis capabilities development in an organisation aimed to support critical competitive advantage functions and activities, particularly the regis admissions essay, knowledge creation/ management and utilising such knowledge in decision making to improve overall performance of the organisation. It can be concluded as a general statement from the whole discussion that these. Decision engineering , Decision making , Decision support system 1616 Words | 5 Pages. possible. Why Is Bacon Called English? He decided the next chapter would be the one; he would have Victor kill Eve at regis, the end of chapter nine. Consequences And Driving Essay? For so long, she had been the admissions, protagonist . of his novels but it was time to move on, time to for the leave Eve behind for regis admissions essay, good, it was time for her conclusion . Consequences And Driving Essay? “Wait. I shouldn’t send the email, what if somebody gets hold of it.

I could be in grave trouble.” He thought, wiping the sweat from his upper lip and dabbing his face ferociously with his drenched handkerchief. Regis Admissions? . 2007 singles , A Good Day , KILL 1220 Words | 4 Pages. Conclusion In this study, a sincere attempt has been made towards finding out ways and means for automating activities in ece thesis office the Adamson . University school library. The objective of this study is to regis admissions essay use various full-featured open source-Integrated Library System for the automation of the major day-to-day activities of the the father, various section of the admissions essay, school library, which is tiresome and office cumbersome. After the regis, investigation, the researcher has found that Koha Software is more suitable for the library. Integrated library system , Koha , Librarian 468 Words | 2 Pages.

Conclusion Following the countries accession to the World Trade Organization, financial liberalisation has picked up considerable momentum. Consequences And Driving Essay? . Compared to other studies on financial liberalisation, this study focuses on the impact of financial liberalization on essay, Vietnam’s stock market. After collecting data, calculating and running models, in comparision with previous studies, it shows us that there are some points to be mentioned as following. For the contribution to the literature, there is very. Bank , Economics , Financial markets 566 Words | 2 Pages. ? Conclusion The objective was to ece thesis prove a closed ecosystem could support life to essay invertebrates for phd thesis preamble, a period of seven days. To make this . Regis Admissions Essay? possible a closed glass jar ecosystem experiment was conducted.

The glass jar was filled with one third of dirt, grass with roots, a weed, many insects and three fourth cup of water. By doing so I manufactured a functional habitat. The jar was placed in a sunny spot and monitored for seven days without being touched. Over the course of seven days carful observations. Arthropod , Ecosystem , Food chain 386 Words | 1 Pages.

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I also hoped to learn about Japanese sport, language and cuisine. My aim and objectives was to find out whether the cultures were surviving or dying out. During my research for admissions essay, my investigation I found out that some of the Welsh features and. Cornish people , Culture of consequences essay Wales , England 667 Words | 3 Pages. Egyptian Mummies and the Afterlife. painting or carving pictures, hieroglyphics, and symbols on the coffin.

One very good example of this is represented by the ‘ Mummy of . Irethorrou in Coffin.’ This coffin, made of regis admissions essay wood with polychrome, is adorned with hieroglyphics, symbols, and a portrait of the Egyptian priest. It was found in letter a cemetery in Akhmim, and dates back circa 500 BCE. The inside of the coffin, where the mummy lays, also has a carved outline of regis admissions essay Irethorrou’s profile standing on some sort of platform. The portrait of the priest is. Afterlife , Ancient Egypt , Death 1051 Words | 3 Pages. ?6.0 Conclusion 6.1 Review 6.1.1 Organizational Design Organization chart MCIS Zurich Insurance Bhd. Kulim branch is shaped departmentalization . of functions. MCIS Zurich Insurance Bhd. Office? Kulim branch headed by a General Manager, Mr Yap Eang Liong. He is assisted by two other managers who head the regis admissions essay, department in this organization. With this organizational chart, he can make it easier to distribute tasks and responsibilities to departments or employees who working under him.

With this, the employee organization. Insurance , Leadership , Life insurance 714 Words | 2 Pages. handle different transactions within the School? V. Portability 1. Is the software installation easy? . 2. Can the system hold or adapt to updates and changes? Conclusion The proponents have concluded that the developed system helped the company in terms of efficiency of their manual system. Letter? The proponents have proposed a system which is all about the Enrollment System of Probex High School Malabon City Branch. Item number , Login , Malabon City 1109 Words | 9 Pages. [pic] Resume of MD.

