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benedictine essays The Order of Saint Benedict. Abc 123 Essays! The Benedictines: An Introduction. Benedictines carry on a monastic tradition that stems from the origins of the Christian monastic movement in the late third century. They regard Saint Benedict as their founder and guide even though he did not establish a Benedictine Order as such. Root Studies! He wrote a Rule for his monastery at Monte Cassino in Italy and he foresaw that it could be used elsewhere. Monte Cassino was destroyed by abc 123 the Lombards about A.D. 577 and was not reestablished until the ethic, middle of the eighth century. Meanwhile the Rule found its way to abc 123 essays monasteries in England, Gaul, and comparing two friends essay, elsewhere.
At first it was one of a number of rules accepted by a particular monastery but later, especially through the promotional efforts of Charlemagne and his son Louis, it became the rule of choice for monasteries of Europe from the ninth century onwards. The early medieval monasteries of Europe, those for men and women, followed the Rule of abc 123 essays, Benedict with local adaptations needed in different climes and cultures. They continued, however, the tradition of community life with its common prayer, reading, and anne thesis, work. Some of the abc 123 essays, monasteries were founded as centers of evangelization of peoples; others carried on a program of education, art and architecture, and the making of manuscripts. Many monasteries were centers of liturgy and learning in the midst of chaotic times and shifting kingdoms. Benedictine monasteries are often characterized as local institutions with a great deal of autonomy. In the Middle Ages they were often founded by the nobility as centers of prayer, communities that would pray for the people, especially the thesis on export import, nobles themselves. The monasteries had little contact with each other though eventually some of them began to essays relate to each other for the sake of protection from bishops and nobles and for common discipline. The most famous association was that of anne, Cluny, named for the abbey in Burgundy; this monastery was founded in 909/910 and grew to include numerous dependencies.
Cluny reformed congregations of black monks, as they were called, in essays practically all parts of Europe. The abbot of Cluny was in effect the superior of all the dependent monasteries though he administered the multitude of abbeys through appointed priors. Cluny excelled in thesis on export import the splendor and length of abc 123 essays, its liturgy, so much so that its monks had little time for manual labor or reading. Thesis On Export Import! The Benedictine monasteries waned at the end of the twelfth century, about the time the Church witnessed the rise of the modern orders of Franciscans and Dominicans. The Benedictines, though in decline in members and discipline, continued their round of abc 123, monastic life but at times without their properly constituted head. Not a few monasteries were burdened by a commendatory abbot, a person who was appointed by the pope or a nobleman to oversee and to contrasting two friends essay protect the goods of the monastery.
Often, however, he appropriated the wealth of monastic lands without involvement in the actual life of the community. Abc 123 Essays! In the Middle Ages and up to modern times Benedictine monasteries for men and women often formed various associations or unions in ethic term order to promote discipline and abc 123 essays, mutual assistance. This was in fact mandated by the Council of Trent (1545-1563; Sess. xxv, cap. 8) . Monasteries slowly and ethic, with much hesitation followed the directives of Pope Innocent III and the Fourth Lateran Council (1215) to establish visitations of monasteries and regular general chapters for the enactment of abc 123 essays, legislation. Many Benedictine monasteries were closed at on export, the time of the Protestant Reformation both because the reformers preached against monastic vows as unevangelical and because secular rulers coveted and seized the abundance of properties owned by the monastics. Congregations of Benedictines continued in the centuries after the Reformation, but most monasteries were closed and expropriated during the Napoleonic era.
As a result, their numbers were very few at the beginning of the nineteenth century. During the course of the 1800s, however, Benedictines experienced a revival. Some congregations, e.g., the Solesmes and Beuronese Congregations, restored a kind of Benedictine monasticism that stressed the abc 123 essays, enclosed life with its round of liturgical prayer performed with great precision and splendor. Other congregations ; e.g., the St. Ottilien Congregation and groupings of American Benedictine women, stressed the missionary endeavors of evangelizing, teaching, and health care. Men and women Benedictines continued to establish new houses in many countries right up to the time of divide, Vatican Council II (1962-1965). Since then the number of Benedictines has declined once again, at least in the First and Second World, but it has increased in other regions, e.g., East Africa and South Korea. Today Benedictines, both men and abc 123, women, are still characterized as people who take root in a particular place and who are related to the culture and needs of a specific location. Most are associated together in digital divide dissertation congregations for purposes of mutual assistance and common discipline. At the same time they vary widely in the type of monastic life they lead. Some pursue an enclosed life with little involvement in the local Church and society; others insist on various degrees of involvement such as education, parochial ministry, evangelization, publication, health care, etc.
In 1887 Pope Leo XIII , who was enamored of the Benedictines, reestablished the essays, College of Saint Anselm in Rome. It continues today as an institute for Benedictine students and others who wish to obtain graduate degrees in philosophy, theology, liturgy, and monastic studies. In 1893 the same pope provided the divide dissertation, order with an abc 123 essays Abbot Primate to oversee the college and to provide spiritual leadership for the Confederation of Benedictine monasteries. The Abbot Primate does not have direct jurisdiction in the monasteries of the order, though he is still charged with a general concern for anne thesis the well-being of Benedictines around the world. Thus Benedictines differ from most modern religious orders who have a superior general in Rome. Benedictines of today continue to group themselves in congregations of monasteries; some, however, especially many communities of nuns, are positioned outside congregations and relate directly to abc 123 the local bishop and to the abbot primate in Rome. The followers of Saint Benedict vary much in the way they carry out the thrust of the sixth-century Rule , but in general they retain essential features of their origins -- local gatherings of monastics who endeavor to seek God in a common life of comparing contrasting essay, prayer, reading, and service. Alston, C. Cyprian. The Rule of Saint Benedict in Catholic Encyclopedia (dated, but thorough; NY, 1913; New Advent online collaborative version) . American-Cassinese Congregation. Renew and Create : a statement on the American-Cassinese Benedictine monastic life : Thirty-sixth General Chapter, second session, June 1969. (Lowell, Mass.: Sullivan Bros., 1969) . Barry, Patrick OSB, Richard Yeo OSB, Kathleen Norris OblSB and others. Wisdom from the Monastery: The Rule of Benedict for Everyday Life (Liturgical Press, 2006 . Abc 123! Wisdom from the Monastery contains a contemporary translation of the Rule of St.
Benedict by Abbot Patrick Barry OSB and short reflections on the seven basic elements of Benedictine spirituality that are a tried and true recipe for healthy, balanced, and hutchinson, purposeful living. Benedict's Rule: A Translation and Commentary . By Terrence G. Kardong, OSB (Liturgical Press) . The first line-by-line exegesis of the entire Rule of Benedict written originally in English. This full commentary -- predominately a literary and historical criticism -- is essays, based on root training case, and includes a new translation, and is accompanied by abc 123 essays essays on Benedict's spiritual doctrine. Butler, Cuthbert OSB. Benedictine Monachism: Studies in Benedictine Life and Rule , (First ed., London New York : Longmans, Green, 1919; 2d ed., 1924; Cambridge : Speculum Historiale; New York : Barnes Noble, repr. 1961) . Chittister, Joan D. OSB. Wisdom Distilled from the anne thesis, Daily : Living the abc 123 essays, Rule of St. Term Papers! Benedict Today (San Francisco : Harper, repr.
1991). Grün, Anselm OSB. Benedict of abc 123 essays, Nursia: His Message for digital divide Today . Linda M. Maloney, tr. (Liturgical Press, 2006) . Each chapter concludes with a brief reflection on the state of contemporary society and how the aspect of the Rule of Benedict treated in the chapter applies to the needs of today. Hicks, Dom Bruno OSB. The Benedictines from Benedictine Biographies (CTS, 1912) 1-32 ; dated but comprehensive historical overview.
Holzherr, Georg OSB. The Rule of Benedict: An Invitation to the Christian Life. Trans. from the German by Mark Thamert OSB. (Liturgical Press, 2016). Text and commentary. Knowles, Dom David OSB. The Benedictines (London and New York, 1930) ; abridged.
Stewart, Columba OSB. Prayer and Community : The Benedictine Tradition. Abc 123 Essays! (Orbis Press, 1998) .
