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Book Review of prehistoric animals, 1491 by Charles C. Rules For Writing A Good! Mann Essay. With 1491:New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus Charles C. Mann has written an extremely interesting and controversial book. Beginning in 1983 Mann began to become aware that research had indicated the prehistoric animals commonly held view of the settling of the Americas was wrong. The commonly held and taught belief that the Americas were inhabited by people who crossed the Bering Sea from Europe about assignment definition, 13,000 years ago was wrong. Allegedly these people lived in small, isolated groups that had little impact on the environment. Instead Mann, with considerable documentation and research by scientists, archeologists and geographers supporting this view, argues that the Americas were inhabited thousands of years earlier, existed in far larger numbers, and had been #8220;successful at imposing their will on the landscape that in 1492 Columbus set foot in a hemisphere thoroughly marked by prehistoric, humankind#8221; (Mann, 1491 , 4). Spurred by assignment model, what he had seen and read and by the fact that his son was being taught the same thing Mann had been taught in high school thirty years earlier, he wrote a book that #8220;explores what I [he] believes to be the three main foci of the animals new findings: Indian demography . . . Indian origins . . . and Indian ecology#8221; (Mann, 1491 , x-xi). Mann begins his book by essay, discussing the notion of the #8220;Noble Savage,#8221; a concept that began in the early sixteenth century.
This position is the notion that the indigenous people of the Americas lived an prehistoric animals idyllic life prior to the arrival of Columbus or were savage barbarians who did nothing constructive. Hunt Masters! Mann cites Bartolome de Las Casas a conquistador who had visited the Americas who believed #8220;Indians were natural creatures who dwelt, gentle as cows . . . waiting for millennia—for Christian instruction#8221; (Mann, 1491 , 12-14). In essence this view is that of a colonist who came to the Americas looking for signs of the animals Old World. Since the Native Americans apparently did not have as dramatic an impact on the environment subsequent generations viewed the pre-Colombian people as either innocents or as barbarians. What Are The Rules For Writing A Good! Both accounts showed the prejudice that these people lacked #8220;agency—they were not actors in their own right, but passive recipients of whatever windfalls or disasters happenstance put in prehistoric animals, their way#8221; (Mann, 1491, 12). Informative! It would be interesting to examine the European migration into the Americas from the point of view of the indigenous people. Mann cites studies that have called into question the notion that Native Americans first arrived in the Americas 13,000 years ago over a land bridge in animals, the Bering Straits and slowly migrated drifted south and east until they populated the Americas. In 1987 people who had supported this view publicly admitted that there is clear evidence of human habitation in Chile more than 12,000 years ago.
Consequently it is unlikely that natives would have migrated more than 7,000 miles in less than a millennium leaving people in their wake to form new groups of people who would create their own culture. Quote Book! In addition there is evidence suggesting habitation in Chile more than 20,000 years ago. Prehistoric! Further exploration has revealed numerous indications of large civilizations throughout Mesoamerica and South America that had existed and ended well before the publish sixteen century. According to Mann the current view among scholars is that the Western Hemisphere was #8220;a thriving, stunningly diverse place, a tumult of languages, trade, and culture, a region where tens of millions of people loved and hated and worshipped as people do everywhere#8221; (Mann, 1491, 26-27). According to a 1999 United Nations estimate, the population of the earth in the beginning of the prehistoric sixteenth century was about what a good research, 500 million. Estimates by Dobyns and others indicate that by 1630, between 80 and 100 million Native Americans had been killed by a variety of epidemics including small pox, typhus, and influenza. These numbers suggest that nearly one fifth of the world#8217;s population was killed by disease in the one hundred and fifty years after the arrival of Columbus (Mann, 1491 , 94-96).
According to Mann in 1491 the Inka (or Inca as it is more commonly spelled) was the largest empire on the planet. It was bigger than China, Russia, the Ottoman Empire, and bigger by far than any European state. It extended for more than thirty-two degrees of latitude (the United States has a latitude length of approximately twenty-five degrees of latitude though of course a much wider degree of longitude). The Inka had a goal that was remarkably similar to the Europeans; they want to prehistoric animals #8220;knit the different groups of South America . Publish Research Paper Undergraduate! . . into a single bureaucratic framework under the direct rule of the prehistoric emperor#8221;(Mann, 1491, 66). They wanted to meld together the people#8217;s religion, economics, and arts. At time they were brutal.
They would remove people from their homelands by means of a road system of approximately 25,000 miles, the longest in the world and locate them to live with and work with other people who had also been displaced. They developed a system of accounting that used ropes with knots in quote, a way remarkably similar to the binary mathematics use in today#8217;s computers. Such an extensive and sophisticated government hardly supports the prehistoric theory of the #8220;Nobel Savage#8221; living an essay idyllic life, doing nothing that affected their environment (Mann, 1491 , 64-82). Interestingly, among those people who are reluctant to accept such an prehistoric animals early arrival of richard, Native Americans are Indian activists who do not wish to push the date of arrival of Native Americans further into the past. Particularly in light of the evidence that supports the prehistoric animals notion that large civilizations such as the Incas and Aztecs were not the original inhabitants but had supplanted people that had arrived much earlier. If this were the case, the claim that their land was stolen by European immigrants is considerably weakened since the quote book titles in essays indigenous people at the time of Columbus were not the first to #8220;own#8221; the land, just the people who had most recently stolen the lands from the previous populations in the Americas. According to his website Mann is a journalist and writer. He is animals, a correspondent for The Atlantic Monthly, Science, and Wired . Writing Informative Essay! He was written for animals a wide variety of magazines including: The New York Times Magazine , Forbes ASAP , Smithsonian , and assignment model The Washington Post . He has co-authored four other books.
Mann#8217;s writing tends to focus on #8220;the intersection of science, technology, and commerce.#8221; He is a three time National Magazine Award finalist and animals has received numerous awards from the American Bar Association, the American Institute of Physics, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and the Margaret Sanger Foundation. Mann#8217;s credentials indicate that he is a well qualified writer and does careful research. Mann#8217;s writing has a liberal edge to book it that often seeks to correct common perceptions about the topics he chooses to prehistoric write about: in this case the life of research paper, Native Americans before the arrival of Columbus. 1491 is a well-written, well-organized book. Prehistoric! Mann provides a survey of research since the early 1950s when the #8220;Noble Savage#8221; theory of hunt, Native Americans was first popularized. Although Mann clearly has a position he wants to convey, he provides a fair presentation of prehistoric animals, other positions and explains why he believes the masters thesis #8220;Noble Savage#8221; theory does not account for many discoveries and recent research. He writes in a very readable style without the many subordinate clauses and circumlocutions professional scholars are often given to. A nice feature of the book is the inclusion of animals, maps and pictures located throughout the book instead of placing the assignment maps on the flyleaf and having the pictures grouped together in the middle. Animals! Consequently, the impact of the pictures and maps is greater because they are pertinent to the nearby text. Mann provides ample endnotes both citation and richard masters thesis explanatory notes that add to the authenticity of the text.
The bibliography is comprehensive and lists use of a variety of scholarly journals from such disciplines as anthropology, geography, history and archeology among others. Mann#8217;s writing is convincing. Prehistoric! He provides considerable recently discovered information that contradicts the Noble Savage theory. It is apparent that people have lived throughout the Americas for in england essay a much longer time than the 13,000 years conventionally taught. Although future research and advanced technology will likely reveal new details and correct other errors, it is clear to that the indigenous people existed in much more sophisticated societies and in prehistoric animals, much larger numbers that has been believed. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.
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I was impressionable and prehistoric animals, weak. Above all else, I was confused. I did not understand myself, and I did not realize why I wasn’t happy. Everything always went wrong. I felt my life slipping away into oblivion with no palpable meaning.
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Running Head: How My Life Applies to animals Theories How My . Life Applies to Theories Rebecca Etheridge PSY 202 Joanneta Thomas-Chamber April 28, 2013 Outline I. What was I like as a teenager? A. Experiences B. Quote Book? Things I did II. What was my favorite singer or band? A. Country B. Rock C. Ramp;B D. Country Rap III. What were my educational experiences? A. Prehistoric Animals? Primary B. Middle C. High D. College . 2006 singles , A Teenager in assignment model definition, Love , Daniel Levinson 1021 Words | 4 Pages. The Turning Point of My Life I was in animals, my final year at Rodeo High School. I was only seventeen and the . pressure of richard hunt thesis, knowing the prehistoric animals outcome of post high school results would determine my whole life ahead finally got to me. I snapped out of book in essays, my bewilderment one day, in prehistoric animals, the absence of my parents while they were out on vacation, I went out essay with my friends, hoping to find myself spiritually and prehistoric, mentally. Quote Titles? This was the turning point in my life that would ultimately lead to my destiny.
With an prehistoric animals incomplete. General Educational Development , Graduation , High school 1318 Words | 4 Pages. My Journey through Life Nothing is more important than life , even if it contained darkness or lightness. Publish Research? . Everyone on earth has a special life ; your life is different from others. Life has a lot of good and bad things, a lot of prehistoric, fun and unhappy situations we face during our lives. My mother has always told me, Life is as complicated as you make it. Many people have contributed a positive impact to me. Because of paper, them, I have definitely become what I am today.
Four people have always significantly. Gulf War , Iran–Iraq War , Iraq 1311 Words | 4 Pages. ?THIS IS MY LIFE Carla Wright PSY 102 Adult Development Life Assessment Alison Humphreys 9/24/2013 . 1. Where are you from? Where did you grow up? Where raised you? 2. What was your family like? How many siblings do you have? Were you parents together throughout your childhood? Would you consider your family to animals be family oriented? 3. In England Essay? What things do you remember about animals your childhood?
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MY DAY I want to tell you about my daily routine. Prehistoric Animals? Every day I usually get up at half past 8 in the morning. I make . my bed. I just don’t like when my room is messy. Multiculturalism? Then do some exercises.
Usually I take a shower in the morning. I go to animals the bathroom where I wash my face and masters thesis, brush my teeth. After this I do not feel sleepy at all. I feel full of prehistoric animals, energy and ready for the new day. Then I make breakfast for myself.
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salary on a resume FAQ A relating to prehistoric, your career, job search, pay, salary, resume/ CV, interviewing… etc. On this FAQ A page you can either: Browse the multiculturalism in england, frequently asked questions answers Ask a career or job search related question Comment or ask a question related to an answer that’s posted. Click on any of the following FAQ, for animals the answers: Frequently asked questions Answers- Career: Are the resume tips, cover letter tips the sample resume format you have on your site applicable when applying for a teaching job overseas? Answer: The resume writing tips, cover letter tips sample resume format on our site are general, so they can be used with some modifications to what research, match the animals, job requirements you are applying for. What Rules For Writing A Good Paper! Each cover letter should be tailored for the position you are applying to, regardless of the position or location you are applying to. Coming soon online career coaching. Frequently asked questions- Salary/ Pay Rise: . Question: I am applying for prehistoric animals jobs online that ask for ‘desired salary’.
Is it a good idea to are the rules a good research, indicate what I’d like to make? Answer: It is best to indicate that your salary expectations are negotiable. Try to delay discussing your desired salary or salary requirements until you are offered the job, if possible. Question 3: I have been asked to attend a job interview in a different city., so will need an prehistoric, airline ticket, hotel room for richard hunt masters one night a rental car or taxi. Should I ask them if they expect me to pay for these interview travel expenses or will they pay? Currently I am only animals working part time. Answer: It really depends on the company. Some companies will actually book the flights hotel rental car pay through a company account. Some will ask you to pay, then to submit the in england essay, expenses after your trip in the form of an expense report, then they will reimburse you.
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A pay raise request is usually asked for or requested by prehistoric, setting up a meeting with your immediate manager and by discussing the pay raise request in the meeting. What Rules A Good Research! So unless you were asked for a pay raise request letter, which is rare, you usually don’t need to write a pay raise request letter. Animals! If you need to write a pay raise request letter, follow the general tips outlined in our Pay Raise Tips . Assignment Definition! There is no standard method for a pay raise. Prehistoric Animals! Regarding how much to ask for, that really depends job market conditions, your level of book titles in essays, expertise in your field and prehistoric, also depends on in england essay, how much you are confident you are worth to animals, your employer. If you don’t ask, the boss may simply give you a small pay raise and consider you would be happy with that. It is always best to writing informative essay, ask for more than you are expecting and then negotiate, because you rarely get exactly the pay raise that you ask for. Let me work work with you so you can negotiate the best pay raise salary.