MASUD RANA | | . | |Present Address: |Contact Address: | |Shahera Mohal, House no:86/1 |E-mail : masudsima@yahoo.com | |1st floor,Chairman Goli, Sankar ,West Dhanmondi. Bangladesh , Bengali language , Dhaka 480 Words | 4 Pages. ? The Holocaust Diary First Entry January 30,1933 My name is Friedrich Krebs. I am a 29-year-old free-lance journalist. . I write about all things happening in Germany, and then sell them to newspapers and magazines all over essay the world. I am the only son of thesis for the scarlet a World War 1 hero, and my mother who idolizes me.

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Book title: Don’t Tell Mummy Author: Toni Maguire Summary: This book is based on the childhood of the author. Antoinette’s life had . been perfect that it had been full of love before her father came back. She was raped by her father when she was six. She told her mother about regis, that but her mother denied it. Since then, her mother treated her badly even she knew her husband abusing Antoinette. Antoinette was abused by her father from the age of six to fourteen till he got. Abuse , Bullying , Child abuse 715 Words | 5 Pages. term ( major, minor, and middle terms) can be represented by a circle. | | C. Since a syllogism is valid if and only if the premisses entail the . conclusion , diagramming the premisses will reveal the logical geography of the conclusion in a valid syllogism.

If the phd thesis preamble, syllogism is invalid, then diagramming the premisses is insufficient to show the essay, conclusion must follow. | | D. Since we have three classes, we expect to have three overlapping circles. | 1. The area in the denoted circle represents. Argument , Diagram , Logic 965 Words | 3 Pages. Exercise: Introductions and conclusions 20 points. Ece Thesis Office? Instructions: Read the following information and follow the directions. When you . are finished, save this document in .rtf (Rich Text Format). Name your document as follows: Your name, introductions and conclusions Example: Roger White, introductions and conclusions · Upload the regis, document into the dropbox. Step 1—Familiarize yourself with the following information: Topic: Christmas Shopping Specific Purpose: To inform. Audience , Convenience store , Electronic commerce 463 Words | 3 Pages. dared to open the tomb would suffer the wrath of the mummy . Why Is Of The? Because mummies have been associated with many magical powers . throughout history, some of the mummies found from Egypt were ground into a fine powder and sold as mystical mummy powder. It's believed the powder had magical healing powers and it wasn't until the admissions, discovery of essay for west african King Tut and the hype of the media that things would change forever. There are several theories behind the Mummies Curse that came about regis, during the discovery of King.

Akhenaten , Ancient Egypt , British Museum 657 Words | 2 Pages. Syllogism: Logic and Minor Conclusion. only a finite number of logically distinct types. We shall classify and enumerate them below. Note that the syllogisms above share the same abstract . form:Major premise: All M are P.Minor premise: All S are M.Conclusion: All S are P.The premises and conclusion of a syllogism can be any of four types, which are labelled by letters[1] as follows. The meaning of the letters is consequences essay given by the table:code quantifier subject copula predicate type exampleA All S are P universal affirmatives All humans are mortal. Affirming the consequent , Argument form , Denying the antecedent 1530 Words | 5 Pages.

?And now the bottom bun. Once again aren’t these great buns. So finally we come to regis essay the conclusion paragraph, the end of your paper and an . extremely important part. Why? Because this is the final feelings the reader is ece thesis office reader is left with. Do you want the left with a poor vision of your paper?

No you don’t you don’t want the left with bad taste because of a stale bun. Go ahead and write conclusion on regis admissions essay, your last sheet of paper So now we have the bottom bun. And wow looks pretty familiar definitely. 2005 albums , Frederick Douglass , Hamburger 1107 Words | 3 Pages. -- Two Conclusions Some dogs are not cats -- PN No dogs are cats -- UN 3. Essay For West African Kingdoms? PP -- PP Given Statement: Some Cats are Dogs Some dogs are . cats -- PP 3. PN -- No Conversions can be made No Conclusion Combo First statement (A to B) Second statement (B to C) Answer Universal Positive (UP) Particular Positive (PP) No conclusion Particular Negative (PN) No conclusion Universal Negative (UN) Universal Negative (UN) No conclusion Particular Negative (PN) No conclusion Particular. Business-to-consumer , Categorical proposition , Marketing 410 Words | 3 Pages.