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If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to abc 123 essays comment on Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started. Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to the freedom of Athenian thought. Sophocles himself served as an analysis case studies, army general. Two of his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to abc 123 essays help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about digital, a human being's ultimate relationship to the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is true, or whether he believed it, are for abc 123, you to decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cover over the obvious. This explains the comparing contrasting essay nonsense about tragic flaws and hybris. We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Oedipus means swollen feet.
The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the British preserve the initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and Jocasta were king and queen of Thebes, a town in Greece. One day, they had a baby boy. An oracle prophesied that the abc 123 boy would grow up and kill his father and marry his mother. To thwart the prophecy, Laius and anne hutchinson thesis, Jocasta decided to abc 123 essays kill their baby.
In those days, it was usual to leave an unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. Divide Dissertation! Laius and Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. (Don't worry about abc 123 essays, why they bound or pierced the dissertation baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to guarantee the abc 123 essays abandoned child's death. It may have been introduced to explain the hero's name. It also helps later to confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the baby. He gave the baby to a friend, who took it to Corinth, another town. (Corinth reappears in the New Testament.) The king and queen of Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own. So they adopted the foundling.
Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it. Oedipus visited various oracles to find out whether he was really adopted. All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and marry his mother. (None of this makes much sense.
Again, don't worry about it. This is a folk tale.) To thwart the oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry. Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and any older woman his mother. Digital Divide! But this is a folk tale.) Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into abc 123 essays a traffic squabble and killed a stranger who (unknown to him) was King Laius. Studies! In one version, there was a dispute over right-of-way on a bridge. In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to the throne of Corinth, and for some reason (again, don't worry about abc 123 essays, it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of Thebes. Anne! Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the abc 123 town of Thebes, and he was made king. Comparing Two Friends Essay! (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the Sphinx.
What animal has four legs in the morning, two legs at noon, and three legs in the evening? Of course the answer is abc 123 essays a human being -- babies crawl and on export, old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. He ruled well, and they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and Jocasta found out what had really happened. (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and essays, became a wandering beggar. In the version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Colonus, outside of digital divide, Athens. The kindness he was shown at the end made the city itself blessed.
The moral of the folk tale? Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to Thebes after the fall of Oedipus, to attend his funeral, and he beat all the people of abc 123 essays, Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the comparing contrasting subject of the passage. In the Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it. Abc 123! He married her after having killed his father, but the gods proclaimed the whole story to cause analysis case studies the world; whereon he remained king of abc 123 essays, Thebes, in great grief for the spite the gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to root cause analysis the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for grief, and the avenging spirits haunted him as for abc 123, an outraged mother -- to his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to comparing essay say about essays, Oedipus.
I've been assured that Homer intended the digital dissertation passage to illustrate Oedipus's having the tragic flaw of pride. Essays! I can't see what kind of sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of this story? Don't go to a fortune teller! Let life take its course. Your fate is measures already written and abc 123 essays, sealed. If you know all there is to know about digital divide, your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the rest of abc 123, your life worrying about what's to come. Term Papers! Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor.
Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to be made to feel so stigmatized by abc 123 a mixup that wasn't his fault. Moral of the story: Being a victim of gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of thinking for themselves. It does make for root cause analysis training studies, a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and a lot on the background of the abc 123 essays story. The author is with me on the hamartia business, below. Thanks for digital divide dissertation, the sphinx. Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination. If something was going to happen, it would happen and abc 123 essays, there was nothing you could do about it.
Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to be impressed) by the fulfillment of prophecies. In our own world, most predictions by cause analysis training supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to essays believe in the supernatural, and papers, people like to abc 123 essays tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and on road accidents and preventive measures, keep them vague. People have such a strong desire to believe in the power of supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to be told, even though the tale of abc 123 essays, Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is just a lie.
You'll need to decide for yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Some Christians have taught that the essays and preventive Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and that they went silent on the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on essays, the Morning of import, Christ's Nativity). People want to believe in oracles. 2. Believing in abc 123 essays predestination frees people from worry. Talking about unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the hutchinson thesis bullet has your name on it, you will die. This seems to spur them on to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie. Talk about fate, predestination, and so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures. In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is fate). We also see this in abc 123 essays peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway.
For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this. He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by God for the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the anne hutchinson thesis crime that he'd been made to believe it was. Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do. Abc 123 Essays! So Christians have argued about predestination from New Testament days. Luke says that the dissertation people who chose Christ were predestined to do so.
Dante asks the essays blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and dissertation, is told they don't know the answer, either. Abc 123! Martin Luther spent much of his youth obsessing over essays on road and preventive, how he was unable to be as good as he wanted. He found his answer not in predestination, but in God's free gift of grace in Christ. For him, this was a comfort and essays, assurance. If you want to know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers. Digital Dissertation! Then you will know you are predestined for abc 123 essays, salvation. John Calvin was horrified about the implications of predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. On Road Accidents And Preventive Measures! Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for everybody and abc 123, that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam. Racine's Phaedra marked a return to themes of Greek tragedy and people being the victims of essays accidents measures, cruel destiny. Abc 123! Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism.
Boswell, who wrote the biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the only person who's had this experience. In the US, the essays accidents and preventive measures Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and essays, need to root cause training studies work hard to bring others to Christ, against abc 123 essays those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary. Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by the laws of essays accidents and preventive measures, karma. Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and human-made). You'll need to decide for yourself whether this is good or bad. Belief in abc 123 karma has awakened social conscience and comparing essay, kindness to strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around.
The theme of predestination continues in secular literature. Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. The former is a character study, and the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of essays, who they are. Marlowe's Faustus and thesis, a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from Macbeth. Ideas about predestination are parodied in Tristram Shandy -- the baby is predestined to have a small nose and an ugly name despite the conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters.
Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of fiction. Abc 123! Although the vast majority of thesis, psychic predictions in the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen. A new face of the predestination debate comes from the physicists' model of the world. At least in Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in abc 123 the future. If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and what we will think and do. The laws of physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to take in a college bull session about predestination versus free will. In physics, an comparing contrasting two friends essay, electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave. As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at abc 123, the same time, and that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food.
I give thanks to the Good Lord for the birth of a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. I know how I get sick and how I recover, and thank the Good Lord for my recovery. The bread and wine are Christ's body and thesis on export import, blood -- I don't know how. The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of your free will. Essays! When we are inside, and look back, the reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the subject of comparing, this site. Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation.
Freud observed that while there are many stories about abc 123, predestination and unavoidable dooms, the story of Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. The actual reason, of course, is that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to root training studies do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from essays Wikipedia. Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the hutchinson thesis King for the annual festival where playwrights competed for essays, prizes. It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the digital writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era.
His writing is tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole. Essays! He is full of succinct observations on life. And despite the contrasting essay limits of the abc 123 form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of our play is often given in its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for king is the English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the on export consent of the people. As the play opens, the priest of Zeus and a bunch of non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool. Abc 123 Essays! It was evidently the custom to do this in front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader.
The priest explains (really for ethic, the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from a plague. Plants, animals, and people are all dying. The people know Oedipus is not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the riddle of the sphinx and save the town. And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. So now people look to him to find a cure for the plague.
Oedipus explains (really for the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi to get an answer. He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to do whatever the oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives. Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Creon says, All's well that ends well. (I'm told that the essays Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the killer of Laius must be found and banished, and the plague will end. And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the killer. Oedipus asks to review the facts. All that is known is that Laius left for Delphi and never returned. On Road Measures! (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the abc 123 essays bodies of Laius and anne hutchinson, his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the sphinx problem.
One of Laius's men escaped, and walked back to Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by essays a gang of robbers. (We can already figure out dissertation, why the witness lied. And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to be transferred away from Thebes, and has been gone ever since.) Oedipus reflects that if the abc 123 killers are still at large, they are still a danger. He decides to issue a policy statement to help find the killer. The chorus, in a song, calls on ethic, the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of dark sorcery), to save them from the plague and from the abc 123 evil god Ares, who is ordinarily the god of war but is here the god of general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of Laius will be rewarded, and that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to leave the city permanently. Term! On the essays other hand, if anyone conceals the killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. Term! Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. (Irony.)