Email me at prehistoric, firstname.lastname@example.org for process an initial obligation free discussion. Ask my boss for a pay rise - Pay Rise Review. Question: Every time I ask my boss for animals a pay rise, he only brings up minor mistakes I have made and ignores my major achievements. Any suggestions? Answer: This is not uncommon sometimes occurs at salary or pay rise reviews. Ask your boss to list to you what will qualify you for rules a good research paper a pay rise next time, what you need to work on prehistoric animals, and what the timeframe is. If he lists these minor mistakes, it would appear that they are important to your boss and you would need to work on what a good paper, them. If he doesn’t list these minor mistakes, you can inquire why he hasn’t. Next time the pay rise come up, bring up the list in prehistoric animals, the meeting go over each item with him/ her. Informative! This would make it harder for prehistoric the boss to refuse the pay rise, if you qualify based on the list.
Salary increase request letter- Frequently asked questions answers: Question 6: I was asked to write a salary increase request letter to justify the salary increase, as I have already accepted several additional responsibilities with my current employer. Can you give me some tips? You probably could have negotiated a higher salary increase if you finalized/ negotiated the informative, salary increase prior to prehistoric, accepting the additional responsibilities. Sounds like your manager may want a salary increase request letter to show to his/ her senior manager or just wants it for writing process informative the record. In your justification, explain the additional value you bring to the company, your achievements with the company so far … etc. We suggest being firm, by animals, using words like “I deserve so so” or I want this higher pay because I have earned it I deserve it” and richard, do not use words like “I’d like” or “I hope” or “I guess”. We also suggest your justification be in bullet points. Question: I have been offered a promotion at prehistoric, my present company to a managers role.
But I have to book titles, relocate to prehistoric, Sydney, Australia, which is an area I don’t know. Richard Masters Thesis! Should I ask for prehistoric relocation pay, time off to find somewhere to live, negotiate pay and anything else I should be asking in informative, terms of moving to a more expensive area? Answer: It really depends on the company. Some companies will offer you paid accommodation for prehistoric animals a number of weeks paid time off to assignment definition, find a suitable place to live. They’ll also pay a certain amount to cover moving your furniture or they will arrange and pay a moving company to do so. We suggest you negotiate to get this assistance. As far as your salary, compare the cost of living in animals, your city with that of richard hunt masters, Sydney ask for an amount to compensate you for the difference.
Obviously you need to negotiate be flexible. How can I write a reference page for animals a resume? Answer: Use a separate paper and title it “references”. Then list the name of your first reference. Below that list his/ her title, then list the company they work at. Then list their contact phone numbers. Repeat this for the next reference….etc.
Usually list three references, if possible. Answer: CV is short for ‘Curriculum Vitae’. A CV or ‘Curriculum Vitae’ is a marketing tool that contains information about you, your knowledge, education, skills and employment details. Publish Research Undergraduate! Your CV must be well presented and show the accomplishments, strengths and achievements relevant to the position you are applying for. See our CV writing tips, CV action verbs cover letter sample format . Question 2 : I have two confirmed job offers. I like company B more, but they are paying considerably less. Do I accept the company B’s offer or ask company B to match the offer of the prehistoric animals, company A? Also, should I try to get more out of multiculturalism in england, company B by telling them that I have another job offer? By the way I am currently unemployed, as I was laid off by my last employer 6 months ago. First, it is animals a good idea to review compare the assignment model, whole salary packages not just the prehistoric, base salaries. If company A’s salary package is also lower than company B’s as you like company B more, you can be upfront with them tell them that you have another job offer, but you prefer company B. You can try to negotiate with them.
Ensure that they don’t get the impression that you are going to go back forth between the two companies, as that can backfire plus you don’t want to multiculturalism in england, burn any bridges. If you are happy with the result, it is best to prehistoric animals, accept offer B. If you are not happy with the result , you can mention to writing, company A that you have another job offer see if you can negotiate with them. This really depends on how much risk you want to take depending on your priorities, as they are already paying more than company B you are not currently employed. It may be safer to prehistoric, accept company A’s offer. Question 5: After getting an offer from another company, my current employer offered me 5% more than the richard thesis, offer I got from the other company. I don’t know what to do. Do I negotiate with the other company or do I accept my current employer’s higher offer? First you should evaluate compare other factors such as career paths, the companies, the prehistoric animals, actual jobs, job security…etc.
Questions that come to mind: If you are worth that much more, why didn’t your current employer pay you accordingly before you got the other offer? So you had to force them to pay you more! How will they treat you after this in the future? You can tell the other company that you have a higher offer from your company BUT it could backfire, as they may think, if they give you more, you may go back to your current employer ask for what are the more… etc. So be very careful if you decide to negotiate further with the other company. Probably the safest option would be to tell the prehistoric animals, other company that you decided to quote, accept their offer (assuming you want to do this), but see if they can improve the offer as your current company has offered you more, but make it clear that you have no intention of staying with your current employer (again assuming you don’t intend to stay with your current employer) make it clear that you won’t continue to go back forth between the two companies. Let me work work with you so you can negotiate the best salary. Email me at email@example.com for an obligation free discussion. Question 8: I have been asked to relocate to animals, a small town as part of a restructure within the company I work at.
The company will pay for all the relocation expenses to multiculturalism, the small town I am happy at this company, but I don’t like the small town life, as I am a city person. My immediate manager knows I don’t really want to relocate to a small town, but it’s not up to animals, him. In England Essay! So can I simply refuse to move or do I tell them either I don’t move or I will resign ? Answer: I would evaluate this based on my personal circumstances such as the animals, position, finances, age what risk I can take or would be willing to take. Also, how easy would it be to quote book, get another similar job in the city. As for if you can simply refuse to move or to simply resign if they insist that you relocate, it depends on the laws of the state or country you live in animals, and on book titles, the company policies.
But if the company needs you to move to prehistoric, the small town if it is easy for them to titles, replace you, then it is probably best to prehistoric, tell them your preference, without refusing to quote titles, relocate, and if they insist, then may be you can relocate while starting to look for animals another job elsewhere. Again it depends on your personal circumstances. Model! A related topic. Question 4: I had several interviews last month two of them went very well they both told me they would contact me within a week. The rest of the prehistoric, interviews were also good. I sent thank you letters to all the companies as I always do. Quote Book In Essays! I felt very confident that i would get an offer from prehistoric one of the companies, so I have taken it easy with the publish research paper undergraduate, job search since then, but no one has contacted me. I have called left messages, but nothing yet.
It has been over a month now, so should I try to animals, contact the in essays, companies again? Some companies take longer to decide. You can always follow up or contact them again. Animals! Regardless, during the job search, it is best not to essay, stop or slow down until you have a job offer. Question 4 : What is your expected salary?
This question is usually asked in job applications at job interviews. How should I answer this question? It is animals best to book in essays, delay answering this question by animals, saying something like “my starting salary requirements/ expectations are negotiable” or “I am sure we’ll agree on a starting salary” The reasons for hunt masters thesis delaying answering this question are: If your expected salary is less than their budget for the position, you may miss out on getting higher salary. If your expected salary is higher than their budget for animals the position, they may eliminate you. So, let the writing informative, employer decide to hire you first, then discuss the starting salary. Animals! At this stage, you will be in a much better position to negotiate a higher salary and to secure the position.
Always negotiate after you are offered the job, but before you accept the offer. We frequently add new FAQ A. Question 1: I really hate cold calling and I just can’t do it, so do you have any hints for me so I don’t miss out on multiculturalism essay, un-advertised jobs? Answer: Cold calling can be discouraging that’s why many don’t like it. It can be very rewarding due to prehistoric, very little competition. In order not to miss out on unadvertised jobs/ hidden job market completely, you should at least network, by letting as many people as you can know that you are looking for a job, even if they are in a different field or industry.
Contact talk to previous employers, associates, customers, suppliers, other parents, neighbors, people in publish research paper undergraduate, clubs you belong to …. etc. Animals! Also check job openings posted on websites of companies that interest you. Assignment Model Definition! Also, check the links on those websites, as they are usually related. See the hidden job market. KMD-Solutions has been featured “Website of the month” at prehistoric, the West Virginia University website, West Virginia, USA.
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Dissertation on Human Resource Management. Effective Strategy for Creating Harmonious Working Relationship among Culturally Diverse Employees. There are various factors that contribute to the rising workplace diversity. Prehistoric? These include increasing numbers of book titles, immigrants, company mergers and joint ventures in different countries, increased engagement of business consultants and temporary employees, international competition and the phenomenon of animals, globalization, which has transformed the world into a global village. Globalization has occurred because of a combination of quote book titles, factors such as improved infrastructure, advancements in technology. Prehistoric Animals? Infrastructure and quote book in essays technology have not only provided cheaper means of prehistoric animals, communication and travel, but have revolutionized the speed at which individuals and businesses communicate with each other. Domestic companies are also spreading their operations to assignment model, new territories across the globe in search of new markets or outsourcing some aspects of their production process.
Management of animals, employee cultural diversity, through the integration of suitable strategies plays a key role in improving the competitive advantage of the multiculturalism in england business, especially on prehistoric the global platform. Globalization calls for rules paper specific approaches that promote harmonious working relationships within increasingly culturally diverse workplaces. Hansen (2002) observes that workplace diversity is critical to the existence of businesses and identifying key strategies to ensure harmonious working relationships among culturally diverse employees is integral to the survival of any business. Prehistoric? Diversity in this case means the differences between individuals based on their culture, which influences their perceptions, values and beliefs. There is increased pressure on human resource departments to integrate culturally diverse employees, while at undergraduate the same time maintaining high levels of motivation among the divergent groups. The main issue in a culturally diverse workforce is creating synergy, teamwork and one cohesive culture made up of the various cultural groups within the workplace (Hansen, 2002). A key aspect of creating a cohesive workplace culture is how individual employees perceive that they are receiving fair and equal treatment. Identifying employee perception of fairness begins by evaluating current employee benefits and assessing specific suggestions that are appealing to a diverse workforce. Identifying such strategies is critical as it plays a role in employee retention output and overall success of prehistoric, a business. Dissatisfied employees who feel they are not being treated fairly especially pertaining to publish undergraduate, their culture, will have low levels of motivation and their output may not meaningfully impact the overall successful performance of the business. This paper will look at various options that are available in diversity management in order to identify the most suitable and prehistoric animals effective strategy in managing a culturally diverse workforce in a manner the will create cohesiveness and harmony, increase employee satisfaction and maximize their output.
There are various traditional approaches that corporations adopt in order to motivate their culturally diverse workforce. These are such as benefit plans insurance and hunt masters retirement programs. However, with cultural diversity expanding more than before, traditional approaches are no longer sufficient in promoting harmony in a culturally diverse workforce. Prehistoric? There is need for groundbreaking strategies that will not only ensure that each employee feels valued at the workplace, but will create employee loyalty to the company and motivate them to increase their output. These strategies should have the ability to retain employees; companies loose their experienced employees to corporations that have better strategies in richard thesis, handling cultural diversity and ensuring employee satisfaction. To accommodate the various needs of culturally diverse employees, companies may choose to offer them benefits that are flexible according to the specific needs of individual employees. A company may come up with a range of offers which employees can pick from, depending on how best they suit their needs.
This strategy has the advantage of minimizing wastage, as benefits will not be wasted on the employees who do not need. Giving employees benefits that they do not need has no additional value to the company as the prehistoric animals benefits will have no motivational effect (Bohlander Snell, 2007). Traditionally, employees are presented with a benefits package that consists of vacation, health insurance and sick leave. This benefits package also ensures that the employees have minimum level coverage against unexpected financial hardships. In this strategy, employees are offered a predetermined number of credits, which they may use to purchase additional benefits that they deem suitable to their needs. However, this strategy bears a disadvantage to the corporation in the case of poor selection of employees. In this case, the company would bear the richard hunt masters thesis burden of prehistoric, employees who have many financial costs. In addition, employees may select high cost benefits which are of use to them, but ultimately present a financial burden to the corporation. Such complexities must be analyzed by essay the company before settling on a particular approach. Prehistoric Animals? The strategy that is selected should be beneficial to the company as well as to are the rules for writing research paper, the employees.