Write Better Introductions And Conclusions. How to Write Better Introductions and Conclusions Writing is similar to everyday life: first and last impressions are important. The strength . of your paper lies not only in the body of your paper, but how you lead into and out of that body. Admissions Essay? Content (i.e., your arguments) is phd thesis important, but so are the introductions and conclusions ! The Introduction ? Attracts the reader’s attention to and interest in essay the topic. ? Gives an database theses and dissertation overall idea of your paper’s topic. In other words, it is a “road map” for the.

Barack Obama , Democratic Party , Education 774 Words | 2 Pages. Drugs - Introduction and Conclusion. Introduction and Conclusion Ignacio Reyes COM 220 October 05, 2012 Mary Mc Williams I would start off my paper writing . about admissions essay, different types of drugs and consequences and driving essay the effects it has on society these days. The drugs, the side effects, and how these affect our loved ones. From experience I can say that using drugs and going the wrong way will always bring problems to the table, emotionally and financially.

I will also be talking about admissions essay, drugs and where they come from, who the why is bacon called english, bad people. Doctor of Philosophy , Greek loanwords , Reader 479 Words | 3 Pages. Writing Introductions and Conclusions to Essay. Writing introductions and conclusions to essay Course title: Academic skills Content page ?. Introduction for . essay ?. Regis Admissions Essay? The function of introduction ?. Conclusion (the introduction part) ?. Conclusion for essay ?. The function of the essay's Conclusion ?. Advice on how not to conclusion essay ?. Recommendations for conclusion are: ?. Conclusion (the conclusion part) ?. Bibliography ?. Appendix ?. Introduction for essay The introduction of essay is significantly. 2005 albums , Academia , Article 1896 Words | 6 Pages. Animal Mummies Wilcox,Charlotte This book mostly took place in the late 1900's, in Northern Russia. It was written in third person.

It . desribes animal mummies ,some of the most famous animal mummies and where they have been found, how animal mummies were mummified, how scientist studied them, and what they can teach us about the past. Why Is English? Animal mummies were started by Egyptians. They mummified various animals. An enormous part of admissions essay Egyptian culture, not only in their role as food and phd thesis pets, but. Ancient Egypt , Animal , Culture of Egypt 334 Words | 2 Pages. Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation. Chapter V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter summarizes the study by essay, highlighting the for the letter, research conducted on regis, the . topic.

The conclusions given were drawn from the outcomes of the database and dissertation, research and observations on the TITLE of respondents 1 and respondents 2. Moreover, recommendations were base from the findings and conclusion of the study. Summary The researcher designed and developed a TITLE using Programming Language. The general purpose of this study covered_____________________. Arithmetic mean , Computer , Hypothesis 867 Words | 6 Pages. Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations.

Chapter 5 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS , AND RECOMMENDATIONS This work aimed to regis essay analyze the effectiveness of the Retention Policy to phd thesis . selected second year students of University of the regis admissions, East-Manila taking up Bachelor of Science in Accountancy for the school year 2011-2012. The results of the test based on the validated survey and of african theses interview questions were recorded, tallied, and regis essay categorized. Thesis For The Scarlet? The summary, conclusions , and regis admissions essay recommendations are presented below. Summary of Findings Based on the. Grade , Student , Study skills 990 Words | 3 Pages. Results and Conclusion of the Research Process.

Results and Conclusion of the Research Process HCS/465 Results and Conclusion of the for the scarlet, . Research Process The title of this research study is regis admissions essay Stressful life events and the tripartite model: Relations to anxiety and of drinking and driving depression in adolescent females. The study was investigated by Jeremy Fox, Leslie Halpern, Julie Ryan, and regis admissions essay Kelly Lowe (2011). This paper will expand on previous information reported, which included the background and methodology of the research study. Data analysis , Emotion , Psychology 1381 Words | 5 Pages. Recommendations amp; Conclusions We had looked at all the characteristic of the business environment together with the market segment of . Why Is Called The Father? Indonesia. We studied the marketing mix such as product, pricing, placement and promotion. These are the recommendations and conclusions that we have conclude in regis our proposal. Java is the most populous and the most developed island in the Indonesian archipelago. Of Drinking? The island is politically divided into the provinces of West Java, East Java and Central Java. The.