The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and say who the murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias. Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to the killing. In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods. There are other stories about Teiresias. As a young man, he ran into some magic snakes and got his gender changed for seven years. This enabled him to essays tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness.
Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to use all your special talents to help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to be wise when there's nothing you can do. Ethic Papers! (As A.A. Milne would say later, and abc 123, perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.) Teiresias says, I want to go home. Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Ethic Papers! Our expression in English is You're missing the abc 123 point. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again. Teiresias continues to stonewall, and Oedipus gets very angry. On Road Accidents Measures! Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the killer, and adds that he is abc 123 essays living in cause analysis case shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in cahoots.
Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the sphinx problem. The Chorus tells both men to abc 123 cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster. Soon Oedipus will learn the truth and be a blind exile, leaning on his staff. The Chorus sings about the essays and preventive measures oracle at Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the world. Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about human psychics like Teiresias. Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to smear him. The Chorus says Oedipus is simply angry. Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to the king's faults and misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in and accuses Creon directly of essays, planning a coup, using a smear by essays accidents and preventive measures a crooked psychic as an excuse.
They exchange angry words. Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the killer until today. Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the accusation of abc 123 essays, planning a coup. (1) Being king is too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to anne do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. (5) Creon is well-liked and isn't going to do an obvious wrong. You build a good reputation over a lifetime.
A single bad action ruins it. Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for treason. The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in essays and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already. Root Studies! The Chorus says it agrees, and tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened.
The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. It's better not to ask about things that can make trouble. Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Essays! Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in contrasting essay psychics. I'll prove it. Essays! Laius and comparing contrasting two friends, I were told that our baby would kill him and marry me. But this never happened, because we left the abc 123 essays baby to die in root cause training case studies the woods.
And the witness said that Laius was killed at abc 123 essays, that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads? Irony. Jocasta says, It's where the roads from ethic term papers Thebes, Delphi, and essays, Daulis meet. And it happened just before you solved the riddle of the sphinx and became king. Oedipus is upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to cause training case me? He asks Jocasta for a description. Abc 123 Essays! Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and on export import, you know something, he looked a lot like you. Irony.
Oedipus continues his questioning. The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the abc 123 essays new king, asked for comparing contrasting, a distant transfer. He was a good man, and Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request. Oedipus tells his story. He was going to the oracles to find out whether he was adopted. Abc 123 Essays! All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. As he was traveling alone at anne hutchinson, the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of men going in the opposite direction. The men, including the leader, started insulting him. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for fun.
One of the men shoved Oedipus. Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on essays, the back of the head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot. Essays Accidents And Preventive Measures! Then Oedipus managed to kill them all except for the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense. But Oedipus is devastated.
He says he must be the killer of Laius, and he is ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. Abc 123! Oedipus says This is too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of some god or other. He says he will simply leave the city, now, and let the plague end. He adds that he cannot go back to Corinth, for fear of killing his own father and marrying his own mother. The Chorus is deeply sympathetic to digital divide Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to essays go voluntarily into exile to save the city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to find the last witness. Maybe he will exonerate you. And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to die by anne hutchinson the hand of essays, his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about how (1) we have to obey the gods; (2) the gods's best gift is ethic papers good government; (3) if the abc 123 government is analysis case bad, there is no reason to be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more.
Jocasta comes in, having visited the local shrines and left little offerings, and essays, asks people to join her in analysis training case studies praying for essays, the distraught Oedipus. He's our leader, and we need him now. She prays to Apollo to make this disastrous situation better. Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in from Corinth. He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is your marriage bed!
Irony.) The king of ethic papers, Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to be their new king. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the oracle about him killing his father is void. You see, I was right not to believe in oracles. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the news, and abc 123, says, Maybe the root cause analysis training case studies oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of grief for my absence.
But I'm still worried about abc 123, marrying my mother. Jocasta says, Forget it. Life is governed by chance, not destiny. Two Friends Essay! Maybe you'll dream about marrying your mother. You should ignore dreams. Oedipus is still worried. Abc 123! When he explains to the messenger, the man cracks up and thesis, says, Well, I've got some good news for abc 123 essays, you.
You don't have to worry about marrying the accidents and preventive measures lady you've called mother. Abc 123! because you're adopted! All hell breaks loose. Oedipus questions the comparing contrasting essay messenger, and learns the messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the abc 123 essays baby, had taken the pin out of his ankles, and had given him to the king and queen of Corinth to raise as their own. Oedipus is starting to wonder about thesis on export import, what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to clear this up.
Send for abc 123, the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened. Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the thesis matter. Oedipus says he has to abc 123 essays know. (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out horribly upset. Oedipus is a little slower, and term papers, thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out I'm not really of royal blood. But what the heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and abc 123, that's something to be proud of!
I'm me. Irony. The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and of the divide woods where Oedipus was found. The say the spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the child of nymphs and satyrs. Irony. The other shepherd is brought in.
He already has figured things out, and pretends he doesn't remember. Then he begs the other messenger to be quiet. But Oedipus insists on the truth. It comes out. Jocasta and Laius crippled the baby and put it in the woods to foil a prophecy. Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet. Now everybody knows the truth. Oedipus rushes out. The Chorus sings a song about how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and abc 123 essays, how Oedipus is now the victim of destiny.
The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness. Jocasta ran into the bedroom, screaming. She locked the door from inside. Hutchinson! A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging. Oedipus took the abc 123 body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress.
He stabbed it again and again into divide his eyes, saying he has looked at his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on essays, both sides. For this to happen, the choroidal artery that enters the eye from behind must be severed. We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the papers globes from their sockets. Oedipus now begs to be taken out abc 123, of the city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and no guide. Oedipus comes in.
Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and he curses the person who resuscitated him. The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to do it. Creon is the thesis new king. He is not angry, merely kind. He helps Oedipus up and out of the abc 123 essays city, guided by his two daughters. Staff in hand, Oedipus himself is the digital divide answer to abc 123 the riddle of the sphinx. Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. But the Chorus ends with a reflection on how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is term papers fortunate until that person is abc 123 dead -- the final rest, free from pain. (There is an echo here of digital, Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the sense the same here, or different?)
What is essays Sophocles saying? To discern an author's intentions, look for anne hutchinson, material that is not required by the plot or intended simply to please the audience. In retelling the story of Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in the play is whether one can believe in oracles and psychics. By extension, the question is whether the Greeks believed their own mythology. Sophocles makes a special effort to explain that Oedipus killed Laius in abc 123 self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of his way to present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator. Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on divide dissertation, himself by any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous.
They could mean that the dead are more fortunate than the living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad? The gods made the prophecies that led Oedipus into disaster. The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the abc 123 essays riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to the gods. At the beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to the cruel ironies of the play. Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. Essays On Road And Preventive! And at essays, the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to carve his own eyes out of their sockets.
In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the essay gods. Abc 123 Essays! At the end, everybody says this. Pure and simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of digital divide, Athens was a time for thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for abc 123 essays, people to term papers share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in abc 123 their mythology. Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for expressing doubts about the gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the minds of young people. (Does this sound familiar?) People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the first time that we hear people asking the contrasting two friends essay tough questions about abc 123, what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is essays and preventive putting forward is much like the dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age. Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in abc 123 essays his creepy monsters. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the message of Oedipus the King.
Sophocles is saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and are consciously and elaborately MALICIOUS. This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to import people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Aristotle liked to classify and evaluate things, and also liked to abc 123 talk about human virtue and vice. Thesis! Eventually, this got him the abc 123 best teaching job of thesis, his time, as tutor to abc 123 the boy who became Alexander the Great. Aristotle is reacting in part against Plato's objection to art and theater. Ethic Papers! Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the translation of the Poetics by S.H. Barber. After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of tragedy.
Since the essays objects of imitation are men in action, and these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and badness being the distinguishing marks of moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are. It is the same in painting. Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for accidents and preventive, realism. Aristotle continues. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for Comedy aims at representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character. Aristotle goes on to explain why people make poetry in the first place. He decides that there's an instinct to mimic things, and abc 123 essays, people like the imitations of thesis on export, others because it's fun to recognize things. He continues. Poetry now diverged in abc 123 essays two directions, according to the individual character of the writers.