The strategy should be comprehensive enough that it addresses most, if not all issues pertaining to cultural diversity, and at the same time protects the interests of the company and overall profitability. The overall diversity management strategy should give the company a competitive edge on the global scale and boost its ability to recruit and retain employees, in addition to attaining the ability to adjust to the evolving and increasingly culturally diverse workforce. There are many examples of strategies that companies have used in the past, to prehistoric, manage a culturally diverse workforce, which have proved to be redundant, if not ultimately disastrous in terms of in england essay, maintaining harmonious working relationship with employees and overall company performance. Prehistoric Animals? A good illustration of this is when a leading insurance company in California US, gave its leading salespersons tickets to a Christmas event being held in a local church. This decision proved to be disastrous as more than a third of the company’s sales people were Jewish. Such as strategy, though aimed at rewarding hardworking employees, was not culturally sensitive, which lead to boycotts and resignations of model definition, employees and within six months, this mistake had cost the company more than one million dollars (Tahmincioglu, 2004). The scenario demonstrates the importance of animals, careful evaluation before deciding on a specific strategy that creates harmony in a culturally diverse workforce. The selected benefits and informative approaches should match the needs of the various cultures represented in the workforce as the animals case scenario illustrates how catastrophic it would be for the company in the event of a mismatch.
In a bid to arrive at the most suitable and comprehensive strategy for dealing with cultural diversity at the workforce, the paper will look at selected specific groups that should be targeted to process essay, boost their motivation and ensure that they experience fair treatment in their specific workstations. Animals? One target group that forms part of a culturally diverse workforce is the immigrant workforce. Hammers (2003) observes that, one way of enhancing the working experience of immigrant employees, especially those whom English is a second language, is by developing their language and communicative skills through English as a second language (ESL) classes. Additionally companies may consider readjusting their training structure for new employees in a way that mirrors how individuals from publish, different cultures learn. This is particularly important as studies have revealed that people from different cultures and backgrounds have different ways of acquiring knowledge, and if this factor is not integrated in the new-employee training manuals, then the immigrants will not gain what was intended, and their work experience and output may become redundant. Companies should consider that conventional approaches to employee training may not be suitable for the a workforce that is culturally diverse, and the knowledge and information deemed as crucial for the traditional employee may not be so for immigrant workers. In addition, the prehistoric training of new-employees should include topics that educate the workforce about the model definition specific cultures, particularly those that to which the prehistoric animals new employees belong. Additional presentations should be prepared for the existing workforce, which encourage empathy, understanding and tolerance of all cultural groups within the workforce.
The training should aim at writing informative essay ensuring that all employees have cultural competence and prehistoric are able to relate with colleagues from other cultures, with a sufficient amount of respect and empathy. Being culturally competent will ensure that employees understand how to publish research paper, communicate with individuals from different cultures, as some cultures are regarded as high context cultures while others are low context cultures. Having this knowledge is especially critical as it addresses how people from different cultures communicate, and how their way of communication is bound to prehistoric animals, influence the communicative process within the workplace. Individuals from high context cultures are often misunderstood by those from low context cultures. Low-context culture individuals perceive their counterparts from high context cultures as ambiguous, deceitful, convoluted and indirect. However, people from high context culture appear to communicate indirectly as their culture lays greater emphasis on their ability to retain cohesiveness with others and hunt not say anything that may be deemed as offensive or upsetting to the other party.
In this context, high context culture will not say anything that appears offensive, making low context colleagues perceive their indirectness as deceit. On their part, high context employees perceive their low context colleagues as insensitive as they tend to prehistoric, communicate more directly. This may aggravate employee relationships when some individual feel that their colleagues are not treating them fairly or they are being insensitive to informative, their feelings. Prehistoric Animals? Training in in england, cultural competence will ensure that the workforce has the basic idea of how individuals from different cultures perceive situations and their ways of communicating and acquiring meaning from communication. Prehistoric Animals? This will ultimately lead to increased harmony, cohesiveness and employee satisfaction at the work place. The paper will also look at strategies that multinational corporations operating in various parts of the world use to accommodate the writing process essay culture of the local workforce, and how to integrate it with the wider operation of the whole company. Animals? When companies venture into new territories to expand their businesses in the spirit of globalization, they encounter diverse cultures and cultural practices that may not be particularly suited to the overall operational model of the business. However, these cultural aspects must be accommodated and integrated into company employee-cohesion strategy if it hopes to make any meaningful impact and realize its goals within that particular cultural setting. Aspects of culture that multinationals are faced with include employee work ethics based on culture, religion, among other factors.
The psychological definition of prejudice is, attitudes that have value content and weight that are not based on any practical reality or whose objective reality has not been examined (Gilbert Ivancevich, 2001). The characteristics of prejudice are usually negative feelings and actions that are stigmatizing towards others. Ethnic prejudices are characterized by the negative perceptions and attitudes that individuals or groups harbor against paper individuals or groups of a different ethnicity or group. Furthermore, it is important that prejudices not only exist within the animals attitudes of people but are also institutional such as in richard masters thesis, laws, literature or school syllabuses. Animals? They also exist at the social level such as social discussions.
There are also many prejudices that are present in procedures for categorizing people and social groups, and even act as rational understanding for dividing and rejecting specific groups. Bruner (2003), the image of how we frame about people is are the rules a good research paper, connected to the social power they may posses. Differences in social positions, power and wealth are significant factors that influence the way in prehistoric, which people perceive others. Consequently, prejudices are not the casual inventions of people, but are directly linked to prevailing social structures, which are intervened socially in social discussion or institution level through the media and the education system (Govaris 2004). Robertson, Kulik and Pepper (2003) state that there are a number of approaches that a company can use in establishing a diversity program, and book it is not likely for there to prehistoric, be an exclusive way that is guaranteed to be the most successful. They further observe that the likelihood of such a success is dependent on situational dynamics such as the strategies of the organization, environment, the people as well as organizational culture. Organizations in this case, range from monolithic kind, meaning the number of minority employees is relatively low (Cox, 1991). Cox goes on to observe that in multiculturalism, such a case, efforts towards diversifying the workplace are likely to be met with hostility and resistance. The multicultural kinds are organizations where employees from animals, minority groups work in all levels of the enterprise. In this case, diversity operates as a principle, which is incorporated in the value system and strategies of the corporate culture.
In such organizations, diversity programs are not met with resistance since the climate is already diverse, (Richard, 2000). Furthermore, Elsass and Graves (1997) note that the acceptance of diversity of programs by the employees also depend on how the organization is performing at the time. Assignment Model? Firms that are downsizing will have their attempts to introduce diversity programs met with considerable hostility, while those, which are growing and expanding will experience minimal hostility against new diversity programs. Richardson (2000) observes that being aware of the situation is prehistoric, crucial in multiculturalism essay, an organization’s bid to implement a diversity program, since situational factors are determinant of how a diversity program will be received by prehistoric the employees. Zahavy and Erez (2002) are of the opinion that the success of a diversity program depends on the goals that the company has set when undertaking such a measure. In addition, the goals should be constantly reviewed, based on hunt masters thesis the feedback that is received on prehistoric the performance of such objectives.
According to Locke and Latham, (1990), the hunt masters thesis goal setting theory is based on the notion that precise goals that are both tasking and acceptable stimulate performance on a range of duties than goals, which are easy, ambiguous and unreal. In this context, goals and objectives are referent to what the diversity program intends to accomplish. Prehistoric Animals? The diversity program should also clearly distinguish goals from quotas or proportions since they are not similar and will impact the diversity program in different ways. Increasing the number of culturally diverse employees may be one of the quote book goals, but using quotas when giving promotions or hiring new employees may possibly be perceived as reverse discrimination (Zahavy Erez, 2002). Therefore, when an organization is preparing a diversity program, goals other than proportions or quotas should be considered. Such goals may include mentoring of employees from minority groups, improving the relationship with employees from minority groups, increasing cross-cultural knowledge and cultural competence of employees within the organization (Richard, 2002).
These goals may be complemented with specific objects such as increasing the numbers of women and other minority employees being hired as well as those receiving promotions. Zahavy and Erez (2002) suggest that when developing a diversity program, an organization should engage legal counsel to makes sure that the objectives and the approaches proposed are in line with employment laws as well as ethical standards. The goals should not only be specific in nature, but also realistic. Prehistoric Animals? This should be ascertained by thorough examination of the prevailing strategies in use, which should then be transformed into the definite objectives that will subsequently be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the program. In order to optimize the benefits of setting specific goals for the diversity program, it is necessary that the organization engage in evaluation procedures at specific stages. The progress and impact of such a program must be accessed and the obtained feedback integrated in the ensuing implementation process.
Feedback in this case is multiculturalism in england essay, very crucial as it provides insight on how well the animals goals of the diversity program are being met and factors that need to for writing, be changed to streamline the process. Bowen and Blackmon (2003) observe that goals should give priority to prehistoric animals, the what needs to be accomplished, enhance creation of efficient strategies as well as stimulate the efforts need in attaining the goals. Goals should be specific enough for the participants because more benefits are associated with having specific goals and specific procedures for attaining them. Hoffman (2003) adds that ambiguous goals such as those that seemingly encompass all the definition objectives, detracts attention and does not stimulate action from the participants. In this case, Hoffman emphasizes that; an animals, organization should break down its overall objective for richard thesis diversity management, into specific goals that are comprehensible and applicable by the workforce. According to Howard, Hoffman and prehistoric animals Wintenberg (2003) add that framing of a diversity program has a great influence on its overall success. This is thesis, based on psychological research that has proven that psychological framing of messages is instrumental in how they are perceived and interpreted by the recipients. In this case, Zahavy and Erez (2002) state that well framed diversity programs are not perceived as threats that need to be overcome, but rather as opportunities or challenges.
There are a number of frames that are can be used in strategies, which include, assimilation/learning approach which views diversity as a tool for reorganizing the organization’s basic tasks and procedures. Another frame proposed by Ely and Thomas (2001) is the access and legitimacy view, which approaches diversity programs as a strategy that will give the prehistoric organization legitimacy in the market. This is informative, accomplished by hiring employees who have fundamental similarities with the targeted clientele. The other frame is the discrimination versus fairness that views diversity programs as a means through which the organization can get rid of discrimination and provide equal opportunities to its employees. Ely and Thomas (2003) note that the above three framing process will be successful to prehistoric, some degree. Quote In Essays? However, they emphasize that the framing method, which is most likely to animals, motivate employees, to be actively involved and richard committed to the realization of the goals of the diversity program, is integration and learning. This is because it is based on the underlying principle that motivates the workforce for long-term success of the animals program. Management also plays an important role. Research indicates that diversity programs which received enthusiastic endorsement and support from the top levels of management were the most successful (Bowen and Blackmon, 2003).
When employees perceive that the are the for writing management is deeply committed to the diversity program, then they are more likely to animals, emulate them. Additionally, putting the strategy into practice, by having a culturally diverse management team is also a great motivating factor for a successful diversity program. Adding to the framing of diversity programs strategy, Kravitz and quote Klineberg (2002) state that when creating affirmative actions aimed at increasing the number of women and other minorities in the workforce, it is important to put into animals, consideration a number of multiculturalism, important factors. Mostly, affirmative action may have the negative effect of stigmatizing the beneficiary, instead of affirming them. Prehistoric Animals? This is because affirmative actions is construed as supporting individuals based on either gender or their minority status and not on their competence to perform their duties, leading to a misconception that they are incompetent, (Heilman Stathatos, 2007). Social identity theory is another theory relevant to the formulation of diversity programs (Tajfel Turner, 1986). This theory applies to diversity programs and management because when the workforce identifies with the organization, the chances for writing process informative essay the success of the diversity program are much higher.
The premise of this theory is that individuals desire to perceive themselves in the most positive light, and one way of doing so is animals, being identified with individuals who are like themselves. In the same way, groups are likely to gravitate towards insiders and quote book titles outsiders, where outsiders are usually considered negatively. Prehistoric? When this happens at publish research paper undergraduate the workplace, diversity strategies are less likely to be successful. When such in-groupings occur, workmates become prejudiced against each other, stereotypes prevail triggering conflicts (Bowen and Blackmon, 2003). Lefkowitz (1994) observes that there are various factors that exist within the working environment that will cause the employees to gravitate towards those who are most similar to them. A research conducted by Harrison and Bell, (1998) suggests that individual employees need to be encouraged to know themselves, in order to prehistoric, counteract the are the for writing research paper tendency of workmates to associate themselves with only those they perceive to be like them.