Bandung , Central Java , Indonesia 860 Words | 3 Pages. Results and Conclusion of Research Process Paper HCS/465 September 23, 2012 Regan Parks Results and Conclusion of Research . Process Paper In my week two assignment an article entitled Changes in fitness, body mass index and obesity in 9-10 year olds was used and essay this same article will be used again for this article. Database? The topic for essay, the week two paper was about the background and methodologies of this article. Now in the week three paper the topic will be about the results and conclusions of this. Body mass index , Data , Data analysis 1176 Words | 4 Pages. Conclusion Managers in the 21st century are encountering extremely significant challenges in their process of management in preamble an . organisation such as hiring and keeping the right employee, building a strategic mindset, crafting an innovative culture and organisation, developing system thinking and also getting rid of short term mentality. An organisation will need to have a caliber HR manager in essay order to ece thesis own a team of committed employees. It is HR managers’ responsibility to make sure.

Economics , Employment , Goal 820 Words | 3 Pages. Applying the essay, Results and Conclusion. ? Applying the Results and Conclusion of the Research Process Sheliah Gordon HCS/465 September 9, 2014 Dr. Obinnayay Onyecherelam . Applying the Results and Conclusion of the Research Process In the called of the essay, research process, applying the results and conclusion is an important process that answers the underlying question of the study. The results are the admissions, findings of the study. Depending on what the why is of the, study was about and how it was conducted, the results could vary and may determine what. Abortion , Adolescence , Childbirth 1119 Words | 5 Pages. Results and admissions essay Conclusion of thesis for the letter Research Process HCS 465 June 3, 2012 Results and admissions essay Conclusion of essay kingdoms Research Process The purpose . of this paper is to further analyze the study done on trends in teen pregnancy rates from 1996-2006, a comparison of regis Canada, Sweden, United States, and of drinking essay England. The items of discussion include data collection methods, data analysis procedures, qualitative, quantitative data, and admissions essay study findings. Results: Data Collection Methods The data collection methods used in this. Abortion , Data analysis , Pregnancy 1359 Words | 4 Pages.

Inferencing and Drawing Conclusion. INFERENCING AND DRAWING CONCLUSIONS INFERENCE * Inference is a conclusion or deduction madefrom evidence * Drawing . inferences means sensing relationships that are not stated but are implied by ece thesis office, the author. These inferences may be assumptions, predictions, conclusions and generalizations. It is also choosing the regis admissions, most likely explanation from the facts at hand. Consequences Essay? * Making predictions is stating something about future behavior or actions based on essay, present or past actions or behavior.Predictions. Inference , Logic , Meaning of preamble life 1570 Words | 6 Pages. Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations. CHAPTER 7 Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations The study made the Pili pulp as the center of development, a nutritious food . material. Regis Admissions? The product is made for culinary purposes, salad dressing, shortening, for canned sardines and other food preparations.

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They use bullying as a way trying to feel better for regis admissions essay, themselves. . Insecurities are most likely the reason why people bully. Conclusion Summary Statement In conclusion , “cyber bullying” needs to be prevented as much as possible. The only way to do so is by awareness. Know what your kids are doing. Essay For West? Make sure if it occurs that you take every step necessary to stop it. “Cyber bullying “ is a real. Abuse , Bullying , Humiliation 821 Words | 3 Pages. is wanting in Orwell’s conclusion as he harshly tortures the regis admissions, main character, Winston, in to physical and physiological submission. Winston’s . sense of self is brutally ripped from him and he, a weak human being, is unable to prevent this loss because the physical pain imposed on him by the government, in this case the party, limits his desire and ability to rebel. Winston succumbs, he gives in to mental slavery and in the process betrays his love Julia. Orwell’s conclusion of his novel 1984 is more. George Orwell , Government , Ingsoc 2392 Words | 7 Pages.

?In conclusion , after conducting the lab, the ece thesis, emergent properties of water were tested and proved. These trials and experiments were able to . verify the adhesion, cohesion, polarity, temperature stabilization, solvency, and density changes exhibited by water. During the glass and wax paper lab, we observed the adhesive properties of admissions essay water. When a droplet of water touched the glass, it dispersed immediately. The droplet placed on the wax paper remained intact and in droplet form. Also, when the.

Atom , Chemical bond , Electric charge 879 Words | 3 Pages.