The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of good men. The more trivial sort imitated the actions of meaner persons, at root cause analysis training case, first composing satires, as the former did hymns to the gods and the praises of famous men. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the successors of the epic poets, who also focused on high and noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in his era. He tells about its origins in improvisation, and abc 123, its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the Chorus, and assigned the and preventive measures leading part to the dialogue. Sophocles raised the number of actors to three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by a chorus. Essays! Then one member would take the two friends role of a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the chorus.
Sophocles added a third, and introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in abc 123 essays language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in divide dissertation separate parts of the play; in abc 123 essays the form of action, not of on export import, narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions. -- VI. Tragedy must be a unified story, about something important. Abc 123 Essays! Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people. He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the great themes of life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man. And a comic hero would be Truman -- the thesis on export one true-man in a world that deceives him.
The end of the paragraph begins the business that has caused all the trouble. Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for a laxative comes from the abc 123 essays Greek term catharsis, which you already know). Comparing Contrasting Two Friends Essay! You watch a tragedy to abc 123 essays have a good cry, and get rid of your ideas about bad things happening to good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI. Aristotle goes on to explain what these are. Plot: the story; the digital divide dissertation good ones focus on a single episode. Character: the essays personalities of the characters, as shown in their words and essays, actions. (Considering the essays limitations of the form, the Greeks did a nice job of drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of words.
Aristotle points out comparing two friends, how effective using just the right word can be. Thought: Arguments and exposition. Aristotle compares it to rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects. Not so much the poet's business as the stage-specialist's. Song: words joined to music. What is abc 123 missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the thoughts about life on thesis, which tragedies can be based. Aristotle was a very smart person, and the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life. Yet Aristotle is silent on this important element of tragedy.
As you continue to study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. I like Shakespeare, and like the ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling. Macbeth gets much of its impact from its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in essays a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and meanness of human society. Hamlet starts by wishing he was dead. At the end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and love well in an unfair world. The themes of Romeo and Juliet were radical in thesis import Shakespeare's time.
Shakespeare changed the messsage of his source (which was a cautionary tale for teenagers to obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives. The disasters of essays, young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents. And love gives happiness and dignity even in import the worst circumstances. Antony and Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the King, but with the essays idea that unselfish human love can, at least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in a godless world. Aristotle, the school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from looking for themes. Aristotle goes on to say that the plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and the action not covering more then 24 hours. Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. Thesis Import! (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to be coincidences, they should seem to make sense. But again, Tragedy is an abc 123, imitation not only anne hutchinson, of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity. Abc 123! Such an effect is best produced when the events come on us by surprise; and root cause, the effect is heightened when, at essays, the same time, they follow as cause and effect.
The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an air of design. We may instance the anne thesis statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and killed him. Such events seem not to be due to mere chance. Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are necessarily the essays best. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to suspend disbelief in them. (People want to believe in magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the will of the Force. Aristotle launches into a big discussion about simple vs. complex plots. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). Aristotle describes a scene of digital dissertation, suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage. A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on the complex plan.
It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation. It follows plainly, in essays the first place, that the change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of comparing contrasting two friends, a bad man passing from adversity to abc 123 prosperity: for nothing can be more alien to the spirit of Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Nor, again, should the downfall of the utter villain be exhibited. Digital Divide Dissertation! A plot of essays, this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of ethic, a man like ourselves. Such an event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible. There remains, then, the character between these two extremes- that of a man who is not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not by vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . He must be one who is highly renowned and prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. Abc 123 Essays! -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems. Plays about bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. On Road Accidents And Preventive! (Beavis and Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in the end don't work because we can't identify with the bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the abc 123 essays King DOES shock us, and is intended to do so. Why is Aristotle avoiding the obvious?
We'll soon see. A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. Ethic Term Papers! The change of fortune should be not from bad to good, but, reversely, from good to bad. It should come about as the essays result not of vice, but of some great error or frailty, in on road accidents and preventive a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. The practice of the stage bears out our view. -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is referring to serious plays that have a disaster in the middle, but a happy ending. Aristotle considers these to essays be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. In the second rank comes the kind of tragedy which some place first. Like the Odyssey, it has a double thread of ethic papers, plot, and also an opposite abc 123 essays, catastrophe for the good and for on road, the bad.
It is abc 123 accounted the best because of the weakness of the spectators; for the poet is guided in what he writes by the wishes of his audience. The pleasure, however, thence derived is not the true tragic pleasure. It is proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in ethic term papers the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the stage as friends at essays, the close, and no one slays or is slain. -- XIII This only comparing contrasting essay, makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the purpose of serious drama is to make you have a good scare and a good cry and go back to thinking that real-life is more fair. Aristotle goes on to explain that the abc 123 best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and fear, and hutchinson, that the best plays don't even need the abc 123 special effects. Fear and pity may be aroused by spectacular means; but they may also result from the inner structure of the piece, which is the better way, and indicates a superior poet. For the plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the aid of the eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to pity at what takes place. This is the impression we should receive from hearing the essays on road accidents measures story of the Oedipus. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family. The killer may or may not know what he/she is doing.
It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the King. Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of Character there are four things to essays be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good. Dissertation! Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the purpose is good. This rule is relative to each class. Abc 123 Essays! Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the thesis woman may be said to essays be an on road accidents measures, inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing to aim at essays, is propriety. There is a type of manly valor; but valor in digital a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. -- XV. We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of sexism and classism.
But the truth is abc 123 that on the Greek stage, the women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and brave as the men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores. Aristotle goes on to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of people we meet in life, and that characters should be consistent. Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Aulis, which tells the story of a sudden decision for heroic altruism. It remains to thesis speak of Diction and Thought, the other parts of Tragedy having been already discussed. Concerning Thought, we may assume what is said in the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is abc 123 included every effect which has to be produced by speech, the subdivisions being: proof and refutation; the contrasting excitation of the abc 123 essays feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and on export import, the like; the essays suggestion of importance or its opposite. Divide Dissertation! Now, it is evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of view as the dramatic speeches, when the essays object is to evoke the sense of pity, fear, importance, or probability. -- XIX. Aristotle talks about realism, which is a curious topic when talking about tales from Greek mythology. Further, if it be objected that the description is not true to fact, the two friends poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to essays be; Euripides, as they are. Digital Divide Dissertation! In this way the objection may be met.
If, however, the representation be of neither kind, the essays poet may answer, This is how men say the thing is, applies to tales about the gods. Accidents And Preventive Measures! It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and said it -- the tales of abc 123 essays, Greek Mythology are fiction. Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the rough issue. Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and Euripides portraying people as they are. Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and altruistic.
Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of mental illness. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of regret, making a speech about how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to get back at root cause case, their father. You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand. Aristotle got paid to tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers.
1. When something really bad happens to a good person in abc 123 essays a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is just make-believe. It is so you can have a good scare and a good cry. This gets these emotions out of your system. You can go back to the real world, where life is digital fair. It's bunk, intended to keep people from complaining about abc 123 essays, Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the gods might be malicious. He may have thought he was right to do so.
Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Thesis! Even today, students are forced to abc 123 write essays about tragic flaws and purging pity and fear. Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault. I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to be Aristotle's. But whenever something bad happens to comparing contrasting two friends a basically good person in a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. (Hubris is the same word; the Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and is its origin, but the sound was more like the uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the chorus specifically call Creon on his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to promote national security.
I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to abc 123 be from Oedipus the King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to gain public support after the murder. Contrasting Essay! Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for abc 123, standing up for what most of us would say is common sense and genuine goodness. It is hard to generalize this. Interestingly, I can't find the idea of hybris in Aristotle's Poetics. During the sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of essays accidents, civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against essays an accusation of hybris.
I am an honest physician who engages in public debates. When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the public, they never defend their cases on the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc. Import! I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to look instead at what the author is really saying about life. If Aristotle and his successors had been free to abc 123 speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and with which most students (then and now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to very good people. Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well.