This requires a lot of time, and various strategies. Brickson (2000) in his study, established that having a reward structure within the organization is likely to stimulate employees to collaborate and cooperate but there is need for specific goals that are geared towards enhancing teamwork and forming of mutual relationships by the workforce. Specifically, when the reward being giving makes it a requirement for the employees to cooperate or collaborate with each other, then the institution as well as the teams become precedent as opposed to the individual differences that separate the workforce. In the prehistoric same way, Chatman, Polzer and Barsade (1998) add that tasks that are more individually based and rewards for such will only in england, motivate the workers to become more individualistic and will not encourage teamwork and cooperation. Prehistoric Animals? This will result to the ineffectiveness of the publish research paper undergraduate diversity programs. Enhancing a culture of prehistoric animals, cooperation within the book organization will require management to prehistoric, take a leadership position that emphasizes on common good and basing some performance of tasks on overall group performance and not on process essay individuals and rewarding such group achievements often (Brickson 2003). Brickson (2003) observes that the success of prehistoric animals, a diversity program largely depends on how well it is managed.
Various steps are key to having a successful diversity management plan. Definition? According to Lyness (2006), diversity management includes enhancing the commitment of senior management to prehistoric animals, the diversity program, as well as making the answerable to publish paper, issues arising in its implementation and overall success. Lyness is prehistoric, also of the opinion that human resources should not be charged with managing the multiculturalism in england diversity program but the responsibility should be placed upon line management. Management at all levels should also be held accountable for the program. Page (2007) notes that that diversity management should constitute a council made up of all line management who are charged with ensuring that the diversity program is well instituted and prehistoric animals that any arising issues are amicably addressed. Diversity, within the context of employee management, means all the considerable differences that exist between people, and include the perceptions of differences, which need to be put under consideration in specific circumstances. In most cases, the most significant differences are usually those, which are not very obvious, such as belief and are the for writing research paper value systems and thought processes.
Scott (2007) cites some basic sources of diversity that impact businesses in one way or another to be, age, ethnicity, culture, gender, religion, language, economic status, regional culture, sexual orientation, working experience, personality, learning style, ideology, e.t..c. Diversity management is therefore a continuous process that incorporates the animals recognition of differences within the workforce, within all fundament functions of the business, communication and services with the intention of creating a harmonious, fair, inclusive and effective organization. Quote In Essays? Diversity management encourages participation, inclusion, and the full contribution of all members of start towards the goals and objectives of the organization. Diversity also cultivates a good reputation for the organization among various groups in the society and the global market (Scott 2007). Diversity and diversity management at the workplace has undergone major revolution in prehistoric, the last 30 years in are the a good research, both UK and major economies on the globe. This is particularly so because of increased immigration, ease in transport as well as the emergence of globalization and the global market. Especially in the early seventies to the mid nineties, there have been various laws, which have been instituted against prehistoric sexual and racial discrimination (West Frances, 2007). In addition, extensive legislation has been formulated that shields that emphasize on equal opportunities for all, human rights, health and in england safety at the workplace as well as the rights that protect the disabled. These laws made it imperative for prehistoric animals businesses and institutions to comply in publish, order to mitigate the risks of expensive penalties, legal action, injuries, reduced motivation and damage to the organizations reputation among other factors (Scott, 2007). This factor have continued to motivate businesses to have comprehensive and animals effective diversity programs to the present date.
Managers are held responsible to ensure tolerance and writing process informative essay fairness at the workplace, which according to West and Frances (2007), is achieved through staff training, control systems and prehistoric other compliance policies. In the past decade, the globalized economy has created a marked increase in workforce diversity, and more competition for assignment model experienced and talented employee (Ely Thomas, 2001). Additionally, the expectations of employees regarding the prehistoric balance in work and life, has risen. Workers have also come to expect more flexibility, increased opportunities both to showcase their talents and what paper benefit for their efforts, recognition and respect (HR Focus, 2008).. In this respect, businesses have found it of utmost importance to reorganize their business model to focus on competitiveness and benefits that will ensure that they are in prehistoric, compliance of employment laws and regulations. This in turn reduces the business risks as well as responding to the changes in the economy and society, thereby ensuring overall business viability and success. Hostager and De Meuse (2003) observe that managers are charged with the responsibility of enhancing workforce diversity and its advantages to create social cohesiveness and inclusiveness, which are significant elements that determine the effectiveness and what rules for writing a good research success of the prehistoric animals organization. According to West and Frances (2007), some businesses manage issues arising from diversity as they occur, or will simply ignore them. However, as Childers (2005) has proved that, only businesses and quote in essays organizations that have cultural diversity management strategies, which are ultimately successful and effective and are likely to remain competitive over a long period. Grimes (2008) adds that, the key to coming up with a good strategy for prehistoric managing cultural diversity is understanding, what factors that motivate and satisfy the employees regardless of their backgrounds. One of the most composite elements of research undergraduate, diversity is cultural background that plays a big role in employee expectations, motivation and overall satisfaction (West and Frances 2007).
Age, education, gender, mental and prehistoric physical ability are some other diversity factors that greatly impact the working environment. Presence of people from different nationalities, cultures and social backgrounds makes the current state of workplaces very complex and delicate. Gilbert and Ivancevich (2000) state that human beings are more alike than they are different, and perceived differences are rooted in upbringing, and acquired viewpoints about the world and the manner in multiculturalism in england, which things are done. Childers (2005) adds that the most significant of these differences are those that are based in our belief systems, our values and our attitudes. In this case, the management of prehistoric animals, diversity should be connected to the both the performance of the publish research undergraduate organization as well as that of the individual.
This is based on the notion that performance is largely dependent on the quality of ones thinking, which is based on the quality of information that an individual has (Bowen and Blackmon, 2003) Without the animals right kind of information, especially that, which concerns others, misperceptions and miscommunication will be inevitable. Having the knowledge about quote titles in essays differences, and prehistoric animals how they are likely to impact relationships, actions and quote in essays decisions within the composite diverse working environment enables managers and the business at large to enhance performance at the individual and team levels (HR Focus, 2008). Lyness (2006) states that a sound diversity management strategy makes it imperative for businesses to prehistoric, gain new knowledge, information and skills that are geared towards the multiculturalism in england essay development of cultural competence. Managing people who are from diverse cultural backgrounds calls for a combined knowledge and skills, which can be acquired, and that will lead to the acquisition of prehistoric, cultural knowledge and competence. According to Brickson (2003), cultural competence is awareness, practices, knowledge, skills and procedures that are required in for book titles in essays the appropriated and efficient functioning within situations and circumstances that are generally culturally diverse and interaction of individuals coming from animals, diverse cultures. Assignment Definition? In order to so, it is paramount to prehistoric, have a comprehensive understanding of what culture is as well as the meaning of cultural diversity (Lynes, 2006). It is also of great importance, when seeking to become culturally competent, to have frameworks and assignment definition concepts that are comprehensive enough to facilitate the prehistoric ability to manage and analyze culture and multiculturalism in england cultural diversity in ways that are practical and applicable. According to prehistoric, HR Focus, (2008) groups desire to assignment model, work harmoniously and with cooperation without disagreements and conflicts. It is common practice for organizations to ignore discussion of prehistoric animals, differences, which exist between members of a group.
This is because there are many complex issues that are associated with diversity. Cultural competence involves having the knowledge that people may be inherently different, but these differences should not inhibit the good performance (Zahavy Erez, 2002). A sound diversity management plan therefore involves the assessment and discussion of these differences, how they impact working relationships and how they should be addressed (Brickson, 2003). West and Frances (2007)observe that there are various challenges that related to cultural diversity and which business, both macro and micro have to contend with. i.Complying with regulations on safety, equal opportunities and anti discrimination.
ii.Responding to model definition, a increased diversity in the labor market. iii.Competing for the talent available in the labor force. iv.Managing innovation and knowledge in the workplace. v.Sustainable relationships with the community. vi.Serving a market that is culturally diverse, both locally and internationally. vii.Meeting the needs and expectations of the workforce. viii.Meeting all ethical standards and social responsibility. ix.Remaining competitive in culturally diverse global market. Each of the above elements bears great significance of the prehistoric performance and viability of a business. According to Watson (2002) the top 100 companies in diversity management, based on equal pay and writing opportunities, motivation and of employees and had a 10.7% increase on prehistoric animals returns on hunt investment.
This has motivated many global companies to be actively engaged in prehistoric, competing for a position in the best companies in terms of diversity management (Diversity Inc, 2009). Richard Hunt? There is sufficient evidence that proves that companies benefit when they incorporate diversity in their operations, planning and decision-making. Lynes (2007)observes that some of this benefits can be observed and measured within the short term. These include reduction of employee complaints and increase in output of employee. However, as (Zahavy Erez, 2002). adds, the major and most significant benefits are those that are ingrained into the organizations culture and have long term effects. This will ensure sustainable cohesion, inclusion and overall productivity. Undertaking a management approach, that enhances on prehistoric compliance, organization and market growth factors into everyday business operations will present immense benefits, reduce costs and increase profitability, (Rosenfeld, Landis Dalsky, 2003) add that it is imperative that, while undertaking diversity program implementation, business and organizations specific issues should be considered, as well as specific aims and objectives. In order to do so, the case for action should be analyzed in detail. Sacco and Schmitt (2003).notes that, the pertinent issues related to the organization and business case strategy include: i.Development of the organization. ii.Management of knowledge and skills.
v.Development of products and services. Rosenfeld, Landis and Dalsky, (2003) further observes that the business case for cultural diversity management is based on the proven fact that businesses gain competitive advantage whey they have sound diversity management strategies and polices. This is primarily because sustainable competitive edge is obtained from resources, which includes human resources, which are not easily replicable but go a long way into adding value to publish research, products and services. This facilitates the growth and development of the organization in a number of ways, which Sacco and Schmitt (2003) cites as: enhanced team and management functions. better long term strategies and animals planning, which factor in demographic trends.
Better response and flexibility to changing markets. Better mechanisms for resolving employee conflicts and research improved decision making. Improved chances of attracting better talent and employee retention. In terms of talent attraction and retention, Richard (2000) notes that organizations that have sound strategies in diversity management, and animals that address the issues of what are the a good research paper, minority employees greatly cut down on employee turnover, which saves them money, retains skills and animals boosts the reputation of the hunt masters organization within the global market. Businesses that are known to animals, be fair, give equal opportunities to their employees and have respect for all minority groups will be greatly preferred by all potential employees. Multiculturalism In England Essay? Such organizations will always attract the best talent in the industry.
In addition, a good working environment that is not discriminative increases labor turnover as well as reducing employee absenteeism. Richard (2000) adds that a sound diversity management program reduces employee groupings in terms of insiders and outsiders, stimulates motivation, creates flexibility and enhances the productivity of prehistoric animals, employees. West and Frances (2007) goes on to say that when teams and team leaders are increasingly aware of cultural factors that exist within teams, then members will be better positioned to make meaningful contributions to the team. There is what are the rules for writing a good research paper, also reduction of the prehistoric negative influence and teams are able to integrate for better outcomes. Specifically pertaining to richard hunt masters, global businesses, Wintenberg (2003) notes that linguistic diversity within the workforce will enable the organization to communicate easily with an international market. The business will also have more choices when considering international markets because they have become more culturally competent (Scott, 2007). Moreover, the organization will be more effective when recruiting and retaining of qualified personnel from oversees. Wintenberg (2003) adds that the company will also have more flexibility when going into the global market, whether through merging, joint ventures, franchising, acquisitions or exportation. Businesses will also be able to easily adopt to expatriate professionals and technicians. Ely and Thomas (2003) add that a company will be less likely to fail in their global ventures and assignments.
According to Sacco and animals Schmitt (2003), sustainable competitive edge is gained from the knowledge and skills among the employees, which other competitors cannot be able to duplicate or obtain from the assignment model labor market. Animals? In this sense, knowledge is considered diverse and businesses should s t rive to undergraduate, create a knowledge based culture within its operation (Sinclair 2000) notes that the management of animals, knowledge within an enterprise involves recognizing, formulating, ongoing expansion and improvement and sharing of the writing informative essay knowledge, insights and experiences of the animals organizations members. An organization that is knowledge based will find new and more effectives means of knowledge sharing among the employees to ensure that the its knowledge has strategic value (HR Focus, 2007). In this sense, global businesses have come to understand that diversity in research paper, cognition and information gives them competitive advantage within the global market. According to Kravitz and Klineberg (2002) training, professional development and learning enhance to the above processes.
A culturally diverse environment presents numerous learning and growth opportunities to all employees. The employees have the opportunities to prehistoric animals, share their knowledge as well as their diverse experiences. By facilitating ongoing learning opportunities for personal or professional development makes the workforce more loyal and more willing to share their knowledge and experiences with their colleagues. HR Focus (2007) adds that when the diverse backgrounds of the employees are acknowledged, then their unique abilities and knowledge will be brought in performing some specific tasks or solving specific problems. Cultural diversity and competence training is also key in the management of a culturally diverse workforce and enhances the knowledge base of the business (Grimes, 2002). Training in what are the rules research paper, cross cultural issues enhances how employees relate with each other and therefore boosts effectiveness of teams. Prehistoric? Cross-cultural training also enhances customer service, as well as improving customer relationships. Cross cultural training of utmost importance as recent studies indicate that culturally different individuals perceive circumstances and situations differently as well as having very different ways of learning (Thalheimer, 2009). Grimes (2002) has identified a number factors that should be considered when creating a diversity programs strategy or program. These factors include pertinent questions that should be asked before deciding on the most suitable approach a particular company’s diversity program.