This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and your good character. It's safest, and the best strategy, to thesis import try to be a good person. It's fun to be scared at shows, and to cry. Abc 123! But we don't want to essays on road and preventive measures be rid of these emotions, but to feel them most intensely. Perhaps we can also bring back, from a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and our world. Oedipus seeks the truth about himself despite the warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to essays limit free inquiry.
But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about nature, and about themselves. Comparing! It is a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme. Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an abc 123 essays, intensity that remains unsurpassed. Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to become richer in many ways, including variety of plot, character, and thesis import, theme. Much of the essays power of serious literature (like tragedy, and like the comedies of Aristophanes and Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises. We do not have to be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to be more frightened of people who would restrict the free sharing of dissertation, ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us.
Young people naturally discuss whether the stories they hear in essays church are true, and perhaps even whether the divide universe itself might be malevolent. (Today's teens enjoy the tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of abc 123, Cthulhu, in which the spiritual powers of the on road accidents measures universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the abc 123 essays morals of young people. Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of why bad things happen to two friends essay good people in abc 123 a universe supposedly under God's control. Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in peace and good-will. Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. Dissertation! But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of us who approach the essays universe with a sense of anne, awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in abc 123 essays the original Greek of the New Testament for ethic term papers, sin. The King James Version has 172 instances. Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is no longer online.
In the essays end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and accidents measures, accepts his fate. He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall. Dr. Black, from Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is abc 123 his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Yet this is root analysis training studies a form of hubris -- the abc 123 essays belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the future etc. Thesis Import! through one's native wit, and this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the hunt. Reason = Apollo. Myth Man.
Oedipus. brought about his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to know himself. I'm honored to abc 123 be the source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the story is, Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is now down. Cause Case! University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about essays, his own identity. The writer is fair enough to accidents and preventive point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for abc 123 essays, his flaw.
You can decide for thesis, yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the term, taken in context. Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to world literature prior to the decline in religious belief. Who does control our lives? What sort of relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness.
Letters on the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to find one. The whole business of 'tragic flaws' is something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students. Essays! No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . . I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong. Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in tragedy.
A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride. However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by comparing contrasting flaws or by hybris . In fact, in most cases, the abc 123 essays protagonist is actually destroyed by his or her virtues. In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to explain exactly what is happening in tragedy but what should be happening. He is answering a very specific challenge to ethic papers the very existence of tragedy presented by Plato in the Republic Book III. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the audience. Aristotle's development of the abc 123 essays tragic flaw is a response to this challenge. Root Cause Case Studies! The author has a Ph.D. in essays Ancient and Medieval Philosophy.
Link is now down: Cyber Essays to help students. The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is not worth living and (A.A. Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to digital dissertation be wise. Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious. Abc 123 Essays! What the digital divide dissertation essay ignores is that Oedipus pursued the truth to save his city, not to amuse himself. The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know. We used to hear this from anti-science college-campus types on both the far-right and abc 123 essays, the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines. You'll have to decide for yourself about this. Thesis! But like it or not, focusing on science over make-believe has a lot to do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more.
This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for abc 123, students who for whatever reason do not want to write their own papers. I have received no response to on road accidents my protests. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at abc 123 essays, all computer-savvy, and you turn in a paper that you took for free off the root training studies web, you will be caught. Everybody will make fun of you, and you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha!
Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in the character [of Oedipus], is really nothing -- and essays, need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to remain passive in the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status. Only the passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of us are in that category. Miller adds that the terror and ethic term papers, the fear that is classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the unquestioned. Maybe this is more about Miller than about Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting. Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother.
Release date Sept. 2004. Essays! Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. You can visit me at my own page and follow the links from there to my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites.
Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the digital divide quotation marks. This became standard to protect fragile bits of movable type. Abc 123! My practice lets me know I'm the essays accidents and preventive measures one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances), and get out of abusive relationships by any means. The best thing anybody can say about abc 123 essays, you is, That kid likes to work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people. Thanks for visiting. Root Cause Training Case! Health and friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by Sophocles Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the abc 123 name of the term site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD.
Visitors send me this question from time to time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on essays, dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on essays accidents measures, drugs profiteering. Abc 123 Essays! then the answer is probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the term immoral for term papers, the idea that the abc 123 essays gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for lack of thesis, a better English word. And it seems appropriate to me. Abc 123! (Cliff Notes used the word moral for the idea that the gods are fair and contrasting two friends, decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution. Athenians often constructed sentences in the form of abc 123, One the one hand ( men ). and on the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides. It'll be fun and ethic, prevent trouble.
If your instructor is a proponent of one of the three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out abc 123 essays, how Sophocles recognizes the falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and thesis, amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out essays, how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the talk about gods and so forth, was bunk, and maybe this is what he is really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to Oedipus the King, be ready for these questions from your students. Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on anne hutchinson, a search for the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the key factor for understanding the tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations.
The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in abc 123 its conclusions. He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at two friends, Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and essays, his pride and determination in trying to get the herdsman to tell the thesis on export truth. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the different supposed tragic flaws? If a lone man is hassled and then physically attacked by a group of thugs on a deserted stretch of highway, especially when the area is not patrolled by fast police cars, he is much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for abc 123 essays, mercy. This isn't right, but it's a fact of anne thesis, life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and abc 123, are naive. Anne! Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of Laius as self-defense. What kind of sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to think Oedipus caused his own downfall? Today, if a psychic went on the air and accused a decent, respected government official of essays, murder and incest, people would be furious and thesis on export import, believe that this is crooked politics. Essays! Oedipus is right to think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is behind it. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and angry?
If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and essay, the Chorus says he is over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the abc 123 essays need to revere the gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. Anne Hutchinson Thesis! In fact, the abc 123 essays Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. This is in spectacular contrast to the ending of Antigone, where the Chorus sings about Creon's hybris (I refuse to allow proper religious burial rites for a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and keep our people safe) and how it caused his ruin (Religion and ethic term, conscience and decency and human love take precedence over supposed National Security.) Does the word hybris even appear in Aristotle's Poetics? The site went up in 1998, and has proved very popular. Most of my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. Abc 123! I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about anne hutchinson, this page, all claiming to come from teachers. Abc 123! (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to teach English at a major university, but the contrasting department chairman tells me that he knows of no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about classical literature to abc 123 essays send hate mail. However, not one of contrasting two friends essay, them (or anyone else) has ever tried to explain why I am wrong -- and that leads me to draw the abc 123 essays obvious conclusion.
If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for analysis, using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to take care of it for you. Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the King, and the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have! Health and friendship! This isn't the first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is right and that I'm wrong, but not why. In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease.
Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on indigestion apart from its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in lack of self-esteem, but in a sense of entitlement and special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by overling or on a mattress or big toy. William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight. I'm no Teiresias.
But except for the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over academic dogma. I'm thankful for the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the best of my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites. In August 2000, the operator of the abc 123 essays large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for a price in hutchinson thesis the low four figures. I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and spare everybody from a lot of wasted time. It's a shame. This site will always remain free, to help everybody enjoy the essays works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. If any of the sites to which I have linked are asking students for thesis, their money, please let me know. reset Jan. 30, 2005:
Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to see the essays author's friend, Dr. Thesis On Export Import! Ken Savage, do it right.
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Abc 123 essays – Claud Butler
Top 15 Video Essayists on Youtube. Great art inspires further art. This inspiration can be found within films, but the criticism and analysis of abc 123 essays film can also be viewed as artwork itself. Divide Dissertation. Online Video has allowed talented and thoughtful people an abc 123 essays, accessible outlet to comparing essay describe their experiences with various creators, and document their responses towards it. Without going into abc 123 a full deconstruction of the online Video Essay (which can be found here ), it allows for a combination of divide film criticism and filmmaking, combining entertainment and insight into abc 123 essays a single entity. While obviously, as in any emerging medium, multitudes of digital content makers whose talent does not match their eagerness exist, I have listed several whom I believe make appreciation and understanding of films better through their own creations. The above image is from a Video Essayist examining the film Drive (2011) using the abc 123, Quadrant system. The Video Essay itself, which combines film criticism with the visual medium can be found here. On every list, there is the dreaded position of being last, and this time that unfortunate lands on Dan Olson of Folding Ideas. This is not because I find Olson sloppy or unintelligent, truly he might be the smartest media analyst on comparing contrasting essay this list, but he falls to the final spot for not really being a Video Essayists.
Olson is an academic, explaining and essays, deconstructing visual storytelling to hutchinson teach his audience, rather than analyse particular content. His content is rather dry and formal, showing how things work rather than what they mean. But this is important work, and his breakdown of narrative techniques provides fascinating insights into essential components of the abc 123 essays, visual medium, beneath their surface, and how they unfold in ethic papers our minds. Favourite Video: The Art of Editing and Suicide Squad. Olson systematically deconstructs David Ayer’s Suicide Squad to reveal the straining foundations beneath the essays, film’s flashier, tangible, surface-level problems. This video demonstrates how the misuse of anne hutchinson film language can subconsciously make us feel uneasy about abc 123 essays a film without precisely knowing why, and how missteps and rewrites of a movie can irrecoverably damage the core of a product.
Audience’s reactions to films cannot be wholly quantified, but of chief concern to Thomas Flight is exploring how filmmakers specifically intend to create a response to their creations. Flight’s analysis and papers, style can sometimes be fairly standard, but the abc 123 essays, content he creates is certainly useful, and the insights he gives certainly productive. Favourite Video: Nightcrawler Incriminates Its Viewers. Flight’s essay on Dan Gilroy’s Nightcrawler examines one of the film’s most fascinating aspects; the way it commentates and reflects upon its audience. Flight looks at several aspects of the film, detailing how and why the cause analysis case, directors used Nightcrawler ’s main character to explore the system he participated in, and abc 123 essays, the world around him that we, as an audience, contributed to. Andrew Saladino purposefully set out to make a pretentious sounding name with the Royal Ocean Film Society. But his perchance for pretention and obscure filmmakers and movies should not distract from the in-depth content he provides. Saladino intentionally examines less popular creators and topics to root cause analysis training case broaden the abc 123, landscape, and while his ‘outsider’ approach doesn’t exactly translate to his own style (Saladino very much operates within the tried and on road accidents and preventive measures, tested method of ‘talking over film clips’), the effort to introduce new ideas to abc 123 essays what can seem a very self-referential market is digital divide dissertation commendable. While it cannot hope to essays change the tides of modern online film discourse, the Royal Ocean Film Society is able to charter new land in what can be discovered. Favourite Video: The Rise (or Return?) of Christian Films. Saladino’s exploration of the Independent Christian Film market encapsulates his desire to examine overlooked aspects of the digital, film landscape.
Modern Christian films are immensely successful, yet received hardly any discussion, and Saladino dissects both the reasons behind this quiet shift in the film industry, and its future repercussions. Rather than focusing on abc 123 essays an individualistic movie or filmmaker, Now You See It is more focused on exposing the common tropes and divide dissertation, story conventions found throughout films. The different effects of using the same techniques and abc 123 essays, themes, whether it be Gangsters, Endings, Swearing or Milk, are analysed in a condescend format, showcasing the similarities and contrasts in their usage. The magical power of a topic is demonstrated once you understand the digital divide dissertation, context and intent behind its implementation. Abc 123. Now You See It sets out to comparing essay reveal what is abc 123 hiding in plain sight in films, encouraging us to see their importance, rather than just watching it. Favourite Video: Milk in root cause analysis training studies Movies: Why do Characters Drink It?
I wasn’t kidding about the Milk video. It also happens to be my favourite. Now You See It undertakes a seemingly innocuous and underused narrative device, the drinking of Milk, and deconstructs the abc 123, narrative logic behind its place in the script. This also leads to a unexpected but quite accurate description of Mad Max: Fury Road . Root Analysis Case Studies. Drawing on essays both social context and audience reactions, Now You See It demonstrates with this video how no topic, or liquid, is divide dissertation small enough to abc 123 be dismissed without worthwhile insight. Sometimes more than fancy editing or unique voice or profound reinterpretations, we merely want to understand what a particular film is going for. This is the on road accidents and preventive measures, service What it All Meant provides, giving succinct and rather blunt analysis of various famous movies. There is abc 123 something effective about his understated delivery and visuals, laying out an explanation paired with multiple examples makes the underlying meaning seem apparent. In other ways, What it All Meant seems to most utilise the video format, matching a thematic musing to it the film purely through what is on road accidents seen, not what is being said. The connection between the two, what grafts meaning onto the artwork, is done by us.
What it All Meant takes a single through-line in it’s analysis of Tarantino’s Pulp Fiction ; Respect. Proceeding to show how this single concept is an abc 123, undercurrent in the film, and comparing contrasting two friends essay, how a film as wild and tangential as Pulp Fiction can really be unified in this collective theme. This video also showcases a greater dexterity with editing and visuals than the standard ones, utilising split-screens and diegetic dialogue to further illustrate his points. As he points out in the video, maybe there is no one definition of respect, like there is no one meaning of abc 123 essays Pulp Fiction , or any film, merely a collage of human experience and concepts into a soft, shapeless, pulpy mess. One of the greatest things online content can provide is fresh perspectives on culture you personaly cannot relate to, or have even thought about. By focusing upon Queer theory and LGBTQ+ themes in Popular Culture, Needs More Gay fills a crucial gap in my hetero-normative knowledge. The host Jamie Maurer (or ‘Rantasmo’) investigates LGBTQ+ culture’s representation in both mainstream media (going from anne hutchinson thesis current TV/Films to classics like The Wizard of abc 123 Oz ) to papers completely low-budget obscure sub-genre films exclusive to the gay community. Even where you think no analysis can be gained, Needs More Gay demonstrates discussions of sexuality are pervasive and relevant throughout most of media. The supposed ‘gayness’ of abc 123 essays Top Gun is something that has been circling around the film’s reputation for a while now, and Maurer investigates both the origin of this claim, and and preventive measures, it’s legitimacy. He both dissuades and affirms the validity of the film’s supposed homoerotic undertones, revealing how the male gaze and masculine expectations play into this view on it.
Like all great essays, this video reveals as much about the audience viewing the film, as the film itself. Wisecrack has become the premier of commercialised Video Essays. Making their beginnings with Thug Notes , which broke down classic literature from a ‘street smart’ angle, through to Earthling Cinema that used an alienated perspective to movies, Wisecrack uses subversive comedy to explain high-concept art in universal languages. While this style can appear patronising at times, Wisecrack possesses a deep and abc 123 essays, rich empire of content, bringing down intellectual concepts to a level everyone can understand and appreciate. Favourite Video: The Philosophy of Kanye West. There are really far too much Wisecrack videos to pick a representational or favourite one, but I think their dissection of Kanye West highlight’s their interest in Popular Culture and knowledge in philosophical history. The research of both their subject and philosophical thesis emerges from the video, which places Kanye’s music and public personality as an existentialist demand for purpose and meaning. However much you may disagree with their conclusions, Wisecrack demonstrates the wit and wisdom to divide dissertation make a convincing argument. An innuendo is an allusion, pairing one meaning with another, more oblique, one. What Ian Danskin aims to abc 123 do with Innuendo Studios is match high concept ideas with culture that is anne normally not perceived that way, creating links that transcend society.
Most often this analysis focuses on abc 123 essays Video Games, but always with a focus on storytelling techniques and the cultural context surrounding it. Danskin’s series on the Gamergate movement is essential viewing for its deconstruction and historical breakdown on the harassment and papers, anger within it. Essays. The content Danskin produces is always highly learned and contrasting two friends, insightful, if sometimes infrequent, and like all good innuendos, will mean you cannot look at the same thing the same way again. Favourite Video: It’s Not Easy Being Blue. I never really cared about ‘90s icon Sonic the Hedgehog, but after this video I did. Abc 123 Essays. Danskin manages to breakdown the paradox of Sonic’s iconographical status, being both a relic of the past yet also constantly reinvented for the present. Beyond the surface however, Danskin tells the tale of a mascot who wants to satisfy everyone, but in trying to do so disappoints them all individually. Somewhow, Danskin turns Sonic into a beautiful metaphor for the strained artist, doing all he can to please his large audience, not understanding that in the modern age, those audiences have split into followers.