These questions are: i.What are the key aspects of cultural diversity among employees that need to be incorporated when making business plans and delivering services? ii.What are the are the rules a good paper factors related to the cultural diversity of the workforce influence planning, assigning duties and delivery of products and services. iii.What are the conflicts and misunderstandings that occur among the employees that are related to language or cultural differences? iv.How does cultural diversity impact performance of teams and management within the business. v.Does the prevailing working atmosphere proved an atmosphere that encourages individuals to speak up about issues of cultural diversity.
vi.What are the key skills that team leaders and managers should posses to manage and work with cultural diversity. vii.What is the current diversity management scenario within the company? Kravitz and Klineberg (2002) points out that, for an enterprise to develop a business case geared toward management of diversity, some crucial factors that impact business operations should be identified. The strategy should also determine the animals specific benefits, which will be accrued from investing time and other resources into a sound cultural diversity program. Communicating across cultures. Cultural differences affect how individuals communicate across cultures (Hostager De Meuse, 2003). In most cases of cross-cultural communication, information is process informative, often misconceived and misinterpreted due to the fundamental differences perceiving things. Childers (2005) adds that elements of animals, cross cultural communication are fundamental when formulating a diversity program. The strategy should factor in key issues such as how cross-cultural communication affects team dynamics, resolution of conflicts, cooperation, innovativeness and other factors in the business.
In order to publish undergraduate, be fully cultural competent, it is important for animals the workforce to have effective skills that will enable them to communicate across cultures effectively. Book? This calls for a comprehensive understanding of culture, and the role it plays in people’s perceptions, attitudes, values and beliefs (Hostager De Meuse, 2003) O’ Sullivan (1994) defines culture as a system of shared beliefs and values shared among members of a particular group. Hosfede (1984) adds that culture is prehistoric, a collective mind programming that differentiates members of one group from another. Hall (1989) added that communication is a form of culture and that culture is communication. Quote? He went on to say that meaningful interaction would not be possible other than through culture, as the medium of communication. According to Schein (1985), culture is prehistoric animals, a pattern of unconsciously held automatic assumptions that are often taken for granted. Hostager and De Meuse (2003) observes that there are various levels at which culture operates.
This include National, regional, occupational, organizational and team levels of book titles in essays, culture. He goes on to point out several areas at which culture functions on the personal level. These include upbringing, ideology and prehistoric animals personality. West and Frances (2007) points out that, to understand and compare cultures, there is need to generalize, but at publish undergraduate the same time clarify the difference between stereotyping and generalizing. Grouping of factors in logical categories that are coherent is what generalizing pertains.
Brickson (2003) notes that it is not possible to isolate all factors that are at play within interactions of prehistoric animals, culturally diverse individuals or groups. Essay? When observing various cultures, it is possible to generalize based on experience or knowledge. Some generalizations include: i.Western cultures are individualistic. ii.Asian cultures value politeness and prehistoric animals discretions. Stereotyping, on publish paper the hand, is taking such generalizations and applying them to prehistoric, groups of people, without considering the inherent individual differences. This means that everyone within such a group has been stereotyped.
Cornes, (1998) notes that when thinking about workforce diversity, generalizations may occur at the initial stages, but there should be openness and modification of what are the paper, these perceptions and generalizations as we gain more knowledge and information regarding the cultures we are dealing with. Prehistoric? In addition, stereotypical views and opinions must be constantly challenged for the effective management of a culturally diverse workforce. It is publish undergraduate, of great importance for diversity management strategies to understand the demographic factors of the team or workforce to be attuned to trends and changes in population and its cultural composition Wintenberg (2003) According to HR Focus (2008), there are four basic factors that underlie cross cultural communication. Prehistoric? Verbal behavior is the first factor and entails how individuals say and process essay the way in animals, which it is said. Here, tone, volume, rate and accents are involved. The second factor is non-verbal behavior, which entails what is said without speech or talking. Non-verbal communicative behavior consists of what rules a good research, body language, e.g. body movements and eye contact. …. adds that there is also object language that involves ornamentation, dress codes, and the environment within which the prehistoric communication is being carried out such as the design of an office and the decor. The third element in cross cultural communication involve communication style. This is the preferred way of self expression and includes assumptions held regarding how to interact and communicate with others, and how we choose to convey what we wish to communicate.
The fourth factor is what we believe to be right. This is largely influenced by prejudices, values and writing informative essay attitudes. Of all the prehistoric three elements of publish research, cross-cultural communication, this is regarded as composite and involves ingrained feelings and beliefs regarding personal identity. This element also influences how we view the prehistoric word, perceive and make judgment of others. In this chapter, the purpose of the study and the methods used to conduct the research will be addressed. It will also discuss the population and specific sample that was studied and how the data was acquired. The chapter will finally discuss the procedures used to analyzed archival data used for the study. A fundamental question that has guided past researches in cultural diversity at the workplace is whether it enables corporations to perform better and realize more growth and profitability. The studies had have established that indeed, the role of culturally diversity at the workplace is important and in england essay does enable companies to become more competitive, both domestically and at the international platform. Prehistoric? This is primarily so, especially for research paper multinationals, because it gives them an international and inclusive appearance, making its activities and animals products more desirable and acceptable to an international market. It has also been established that cultural diversity in a company is of great value because it demonstrates that the company’s employment policies is in line with international standards and offers equal opportunities to all regardless of cultural, racial or religious background.
Such policies give the clientele confidence in the company, and with prevailing awareness by consumers regarding ethical standards of companies where they procure their goods or services, the company stands to benefit from cultural diversity in its workforce. Initially, cultural diversity only began as an attempt to meet legal and government requirements but has eventually come to be recognized as a strategic precedence that can position a company more competitively on the global market. Companies are increasingly dedicating a lot of quote book titles, time and resources in training on diversity, creating benefits program for prehistoric animals a culturally diverse workforce, and other such plans, all geared towards increasing and fortify cultural diversity within the workforce (Konrad, 2003). Corporations have come to appreciate the importance of informative essay, diversity and consider it as a business imperative. Demographic shifts within the prehistoric labor market, both domestically and process informative essay internationally, particularly the rapid increase of minority labor over prehistoric animals, the last decade has affected companies and businesses in various ways. Diversity at the workplace is driven by three distinct factors, which are. i.Competition for the best employees: This drives companies to reach out to the diverse labor pool in search for the best talents suited for the organizations goals. ii.Globalization: Having a diversified workforce on the global platform is good business strategy as it enables the company handle effectively a diverse customer base.
This implies that the diversified workforce will ultimately increase the market share of the company. iii.Increased innovation and creativity: This implies that the quote book in essays diversified workforce have more innovative and creative resources that are availed by the diversified demographics. The culturally diverse workforce has better group problem resolution ultimately leading to a competitive environment within the organization. With this in animals, mind, the definition current research aims at exploring, evaluating and ultimately coming up with a suitably comprehensive strategy that will enable companies maintain optimum levels of employee harmony, cohesion and motivation. The study will do so by using qualitative research to gather, evaluate and draw conclusions. The research design used for this study will be in the form of: i.Extensive literature review. This study aimed at identifying key strategies that will enhance harmonious working relationships among culturally diverse employees. In so doing, it is imperative that the study establishes key gaps and problems that inhibit harmonious working relationships among employees who are culturally diverse.
The primary source for this information was gathered from the human resource departments of prehistoric animals, seven multinational companies. The information was obtained by accessing the company websites and other relevant reports. Writing Process Informative Essay? Looking at the recent new-employee training manuals enabled the research to identify the animals latest training trends and the elements that received more emphasis in the training. The elements that were most emphasized in training by all seven companies reflected the areas that were deemed critical in enhancing the relationship between a culturally diverse workforce. They were also useful in recognizing possible problems that the companies had identified in employee relationships and publish undergraduate had undertaken corrective measures to be covered in the training. Prehistoric? Such strategies that were identified in six out of the seven companies that were evaluated included, ESL training for the immigrant workforce, and in four out research paper undergraduate of the seven companies, there was ESL training for new-employees in oversees companies, who were hired from the local labor force. In addition, three of the seven companies, which operated in Asian countries, enrolled their employees in intensive language training programs to learn the local language. This was particular for companies in Japan, India and prehistoric China.
Extensive literature review. Numerous studies have been conducted that address the question of diversity at the workplace and specifically cultural diversity at the workplace in the context of globalization. The qualitative research also involved carrying out extensive review of past studies conducted in the field of diversity management at the workplace. Literature in this area was established through conducting online data base searches using key words such as cultural diversity management, diversity at essay the workplace and animals workplace policies and regulations on cultural diversity. This search yielded over for writing research paper, 2000 hits from the various databases, which were further refined based on prehistoric their relevance to the research topic and their date of publication. More recent articles were preferred as they reflected the most recent research and strategies in publish paper, cultural diversity and diversity management at prehistoric the workplace. The aims of the extensive and systematic literature survey were to: identify all relevant published evidence on hunt diversity management.
Select the most relevant studies and reports to be included in animals, the study. Assess the publish quality and authenticity of each research or report. Synthesis the results and findings from the individual researches and reports in a way the would answer the animals research questions of the current study. Interpret the results of the articles used and come up with a balanced and publish cohesive analysis while putting into consideration possible flaws in the past studies and reports. Draw out a comprehensive approach that would be effective in promoting harmony among culturally diverse employees. Journals were primarily considered as sources of past research on diversity management because they not only contain the original research and findings of various studies, but also high quality peer reviewed and systematic reviews of the works. A systematic review also allows the researcher to examine both qualitative and prehistoric animals quantitative evidence that were used in conducting the studies whose findings were included in in england, this current systematic literature review. In a addition, integrating the systematic literature review process for a study enables the researcher to establish the feasibility, meaningfulness and prehistoric appropriateness of past studies on the topic.
This is of great importance since not all systematic reviews or studies are conducted with meticulousness and some of the findings may be misleading or inconclusive. Systematically reviewing the articles and data through using leading questions would be useful in uncovering any deficiency in the articles and data. In conducting the quote literature survey a specific methodology is used, which is aimed at minimizing bias while appraising the data and reports of the articles and other publications. The approach also ensures that the selected data is animals, relevant to the current research, and that it is titles, suitably appropriate and meaningful. Animals? The following steps were followed thorough out the systematic literature review. i.A well defined research question. This entails a comprehensive statement of the process essay objectives of the study, issue of interest, relevant population of interest and the settings where the population exists. The statement of objectives for animals the study also includes the kind of studies or evidence that will be instrumental in answering the research questions in addition to the appropriate results and outcomes. These factors are extensively used to choose the most appropriate studies to be included in the literature review. ii.Literature search: Searching of both published and unpublished researches and literature is what rules a good, meticulously carried out for the needed studies, which are related to the research topic and research questions. To ensure that the literature assessment is as unbiased as possible, the search is careful to include all studies therefore using multiple databases that include studies carried out in other countries.
Databases, websites and specialized search engines are useful in obtaining grey literature, which means works that have not been formally published. These include conference proceedings, working papers, institutional reports and other such documents, which are not subject to peer review or editorial control. In addition, searching the references of full text articles produces more results for on relevant studies. Possible biases in this case include language bias, publication bias and prehistoric selection bias (Dubben, 2005). iii.Assessment of literature: After identification of potential literature that may be used in the current study, it is book, important to make an assessment if the following manner. Eligibility against the criteria for inclusion. Full text articles are then retrieved for those, which meet the criteria for inclusion. Subsequent to the selection stage for full text papers, the rest of the works are assessed to establish their framework for critical appraisal and animals methodological quality. Some poor quality paper will be excluded, but can be mentioned and discussed in the review.
Reported findings of the remaining studies are extracted on a form for data extraction. It is possible for some studies to be excluded event at this advanced stage. A listing of the included studies is generated at this point. iv.Synthesis of results: After analyzing the individual studies, they are synthesized to come up with cohesive information that addresses the research question. Quote Book? The method of synthesizing the findings is prehistoric animals, dependent on the type of data that the evidence has yielded. In the case where the work being reviewed yields data that is of qualitative nature, a meta-synthesis is carried out. Alternatively, a meta-analysis is conducted to essay, analyze quantitative data. In the case that the quantitative data is not homogenous in nature, the summaries in narrative form may be appropriate. v.Contextualizing the findings: In order to put the results of collective studies selected for the study in context, then a discussion of the findings is necessary. Animals? Discussion of results will address factors such as heterogeneity of selected studies, the quality of data, and quote book in essays potential for bias, in prehistoric animals, addition to how the results are applicable in real practice. Broad research question.
The broad research question that guided the study is: What is the most effective approach to cultural diversity at the workplace whilst maintaining employee harmony and titles in essays cohesion? Other research questions. What specific actions can a business or organization undertake in order to manage cultural diversity at the workplace more effectively? What are the issues that are central to diversity management in organizations? What are the experiences of culturally diverse employees at the workplace? What are basic factors that are integral in cross-cultural communication? What are the prehistoric key competencies in managing culturally diverse employees? How can an organization manage its cultural diversity training guide? Questionnaires and Surveys.
Structured questionnaires and surveys were used to obtain primary data for this study. The target group consisted of about 80 respondents who were drawn from the seven companies used for the survey and other local and international companies not included in the initial survey. In the selected companies, a number of in england essay, 6-10 employees were chosen including one from top management, one from middle management, one from the human resource department and prehistoric animals the rest of the respondents being drawn from various working levels within the richard thesis organization. Selecting respondents from prehistoric, all levels of the organization was in line with study’s aim of hunt thesis, establishing suitable strategies that promote cohesion within a culturally diverse workforce. Employees at all levels are relevant to the study because they are bound to interact with a colleague from a different culture, and the way they interact with such a colleague is critical in understanding the gaps that exist within the culturally diverse workforce. The human resource department personnel were instrumental as respondents because they were central to the whole dynamics of employee relationships and the department was responsible for identifying missing links with culturally diverse colleagues, and had in the past or presently been involved in trying to identify strategies that would creating a strong working force. Top-level management respondents were selected because they were involved, at the very top, with ensuring that the prehistoric animals company is competitively positioned in the market, and one way of doing so was to ensure that the right strategies in employee management were in place. In this case, they were better positioned to masters, make observations on animals how such decisions had influenced the company’s performance or affected its reputation and image. They are therefore more knowledgeable on undergraduate the effectiveness of past policies and strategies and possible new ones that would seal loopholes that emerge in relationships between culturally diverse employees..
Mostly open-ended questions were used in the questionnaire and prehistoric animals were structured in assignment model, such a way that would ensure the animals major research question was answered. The questions were directed to finding out how employees perceive individuals from different cultures, whether they had had difficulties in establishing communication or understanding what was intended in the communication. They also aimed at establishing the level of satisfaction of employees, given the prevailing employee benefits and policies that address cultural diversity. The questions would also establish if workers felt appreciated and definition treated fairly within the working environment, whether they had considered looking for new employment in the recent past. The questionnaire would also establish the level of motivation of employees, based on their relationship with colleagues, with management and on animals their general work output. The questionnaires have been specifically designed in a way that will help unearth key weaknesses and strengths in the strategies used in dealing with cultural diversity at the workforce. Subsequently, the publish research paper data acquired through this method will be analyzed in animals, order to answer the fundamental question on which this study is based.
Below are sample questions that the selected respondents will be required to answer: Case study research is an assignment model, effective approach as it facilitates the understanding of composite issues 3. Prehistoric Animals? Case studies enlarge experience and strengthen what has already been established in previous studies. In this context, they highlight in-depth and contextual analysis of a number of occurrences or situations and writing process informative their inter-relation 7. Prehistoric? Case study method in richard masters thesis, this research will be used to examine the animals existing situation in organization and how current approaches to managing cultural diversity at the workplace. This will in turn provide the foundation for richard the application of the strategies and ideas that will be generated from assessing the real-life situation of a culturally diverse working environment and the experiences of the individuals who do their work is such an environment. Case study methodology is prehistoric, defined as an empirical inquiry that explores a current phenomenon within the multiculturalism in england essay real-life context 3. Prehistoric? This is particularly effective in what for writing research paper, the case the phenomenon being investigated and the context cannot be clearly separated. Animals? Those who are opposed to multiculturalism, case study research methodology observe that the prehistoric animals examination of a limited number of cases is not sufficient to provide generality and reliability of the results while others feel that findings may become biases because of assignment, overexposure to a particular case.
Other critics feel that case study methodology is only practical when used as an exploratory tool. However, the approach is capable of yielding authentic and minimally unbiased findings especially if it is augmented by other research methodologies such as qualitative inquiry and systematic literature review. Conducting a case study. The first step when conducting a case having definite research questions that will aid in addressing the broader research question for prehistoric the study 5. The research questions enable the study to remain focused by establishing the purpose of conducting the study. In a case study, the object of richard masters, research is an prehistoric, individual, an entity or a group of people. Each study object may have historical, social, political and personal connections, which presents a broad range of possible questions and further compounds the case study. Case study methodology investigates the thesis object of study comprehensively, by engaging various data collection methods to come up with evidence that will lead to the comprehension of the case and answer the guiding research questions 6. Mostly, case study methodology answers multiple questions, which are targeted towards a limited number of conditions or events and how they may be inter-related. Prehistoric? It is more effective to writing process informative essay, generate research questions for prehistoric animals the case study after conducting an process informative essay, intensive literature review 6. In this case, the researcher is animals, able to assess the studies, which have been previously conducted, therefore ensuring that the questions are refined and answer to the broader research question. Establishing the questions before embarking on the case study will direct the informative researcher to the appropriate places where evidence may be found.
Using this method enables the animals researcher to establish the method that will be used to analyze the data. The design for the case study will be guided by the broad research question established in the intensive literature review. The guidelines that will be used in conducting this study are. What is the current practice in cultural diversity management in the companies selected for the case study? What is the writing approach is used when training in cultural diversity. To what extent is the workforce culturally diverse. What are the experiences of prehistoric, employees working in a culturally diverse environment? The second step involves selecting the cases to be used and paper the methods of data collection and data analysis that will be used 5. Prehistoric Animals? At the research design stage, the researcher decides how the cases will be selected and whether a single or multiple cases are going to are the a good, be used. In the present study, multiple case study of seven international companies will be used. Each case study will be treated as individual and single cases. Animals? The findings from each case study will be integrated as information adding to the whole research.
In order to ensure the validity of study, the case studies were carefully selected by examining many available choices. Informative Essay? The decision to primarily use multinational companies was arrived because the sufficiently reflect the role and importance of cultural diversity at the workplace. Animals? In addition, they offer the best-case scenario in which to investigate the experiences of multiculturalism essay, individuals working in animals, a culturally diverse environment, as they are more likely to masters, have a higher number of multi-cultural individuals than domestic companies. In selecting the case studies, the researcher considered cases that have some unique aspect in their practice of diversity at the workplace, cases that may be considered as typical and those, which are representative of various geographical regions and integrated various sizes for the research. This was facilitated by prehistoric animals referring to what rules for writing a good research, the purpose of the study in prehistoric animals, order to stay focus on cases, which would satisfy the main purpose of the study and assignment model provide answers the research questions. Selected companies for the case study. A significant strength that the case study approach bears is the animals ability to use multiple sources and various techniques in the process of data collection 5. The researcher predetermined the type of evidence that would be gathered and the type of writing informative essay, techniques that would be used to analyze the collected data in a way that comprehensively answers the main, as well as other research questions. In this case, the prehistoric data will be analyzed using qualitative method. The tools of data collection included surveys, observation and writing process essay interviews. Questionnaires were also given to prehistoric, employees in the companies where case studies were being conducted. The designated tools for data collection were used systematically in the collection of evidence 5. The design was carefully formulated to ensure that it adhered to writing informative, internal, external and prehistoric animals construct validity and reliability.
Internal validity of the case study design is important as it proves that certain situations and are the rules paper conditions lead to prehistoric, other conditions. This requires using several pieces of evidence from various sources to titles in essays, unearth convergent points of investigation. External validity demonstrates whether the results can be generalized to a wider population. In this case, the ability of the study to yield similar results in variations of geographical area and population indicates that it has high external validity. External validity in this case was established through cross-case and within-case checks together with the systematic review of literature. Reliability of study design refers to the precision of the measurement used, accuracy and stability.
The design of reliable designs for conducting case studies ensures that the methods and procedures are properly documented and the steps can be repeated by other studies many times and come up with similar results 10. Step 3. Preparation for Collecting the Data. Next is the preparation for data collection, the actual data collection and subsequent evaluation and analysis of the data. It is of great importance to systematically organize data since case studies usually generate a lot of data because of the multiple sources involved. There is prehistoric animals, potential for the researcher to become overwhelmed by the data generated, and systematic organization will alleviate this possibility 16. Prior preparation in the management of quote titles in essays, data is prehistoric animals, of great importance. The researcher should have well prepared categories for sorting the data, storing and retrieving for synthesis and analysis. The case study research methodology enabled the researcher to make observations and identify underlying factors that are related to the phenomenon under observation 16. The raw data was examined through engaging various interpretations to establish possible connections and linkages between the object of process, research and animals with reference to the research questions of the present study. All through the analysis and the evaluation procedure, the researcher stayed open to emerging insights and opportunities.
This is hunt, especially important because case study methodology and the multiple techniques used for data collection and evaluation, present the researcher with various opportunities for data triangulation to strengthen the overall results and conclusions from the animals study. The data was deliberately sorted in different ways to unearth new insights and made a deliberate effort to identify any data that may be conflicting 12. Assignment? The research was categorized and data merged in a way that would address the prehistoric animals research questions for the current study. Explicit techniques included placing the data into arrays, formulating categories, making visual representations such as flow charts and multiculturalism in england charting the animals frequency with which events of interest to the study occur. The researcher used collected quantitative data to confirm and corroborate the qualitative data.
A cross case investigate of emerging patterns was also conducted, which ensured that conclusions were not made prematurely 7. This was accomplished through evaluating the data from various perspectives. The data was divided according to type across all the assignment model cases that were investigated. Prehistoric Animals? When a pattern became evident and was in turn corroborated by data from another case study, then the writing informative results gained much more authenticity. In the case of conflicting information and data, further investigation of the prehistoric animals detected differences was done to a good research paper, establish the origin of the conflict. This chapter discusses the findings of the animals case study and provides a review of the research question. In addition, the chapter discusses findings from the questionnaires as well as the results from the extensive review of quote titles, literature. Lastly, the chapter will provide an analysis and synthesis of the results of all data accrued in the process of conducting this research.
The research question that guided this study aimed at identifying and effective strategy for prompting harmonious working relationships among culturally diverse employees. GlaxoSmithKline is a leading global pharmaceutical company that is headquartered in the UK, with its operations based in the United States. Animals? The company operates in more than 100 countries and supplies about seven percent of all pharmaceutical supplies globally. In 2002, Glaxo welcome and SmithKline merged to informative essay, form the present GlaxoSmithKline. The company has a deep commitment towards improving the health and overall quality of all human beings across the globe. It has three distinct units, which are the vaccines, consumer healthcare and pharmaceutical departments. The company has a policy, employee relations, diversity and prehistoric animals inclusion department that is mandated with ensuring that that all company polices are compliant with the book law and culturally correct. The department ensures that the prehistoric company adhered to its fundamental processes so that there is cohesion and harmony between employees and multiculturalism in england essay the company, and between the employees. The department is also mandated with creating an environment that is inclusive and where all employees are enabled to give their full potential.
There is also the recruitment department, which is mandated with ensuring best practice in the recruitment of prehistoric, employees. The department is small, with a team of three which primarily deals with the publish paper recruitment of animals, graduate employees to work in sales and research marketing, finance, IT, pharmaceutical department, chemists, engineers, biologists e.t.c. The department has plays a great role in ensuring that the company attracts and retains individuals with great talent, in addition to providing the environment where they will be able to realize their greatest potential. These departments will be used to analyze key strategies, and recruitment process of GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) focusing on the procedure and specific policies and initiatives that the company uses to promote and manage cultural diversity among the employees. GSK’s mission on diversity and inclusion endeavors to capture the divergent perspectives, styles, experiences and knowledge of that resides within the global community. The basic principle that informs the GSK’s strategy for diversity and inclusion is having a company, with an inherent culture of animals, inclusiveness, which is as attractive as possible to potential employees, who once they join, would be reluctant to leave. The culture of inclusiveness endeavors to process informative essay, ensure that employees remain in prehistoric animals, the company for a long time and their experiences within the organization enable them to what are the rules for writing paper, realize their best potential. In this case, employee diversity entails acquiring the prehistoric animals best employees for the job, regardless of definition, nationality, race creed, age or gender, sexual orientation or physical ability. Prehistoric? Diversity and inclusion strategies for the GSK also entail establishing an inclusive culture and personnel that reflects the variety and full potential of the society, which we live in. The long-term mission of GSK involves targeted growth, both in UK and overseas, expansion, and improvement of the quality life through empowering individuals to richard hunt masters thesis, do more, feel better and live longer.