While many naive filmgoers may view the screenplay simply as the papers, lines and abc 123 essays, actions which the on export, Directors and Actors follow, Michael Tucker understands the strategy and differences that comes from the screenplay. By comparing the screenplay to the finished product, Tucker explores how differences emerge from the reinterpretation by essays the director, and how the story is structured around specific points of writing. By unearthing the term, originating point for the films examined, Tucker teaches us what can be gained from the root of the story. Favourite Video: The Social Network – Sorkin, Structure and Collaboration. Tucker dissects a heavily requested video from a widely known screenwriter, Aaron Sorkin. Abc 123. This video does a good job of understanding why Sorkin is such a notable and memorable figure, revealing the strong foundations beneath Sorkin’s noticeable flare. Divide. The breakdowns of individual scenes, and how the screenplay balances character motivations with exposition and witty dialogue to transform a Facebook biopic into one of the greatest films of the 21 st century. Tucker also does a fantastic job of highlighting how a great screenplay is paired and adapted with a great director in David Fincher, and how his specific creative vision is paired with Sorkin’s unique style, into a collaborative masterpiece. Beyond style or format or even ideas, it is the personality and enthusiasm of the creator which draws you into their artwork.
The energetic, tangential and rapid breakdowns from Mikey Neuman are a pure celebration of essays his favourite cinema, even if he admits they are not all the greatest films. His wonderful, sometimes lyrical, occasional annoying scripts weave over his best experiences of film, and his pure energy eclipses any failings these films may have as only slight hindrances. You shouldn’t assume his informal, quick delivery and cause training case, style is laziness however, as Neuman demonstrates his talent and commitment to these videos with his editing and abc 123, research, which is inserted elegantly within the videos. Movies with Mikey remains a fresh, wholly positive outlook on current cinema, that has no intention of slowing down. Favourite Video: The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy. One of the best things these videos can do is change your opinion on thesis on export a film, rather than simply reaffirm it. I never particularly cared for the 2005 adaptation of The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy , but Mikey unravels and deconstructs how forced competition between versions of stories is not only meaningless, but actively destructive. This video almost serves as a thesis for abc 123 essays Movies with Mikey, elaborating on the positive aspects of root analysis film in abc 123 essays fresh styles, aiming to ethic term share joy with others, and avoiding being the best or ‘correct’ so that we can be happy with what we have.
While the content of videos is obviously important, the flare and presentation can be impressive in itself. Abc 123 Essays. Purely aesthetically, Kristian Williams‘ creations are visual love letters to all aspects of media; film, comics, music and television. The respect for artistry, and revere for cultural impact is found with his work, and his crisp, flowing editing style consistently engages the digital dissertation, viewer with whatever topic is explored. On a visceral level, the elegance of Williams’ essays heightens the subject matter, rendering the content greater by the images and sounds, as well as the words. Favourite Video: Who Framed Roger Rabbit – The 3 Rules of Living Animation. Krisitian Williams looks at abc 123 essays how live-action and animation were combined in Who Framed Roger Rabbit , and establishes the effort placed into minute details to make the essays accidents and preventive, combination as effective as possible. Typical of Williams’ videos, smooth music underlines script notes, annotated clips and exterior references to collage a complete picture of the process. While discussing the seamless nature of Roger Rabbit ’s animation, Williams also highlights the tight, smooth process of his own creations.
Rather than the previous quick, stylised and somewhat flashy video essays, Lindsay Ellis operates from abc 123 a standpoint of experienced knowledge of filmmaking. Beginning as a more comedic reviewer as the ‘Nostalgia Chick’ on That Guy with the Glasses (now Channel Awesome), Ellis outgrew these limitations to on road grant detailed explanations and applications of abc 123 essays film theory. She presents both long-formed explorations of specific films and genres, while also regularly producing Loose Canon , where the contrasting two friends, representations of iconic characters across time and media are examined. Her series The Whole Plate , a 12-part (!) dissection of abc 123 essays Michael Bay’s Transformers films and on export import, their relation to film studies, is also essential viewing. Essays. Ellis’ dry wit and clear intelligence makes her dives into studies of cinema both impactful and meaningful. Favourite Video: How Three-Act Screenplays Work (and why it matters) I’m not certain this is really Ellis’ best work, as her divulgence into Mel Brook’s use of satire and The Producers greater demonstrates her skill and historical knowledge of film, and her demolition of Joel Schumacher’s Phantom of the Opera is visceral fun, but this video serves as a useful introduction to both Ellis’ style and knowledge. She outlines the root cause analysis studies, fundamentals of film theory, and abc 123 essays, how they are implemented in various movies, which still holding her signature delivery. Root. Appropriately, her explanation of the abc 123, foundation of essays accidents and preventive most mainstream movies provides a neat primer for the rest of her extensive oeuvre. Evan Puschak’s ‘The Nerdwriter’ may be the frontrunner of the current Video Essay phenomenon. Abc 123. While others have been creating before him, few do so with the frequency and diversity of Puschak’s content.
He grapples not only root studies with all forms of art (including films, TV, comics, painting, poetry and music), but has gained large success with his sociological and political analysis. What stands out to Puschak for me however is not only his obvious skill with editing and research, which grant each of his videos a captivating essence, but the tender way he gently unravels the layers of artwork he adores. While utilising a mature, informed perspective, he retains that childlike wonder of how such expansive ideas can be contained in single works. The passion and inquisitiveness of being a ‘nerd’ has never felt so appealing. Favourite Video: A Serious Man: Can Life Be Understood? Puschak’s catalogue of videos is so expansive and diverse that picking one favourite was extremely difficult (other recommendations are of Casey Neistat, Mulholland Drive , Vertigo , The Prisoner of Azkaban , The Prestige , In Bruges and many, many more), but this penetrating, but also lyrical, look at abc 123 the Coen Brother’s A Serious Man highlights many of Puschak’s strengths. Two Friends. Starting from the text of the film itself, he magnifies the abc 123, character’s searches for meaning within the film into an existentialist musing on the desire for interpretation itself. Minute details and grandiose themes are paired together with style to create a solid, if implicitly futile, explanation of a fantastic film. 2. Kyle Kallgren (Brows Held High/Between the Lines/Summer of Shakespeare) I feel that often ‘pretentiousness’ is used as a deflective from further investigation, a shield from ethic term papers trying to actually explain what ‘Art House Films’ are attempting to say.
Kyle Kallgren, while often commenting on the absurdity, is unafraid of abc 123 essays immersing himself in obscure and purposefully bizarre topics. Kallgren began on Channel Awesome with comedic-centred recaps of Art House films, providing humorous reactions to their grotesque content, but transferred into root cause case studies a genuine attempt to explain why these films were created, and why they mean something. His Brows Held High examines the essays, nominal highbrow movies, while Between the Lines gives a broader analysis of how topics in popular culture (from Washington D.C., to Superheroes, to Dictators) have mutated over film history, and his Summer of on export import Shakespeare videos look at how Shakespeare has been adapted into the cinematic medium. In doing these videos, Kallgren provides incredibly rich insights, which encourage film audiences to venture into abc 123 more obscure territory, and keep their sights set upwards. Favourite Video : Brows Held High – Holy Motors: Man without a Movie Camera / Between the Lines – Inception and the Surreal / Summer of thesis Shakespeare – Jean-Luc Godard’s King Lear: A Movie About No Thing. I am really cheating with these selections, but using an example from essays each of Kallgren’s shows hopefully demonstrates the range of insights and topics he can cover. Essays On Road Measures. His deconstruction of Holy Motors tackles an essays, extremely difficult French Art House movies, picking apart not only the context behind the filmmaker, but how it relates the understanding of filmmaking itself. Meanwhile his breakdown of Inception is one of the best I’ve ever seen, understanding the comparing two friends essay, origin’s of Nolan’s film coming from other Surrealist movies, creating an instructive and strangely personal video that grants renewed appreciation for the movie. Finally, the analysis of essays Godard’s King Lear takes a purposefully nonsensical film, and extrapolates both the likely intention from the famous auteur, and how it closely pertains to contrasting two friends it’s original Shakespearian source. Of everyone on essays the list, Tony Zhou is one of the most influential creators here. While several other creators have been here before him, everyone seems to have adapted to his frank delivery and rich knowledge of film form.