In most cases, a large part of the prehistoric animals company’s practices on model definition diversity and inclusion are enhanced by national as well as international legislation of workplace diversity. Prehistoric Animals? This applies for GSK, whose various human resource departments are mandated with the interpretation and subsequent translation of diversity legislation into cultural diversity policies and practices that are specific and assignment comprehensive in nature. Diversity practices and polices for GSK are formulated to reflect the themes and animals priorities of the definition society in prehistoric animals, which the multinational company is operating. This is because individuals from different cultures will have difficulties in comprehending the aspects of another culture. For example, employees in titles, a UK based branch will have difficulties in understanding the caste system of Indians co-workers. Prehistoric? Similarly, Indians will have difficulties in comprehending ethnic minorities simply because they are not familiar with such terms. To aid in the translation of legal prerogatives into a practical applications within the local context, GSK engages in consultation with external companies and employees. In UK, GSK has established links and is a member of organizations such as Employers forum on age, Opportunity now, Employers Forum on Disability, Race for Opportunity and Stonewall. These organizations play an invaluable role in the diversity management at GSK as they provide priceless guidance and advice on their specific areas.
In addition, as much as most policies and strategies may entail the top-down approach, the role of employees is significant as they too, facilitate the what rules research paper course of prehistoric animals, action through UK information and consultation forum architecture which covers all business. In this case, there are employee representatives in every business, who participate in the process by suggesting changes in diversity strategies and policies. The role of employee networks is also instrumental as it provides feedback from the workforce. There are employee networks within the global GSK enterprise, which include: i.Early career networks. ii.Primetime partners network. iii.Asian employees network. iv.Gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender network. v.Religious networks, which cover the countless religions. All the employee networks within GSK business are driven by the employees themselves.
These platforms not only offer support, but also enhance inclusiveness and a wholesome working relationship culture but an effective approach towards maximizing employee retention and realization of individual potential. People have the inherent desire to belong, have a voice and essay feel valued. According to prehistoric animals, diversity management reports of GSK, such strategies have ensured a 7.3% rise in employee retention since 2007. Since 2003, there has been a 2% increase in publish research undergraduate, senior positions occupied by women. Flexible working is yet another fundamental strategy that is regarded as instrumental in animals, attracting talent as well as retaining it.
This strategy also enables employees to book titles in essays, achieve maximum output and enhances attainment of their individual goals. Flexibility is a fundamental tradition that GSK has engaged in for a long time, but in modern times, the organization is seeking new ways on how to use the flexibility strategy in employment practices to enable employees realizes the greatest potential. The working flexibility approach is geared towards enhancing the productivity of prehistoric animals, workers instead of focusing on how long an employee is present at their workstation. This move will see that employees work 24 hours a day, seven days a week, but this will be on the terms of the employees. A strong culture practically means that individuals retain the ability and have the means with which to what are the research, practice their values in any given setting. In the past several years, GSK has placed particular emphasis on the recruitment and animals retention of women as well as their progression. In addition, the company has focused on specific factors related to disability. Process? Focus on disability as a fundamental factor in diversity management is animals, primarily driven by the fact that GSK is an organization based on provision of healthcare. In order to have a comprehensive policy on employees with disabilities, GSK has entered into consultation with the Employers forum on disability (EFD) to are the, ensure that strategies formulated for this particular group was sufficiently comprehensive and addressed individual needs of people with disabilities.
Consulting with EFD has enabled GSK to revise some outdated policies that were too complacent for prehistoric animals contemporary times and the needs and rights of the disabled. Though the move was initially criticized as a commercially motivated move, the company has come to be viewed as an employer that is multiculturalism in england, friendly towards the disabled, therefore increasing job applications from this particular group and subsequently gaining greater access to better talent in the job market. Recruitment strategies used by GSK, and which are geared towards enhancing cultural diversity at the workforce include lowering the minimum grade required to qualify. This in turn ensures that they are able to recruit from many universities, which ensures that the pool of applicants is more diverse. Prehistoric? Information on recruitment of graduates is are the a good, done through the company website, career fairs and animals graduate brochures ensuring that they reach a larger population and informative essay therefore have a higher number of culturally diverse applicants.
The recruitment strategy is reviewed frequently and through this, disabled individuals have gained more access to GSK career opportunities. Disabled applicants have are guaranteed a job interview, provided they have the minimum criteria that the prehistoric position requires. On the quote whole, the inclusion and diversity strategies by GSK are largely effective and their recruitment procedures are outstanding. This has ensured that the prehistoric employees are motivated and essay gain the feeling of belongingness. This in turn ensures that employees work for the betterment of the prehistoric animals organization because they feel that they have stake into the well-being of the company.
A unique element observed in the diversity and inclusion strategies of publish paper undergraduate, GSK is the attempt to link diversity for the purpose of talent attraction and retention with fundamental ethical and moral standards. In this case, business driven diversity management may not be the best possible solution in attaining the best for the business. This is illustrated by prehistoric the company’s extensive inclusions of employees with disability, which has subsequently enabled the organization to be increasingly perceived as disability friendly. GSK is also shifting focus on the fixed nine to five working hours because they have recognized that it may not be best way to encourage productivity within the workforce. This is drawn from the notion that if employees are given the opportunity to adapt and align themselves on work patterns most suited for them, and then they are motivated to worker harder at the time when they are most productive. GSK views employee effectiveness as not driven by the number of hours that the workers put in their office but how their employees are able to achieve a balance of what paper, high productivity with flexible working hours. The following is a summary of key strategies that GSK engages in the promotion of cultural diversity and management:
Recruitment: The company policy towards recruitment of a culturally diverse workforce is based on their commitment to create “a culture, where individual differences are understood, respected and prehistoric animals valued” (. ). The company further observes that diversity is both a business and a cultural reality that exists on all levels of the company. The company believes that the contributions and talents of their diversified workforce should be put to good use and publish paper appreciated. This way, the business is able to achieve its highest benefits as well as those of its employees and customers. Hard work is rewarded with excellent pay, benefits, and bonuses. The company has a unique strategy that gives employees opportunities to earn more based on their performance. This is highly motivation especially when integrated with the flexible working hours approach. Employee Diversity: This is enhanced through initiatives such as employee networks, mentoring opportunities where employees can learn more about the job and culture, from an employee who is more experienced. Flexible working options that enable employees have a well balanced approach on work and prehistoric animals life, hiring female and minority employees which ensures that equal opportunities for all members of the society, there company also develops ability through its talent review program high potential employees are motivated to what research, have a well defined career path that suits their needs and talents. There are also training programs aimed at developing potential through on job training, self-study and web-based learning. In addition, the company strives to prehistoric, ensure that the working environment encourages and are the rules for writing a good paper facilitates learning and development.
For GSK, cultural diversity is imperative as the company is shifting its focus on traditional western markets and establishing operations in emerging markets particularly in Asian countries such as Japan. This presents the need for GSK to adopt even more comprehensive diversity management strategies in its attempts to capture a bigger market share as it launches into new markets and prehistoric geographical areas. The company’s code of research paper, conduct and the employee guide to ethical conduct clarifies key aspects that address the issue of cultural diversity and the behavior that is expected from all employees regarding the issue. The following are excerpts pull randomly from GSK’s employee guide to ethical conduct, that addresses the expected behaviour and responsibility of employees in promoting cohesion and prehistoric animals harmony in writing informative essay, a culturally diverse working environment. The principles stated therein are effective because they give the employee an animals, active and direct role in promoting.
Equal and in england essay inclusive treatment of gsk employees [pol-gsk-204] GSK recognises the value of striving for a balanced work force and is committed to the principles of prehistoric animals, equal opportunity, equality of treatment, and creating a dynamic climate where diversity is valued as a source of enrichment and opportunity. All phases of the research paper employment relationship including recruitment, hiring, training, promotion, compensation, benefits, transfers, layoffs, and leaves of absence—will be carried out by all managers without regard to race, colour, religion, gender, age, sexual orientation, ethnic or national origin, disability, or (in the US) status as a disabled veteran or veteran of war. We will also provide reasonable accommodation for employees’ disabilities and religious beliefs and practices. Every GSK employee has the right to prehistoric, work in an environment that is free from harassment and assignment in.
which issues of harassment will be resolved without fear of reprisal. Harassment will not be permitted or condoned within GSK, whether it is based on a person’s race, colour, ethnic or national origin, age, gender, real or suspected sexual orientation, religion or perceived religious affiliation, disability, or other personal characteristic. The use of GSK property, bulletin boards, computers, or documents as a vehicle for harassment is prohibited. All employees are expected to prehistoric, take personal responsibility for upholding company standards by treating with dignity and respect all job applicants, fellow employees, customers, contract and temporary personnel, and any other individuals associated with GSK. Armstrong, M. (1998). Organisational Culture- A Handbook of Human Resource Management. Practice chapter 19, sixth edition, Kogan Page. Bernstein, J. (2005). The 21st Century Workplace –Preparing for Tomorrow’s Employment. Trends Today: A testimony that was given before the U.S senate committee on health, education, labour and pensions.
May 26 2005. Economic policy Institute. http://www.epi.org/publications/entry/webfeatures_viewpoints_21st_century_workplace_testimony/ Childers, L. (2005). Diversity Issues and assignment model Public Relations. Prehistoric? Journal of Public Relations Research. Cox, T. H., Jr. (1994). Cultural diversity in organizations: Theory, research and practice. San Francisco: Berrett–Koehler. Ely, R., Thomas, D.A. (2003) Cultural Diversity at Work: The Effects of Diversity. Perspectives on richard masters Work Group Processes and Outcomes. To insert individual citation into a bibliography in a word-processor, select your preferred citation style below and drag-and-drop it into the document.
Administrative Science Quarterly, 46, (2) 229-273. EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT (2004). European Parliament resolution on preserving and. promoting cultural diversity: the role of the European regions and prehistoric animals international organisations such as UNESCO and the Council of Europe, P5_TA. Retrieved August 31st 2010 from [http://www.ebu.ch/CMSimages/en/leg_t%20gats_ec_resolution_cd_140104_tcm6-13186.pdf], (August 2004) French, R. (2010). Cross Cultural Management- Models of Culture: Developments and Debates. Chapter 4 CIPD Office of National Statistics (2002) Minority Ethnic Groups in quote in essays, the UK www.statistics.gov.uk/statbase/Product.asp?vink=9763 London. Frances, B., Blackmon, K. (2003). Spirals of Silence: The Dynamic Effects of Diversity on.
Organizational Voice. Journal of Management Studies. 40, 6. Gilbert, J. A., Ivancevich, J.M. (2000) Valuing Diversity: A Tale of Two Organizations. Academy of Management Executive 14, (1). Gilbert, J. A., Ivancevich, J. M. (2001).
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Breadth, Depth, and Balance. Journal of Business Psychology. Winter 2002,17, (2). HR Focus. (2008), Getting Results from Diversity Training – in publish, Dollars and Cents. Prehistoric? HR Focus . Lyness, K. S. (2007). Finding the key to the executive suite: Challenges for women and. people of color. In R. Silzer (Ed.), The 21st century executive: Innovative practices for building leadership at the top (pp. 229–273). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
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In S. Worchel W. Prehistoric Animals? G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of book, intergroup relations (pp. 7–24). Chicago: Nelson. UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (UNDP). (2004). Prehistoric? Cultural Liberty in. Today’s Diverse World, Human Development Report, Oxford, Retrieved August 3` 2010 from http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2004/] West, B., Frances, M. Writing Process Essay? (2007).
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fce tests thesis The Role of Setting Criteria for Speaking Summative Assessment in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) (Qafqaz University Case) This Master thesis deals with selecting and using criteria to assess speaking skills. The aim of this study is to investigate the prehistoric animals use of titles in essays speaking assessment criteria in university language preparatory course (Qafqaz Uviversity, Baku, Azerbaijan) and its effects on students. This study tried to prehistoric, explore the differences between teaching speaking skills with the help of assessment rubrics and by traditional methods.
The study discusses and examines the educational potential of rubrics implemented in the process of learning and assessment of speaking skills. The first and the second chapters, serving as a theoretical basis for the subsequent research, presents readers some general information about assessment, its criteria in the context of assessing speaking skills, and the psycholinguistic nature of speaking skills. In order to find out the difference between the speaking skills’ assessment based on carefully selected criteria and scale and based on traditional (subjective, intuitive) methods, an experiment was held the experimental and control groups from 35 students, aged 17-18, of university language preparatory course. The data were obtained through pre-test, post-test held in both groups, as well as students’ questionnaire held before the writing essay experiment would start. Teaching speaking in a foreign language to the learners of prehistoric other languages without a corresponding speaking environment (such as exists in Azerbaijan) can be considered as a challenging job, however, it can be facilitated by applying carefully selected assessment criteria to reveal to students in essay, detail the target of their learning.
This small study was conducted to identify the role of setting criteria in speaking summative assessment. After analyzing students' answers to the questionnaire and the pre - and post- test results, it was found that the implementation of animals criteria into the process of development of assignment definition speaking skills plays an important positive role in teaching speaking. Moreover, the use of rubrics can improve speaking skills, increase students’ perception of exams’ fairness and thus the learning motivation, and simultaneously decrease anxiety during assessment. Key words : speaking skills, assessment, assessment rubric, assessment criteria scale. Full Text is available at IBSU Library. The Role of Project Work in Development of Critical Reading Strategies in Learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) (Qafqaz University Case)
This Master thesis deals with application of project work in teaching reading. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of project work in the development of reading strategies in university language preparatory course (Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan) and prehistoric animals its effect on students. Definition? This study tried to explore the differences between teaching reading with the help of project work and by animals, traditional methods. The study discusses and examines the educational potential of project work implemented in the process of learning and development of reading skills. The first and multiculturalism essay the second chapters, serving as a theoretical basis for prehistoric, the subsequent research,are based on methodology books and assignment model publications on project work published mostly in English-speaking countries. They present readers some general information about the history of project work, characteristic features of learning in a project, nature of reading skills and teaching reading in EFL classroom. They deal with the benefits of project work including motivation, group work, cooperation or experiencing success and considers also possible problems of prehistoric project work, such as lack of time, monitoring, motivation problems, etc. The theoretical part also distinguishes the in england basic stages of a project work procedure: opening, topic orientation, research and data collection, preparation of data presentation, presentation and evaluation.
In the research part, a small study was conducted to identify the role of project work in prehistoric animals, the development of in england critical reading strategies in EFL classroom(in Qafqaz University context). A questionnaire was held with students concerning the role of reading skills and the difficulties of reading comprehension. In order to find out the difference between teaching reading based on project work and traditional methods, a mini-experiment was held during a monthwith the animals participation of the experimental and control groups (30 students, aged 17-19, of university language preparatory course). The data were obtained through pre-test and post-test held in both groups, as well as a mini-questionnaire held after the experiment, to see how much students have benefitted from project work and how their attitude to such work has changedas result of the assignment experience. After analyzing students' answers to the questionnaire and the test results it was found that the implementation of prehistoric animals project work in the process of development of reading skills plays an are the rules important positive role.The use of projects can increase students’ motivation and involvement in reading in English and improve the level of their language proficiency. Key words : project work, reading skills, reading strategies. Full Text is available at IBSU Library. The Application of Standardized Test Preparation to prehistoric, Improve Students` Motivation in Terms of English Language Teaching)
The aim of assignment model definition this study is to investigate the impact of the prehistoric animals standardized tests on students` motivation. This study tried to explore the backwash effect of standardized tests in particular, FCE preparation courses on students` motivation. Our study defines the notions standardized testing, backwash effect and motivation. This study also critiques various standardized tests such as YDS, BUEPT, TOEFL, SAT, as well as Cambridge ESOL exams like KET, PET and FCE. Publish Research? Then, it assesses various applications of YDS and prehistoric BUEPT standardized test preparation courses in Turkey as well as ESOL test preparation courses in the world.
In order to investigate the backwash effect of FCE test preparation on students` motivation towards learning English a quantitative method was implemented. A survey was formed and applied to 9 th graders at the beginning of the one-month test preparation period. At the end of this period, the same survey was applied to the same graders. Richard Hunt? Thus, we aimed at revealing the changes in students` attitudes towards learning English by comparing the first and second survey results. According to the data obtained from the survey, it was found out that standardized tests, in particular, FCE tests and application of standardized test preparation courses have some kind of backwash effect on students` motivation depending on various variables. Some of the fundamental factors that shape the backwash effect of standardized test preparation courses appear to be the perceptions and prehistoric animals attitudes teachers have towards these tests, the methodology they apply in classrooms and quality of the test they prepare students for. Key words: standardized tests, high stakes tests, backwash (washback) effect, motivation, goal setting, application of test preparation courses, YDS, BUEPT, ESOL exams, FCE. Full Text is available at IBSU Library. Factors Influencing Students' Listening Comprehension in EFL Classes (Ishik University, Iraqi Case)
Assist. Prof. Dr. Nino Tvalchrelidze. Listening skill is mostly neglected or considered as a less important part of many course books or syllabi and lots of teachers do not regard the quote importance of listening while preparing listening lesson plan. A great number of teachers believe that it will develop naturally within the language learning process and they will learn unconsciously. In fact there are number of listening comprehension barriers based on animals, message, delivery, audience and environment.
Teaching and drilling listening strategies ease students listening comprehension. Assignment Model? This research explores the factors that contribute to the issues students encounter in listening classes, compare whether the factors are related to the listening passage, the speaker, the listener, or the environment, and identifies which particular factor poses the most difficulty for the learners. The research was applied at Ishik University, English Language Teaching department, with the participation of 111 students from intermediate level in the fall term of animals 2014-2015 academic years and18 teachers to in england, get their opinion related to listening comprehension problems and strategies. The data were attained by use of questionnaires for prehistoric, teachers (7 questions) and for students (18 questions). The collected data were analysed with SPSS 20.0 computer software program. The data analysis showed that students use mainly two listening strategies listening for titles in essays, main ideas and prehistoric animals listening for details. The study also displayed that there are mainly two reasons affecting students` listening comprehension: 1. Unfamiliar words -including jargon, idioms. 2. Speaker’s fast speech.Additionally, it was observed that motivation plays a vital role in paper undergraduate, terms of listening comprehension.Studentsbecome better listeners when they are motivated. Keywords : Listening comprehension, listening strategies, motivation. Full Text is available at IBSU Library.
Changes in Quality Standards of Higher Education in Turkey since 2005. This study discusses the changes in the quality standards in higher education system in prehistoric animals, Turkey since 2005, dealing with related issues of the Bologna Process. For this purpose past and recent practices and laws have been compared. It has been shown that the Bologna process has facilitated the assignment model definition Turkish education system to become part of prehistoric European one. The process focuses on quality and the implementation of it into assignment education system, aiming at prehistoric animals, high standards adequate for higher education of European countries. The Quality Assurance system in process essay, Turkey has been discussed in prehistoric, respect to Bologna Process.
The internal and external quality assurance and its influence on higher education system has been analyzed. In the last section the results of richard hunt masters a questionnaire held with Turkish students and prehistoric graduatesare presented. Full Text is available at IBSU Library. The Effect of Portfolio Assessment as an Alternative Assessment Type on Teaching Mathematics to 8th Grade Students. Assessment techniques are used to measure the levels of success in the teaching and learning process in education facilities, especially in mathematics. There are four forms of assessments focused upon in this paper namely: portfolio, summative, interim and formative assessment methods. Portfolio and formative assessment allow for the correction of mistakes in the teaching and learning process of mathematics. Essay? The latter focuses on the in-process, and prehistoric animals it only applies during the class session, and multiculturalism sometimes as homework. Summative includes end-of-year exams or term papers used to rank students, while interim assessment is a set of complex tests carried out briefly on the learning progress.
This paper finds out prehistoric, that portfolio assessment in mathematics is more advantageous than the rest of the options, and what rules a good this is animals, based on the questionnaire results obtained from 58 respondents. Full Text is available at IBSU Library. The Effect of Collaborative Writing on Students’ Apprehension, Attitudes, Beliefs and Performance (IBSU Case) The aim of the study is to investigate EFL students’ apprehension, attitudes and richard hunt masters beliefs towards collaborative writing course. The thesis highlights the focal differences between the traditional and prehistoric animals contemporary collaborative writing classes through observing, monitoring and checking students’ attitudes, beliefs, performances and achievements. Process? The study was held among EFL learners in Intensive English Language Program at International Black Sea University. The participants of the study were 28 intermediate level EFL students who participated in prehistoric animals, collaborative writing tasks. Quote Book? They had three hours of writing lessons per week. A Qualitative and quantitative approaches were adopted to collect the data considering students’ attitudes and apprehensions towards the collaborative writing activities. After the completion of the tasks, all the wiki pages created by prehistoric animals, the students, the results of the questionnaires and the data obtained from the masters thesis interviews were analyzed. The results show that the collaborative tools in writing courses have significant positive effects on sharpening students’ writing skills.
The students significantly have positive attitudes towards the collaborative tools although they have not had enough experience of collaborative work. The results of the prehistoric study also suggested that applying collaborative learning in EFL writing classes may increase students’ autonomy and responsibility for their studies. Furthermore, the studies revealed the students’ positive experiences using wikis in foreign language writing, which enhanced their level of involvement in in essays, writing processes. . Full Text is available at IBSU Library. Causes of Low Achievement in Science Education at the Last Stage of Primary School (In 6th Grade) Assist.
Prof. Dr. Nino Tvalchrelidze. This study aims to explore the reasons for low achievement of six grade students in science education. It presents the views and animals understandings of students as well as teachers about model definition science teaching and animals learning process. Titles In Essays? The study is one more contribution to identify the reasons of the difficulty of the science subject in the world and in Georgia. The survey questionnaires applied to the students and the teachers tried to find out: 1. Are science teachers in Georgia ready to ensure students’ academic success? 2. What are the major factors influencing students’ low achievement in science education? The study was carried out in 2014/ 2015 academic year in three private schools in Rustavi and Tbilisi, Georgia.
The participants were 16 science teachers and 67 6th grade students. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were adopted to collect the data from the students and the teachers. The research questionnaire composed of 17 questions was applied to animals, the teachers and another questionnaire composed of 18 questions was applied to the students. The research revealed that while considerable number of teachers and students are happy with science teaching and learning process, some major factors influencing students’ low achievement in science education is still notable. The identified factors are: teaching methodologies and materials in textbooks, teachers’ necessity for a good research paper, lifelong professional development and their view about prehistoric animals gender differences, the importance of basic mathematical skills and parent support. . Full Text is available at IBSU Library. ELT Instructors’ Involvement in richard hunt masters thesis, Professional Development at A Private University. Assistant Prof.
Dr. Rabia Hos (Co-supervisor) Teaching is a significant profession that continuously contributes to the development of communities and societies. Teachers are expected to be high qualified and well-equipped in order to prehistoric animals, teach efficiently and effectively. In Turkey English is the leading foreign language, which is multiculturalism, widely taught at all stages of the education system.
There are many universities whose instruction language is English. Day by day English is getting more popular and prehistoric animals it is used as a tool of communication. This thesis aimed to explore English language teaching (ELT) instructors’ past and present experiences, needs, views, approaches, understanding, awareness and writing expectations of professional development (PD) at the university level. Besides, PD activities that instructors involved in were studied. This research was designed as a qualitative case study. Prehistoric Animals? The data was collected through interviews and publish paper undergraduate observations. The participants were instructors, coordinators and administrators of the preparatory school of a private university. Prehistoric? Data collected from the interviews were analyzed qualitatively. Four categories emerged from the analysis of the data, which were PD perceptions of ELT instructors, overall PD experiences of ELT Instructors, fields in need of improvement and ideal PD models.In order to establish the trustworthiness of the study, triangulation, peer checking and member checking processes were carried out.
The findings of the study suggest that instructors’ experience with PD varies with years of experience in the field. The current model of PD offered at the institution is multiculturalism, seen to be an emerging model that is in need of improvement. Prehistoric Animals? The instructors’ ideal PD seems to be in line with the literature and instructors’ input should be given consideration in order for it to be consistent and successful. Quote Titles? The implications for this study include recommendations for administrators and prehistoric animals policy makers to improve the various models of publish research paper PD implemented at university preparatory schools. Key words: Professional development (PD), English language teaching (ELT), qualitative case study. Full Text is available at IBSU Library.
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