It is this examination of form , how camera techniques or soundtracks or whatever are utilised that separates Zhou from a mere descriptor of a film’s themes, to a curator of how these themes are reinforced by the medium. By forcing his viewers to inspect not only what filmmakers do, but how they do it, and on road accidents and preventive measures, how the craft on a single scene can embody the essays, skill used throughout their entire creation. Favourite Video: Jackie Chan – How to do Action Comedy. Every Tony Zhou video is thesis on export worth watching. Abc 123. There aren’t that many, relatively speaking, and each will create a profound shift in how you experience cinematic language. But personally, his tribute to Jackie Chan’s use of root cause training case studies editing and composition demonstrates both his understanding of the form, and how Zhou is able to effectively communicate these ideas to the audience. Using multiple examples (and counter-examples), Zhou demonstrates how the efficiency of Jackie Chan’s action is abc 123 essays not only in essay his personal skills, but how the film form bends to accommodate his techniques. Currently studying English at University of essays Edinburgh, Scotland. Have a passion and interest for vivisecting and reassembling all forms of divide dissertation media, from plays to films to comics.
Also for using nice and fancy words like 'vivisecting'.
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10 Free Business Plan Templates for Startups. Business plans can seem daunting to someone who has never written one. The business idea itself might be fairly simple to explain, but if you want to apply for a loan, raise investor capital, or simply have a solid, documented direction for your company, you#39;re going to need to write a business plan. Luckily for entrepreneurs, there are templates out there that allow you to plug in all of the information, instead of struggling with formatting and figuring out what you need to abc 123 essays include. There are web-based business plan tools, but you may find it easier to use Microsoft Word and contrasting two friends essay, PDF-based templates. Here are 10 free templates you can download and use to create your first business plan. [See Related Story: The Dos and Don#39;ts of Writing a Great Business Plan] Bplans.com, known as the essays, authority on business plans, offers a free Word business plan template, complete with instructions and a table of contents. It also offers standard business plan sections such as executive summary, company summary, products and services, market analysis, strategy, management summary, and financial planning. Once you register, you will be able to download the materials and choose from digital a wide range of abc 123, businesses in cause analysis training, different industries in which to base your plan. Whether your business is online, service-based, or a food establishment, Bplan#39;s Word business plan templates are comprehensive and are a great option for beginners and new business owners.
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The $100 Startup, a New York Times and comparing essay, Wall Street Journal best seller, offers the One-Page Business Plan, a simple form that asks several questions you can quickly answer to get up and running. This free business plan template covers everything from your business overview to finances, marketing, goals and challenges. Other resources that The $100 Startup offers include a one-page consulting business plan, one-page marketing plan, product launch guide and more. Additional reporting by Sara Angeles and Marci Martin. Editor#39;s note: If you#39;re looking for information to help you with business plan services, use the questionnaire below to have our sister site provide you with information from a variety of vendors for abc 123 essays free.
Jennifer Post graduated from Rowan University in 2012 with a Bachelor#39;s Degree in Journalism. Having worked in the food industry, print and online journalism, and marketing, she is now a freelance contributor for Business News Daily. When she#39;s not working, you will find her exploring her current town of Cape May, NJ or binge watching Pretty Little Liars for the 700th time.
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ets essay scorer Automated Essay Scoring: Applications to Educational Technology. Box 30001, Dept. Abc 123 Essays! 3452. New Mexico State University. Las Cruces, NM, 88003. 625 Utica Avenue. Boulder, CO, 80304.
Thomas K Landauer. University of Colorado. Boulder, CO 80309. The Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA) is a set of software tools for scoring the quality of on export import essay content. The IEA uses Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), which is both a computational model of abc 123 human knowledge representation and a method for extracting semantic similarity of anne words and passages from text. Simulations of psycholinguistic phenomena show that LSA reflects similarities of human meaning effectively. To assess essay quality, LSA is abc 123 first trained on domain-representative text. Then student essays are characterized by LSA representations of the meaning of their contained words and compared with essays of known quality on degree of conceptual relevance and amount of relevant content.
Over many diverse topics, the IEA scores agreed with human experts as accurately as expert scores agreed with each other. Implications are discussed for incorporating automatic essay scoring in cause analysis training more general forms of educational technology. While writing is an essential part of the educational process, many instructors find it difficult to incorporate large numbers of writing assignments in abc 123 essays their courses due to digital dissertation, the effort required to evaluate them. However, the abc 123, ability to convey information verbally is an import, important educational achievement in its own right, and one that is not sufficiently well assessed by abc 123 essays, other kinds of training tests. In addition, essay-based testing is thought to encourage a better conceptual understanding of the material on abc 123, the part of students and to reflect a deeper, more useful level of import knowledge and application by students. Thus grading and essays, criticizing written products is important not only as an digital, assessment method, but also as a feedback device to help students better learn both content and the skills of thinking and writing. Abc 123! Nevertheless, essays have been neglected in many computer-based assessment applications since there exist few techniques to hutchinson, score essays directly by computer. In this paper we describe a method for performing automated essay scoring of the conceptual content of essays. Based on a statistical approach to analyzing the essays and content information from the domain, the technique can provide scores that prove to be an accurate measure of the quality of essays.
The text analysis underlying the abc 123, essay grading schemes is based on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). Detailed treatments of LSA, both as a theory of aspects of human knowledge acquisition and hutchinson, representation, and as a method for the extraction of abc 123 semantic content of text are beyond the scope of this article. They are fully presented elsewhere (Deerwester, Dumais, Furnas, Landauer, Harshman, 1990; Landauer Dumais, 1997; Landauer, Foltz Laham, 1998), as are a number of simulations of cognitive and psycholinguistic phenomena that show that LSA captures a great deal of the similarity of meanings expressed in discourse (Rehder, Schreiner, Wolfe, Laham, Landauer, Kintsch, 1998 ; Wolfe, Schreiner, Rehder, Laham, Foltz, Kintsch, Landauer, 1998). The LSA similarity between words and passages is measured by the cosine of their contained angle in a 300-dimensional semantic space. The LSA measured similarities have shown to case studies, closely mimic human judgments of meaning similarity and human performance based on such similarity in a variety of ways. Essays! For example, after training on about 2,000 pages of English text, it scored as well as average test-takers on hutchinson, the synonym portion of essays TOEFL#150;the ETS Test of English as a Foreign Language (Landauer Dumais, 1997). After training on an introductory psychology textbook, it achieved passing scores on comparing, two different multiple-choice exams used in introductory psychology courses (Landauer, Foltz Laham, in abc 123 preparation).
This similarity comparison made by LSA is the basis for two friends essay, performing automated scoring of essays through comparing the similarity of meaning between essays. Automated scoring with LSA. #9;While other approaches to automatic evaluation of written work have focussed on mechanical features, such as grammar, spelling and punctuation, there are other factors involved in writing a good essay. For example at an abstract level, one can distinguish three properties of a student essay that are desirable to assess; the correctness and completeness of its contained conceptual knowledge, the soundness of arguments that it presents in discussion of issues, and the fluency, elegance, and comprehensibility of its writing. Evaluation of superficial mechanical and essays, syntactical features is fairly easy to separate from the other factors, but the rest#150;content, argument, comprehensibility, and aesthetic style#150;are likely to be difficult to pull apart because each influences the other, if only because each depends on the choice of words.
#9;Although previous attempts to develop computational techniques for scoring essays have focused primarily on measures of style (e.g., Page, 1994), indices of content have remained secondary, indirect and superficial. In contrast to earlier approaches, LSA methods concentrate on the conceptual content, the knowledge conveyed in an essay, rather than its style, or even its syntax or argument structure. #9;To assess the root cause training case studies, quality of essays, LSA is first trained on domain-representative text. Based on this training, LSA derives a representation of the information contained in abc 123 the domain. Student essays are then characterized by LSA vectors based on the combination of all their words. Cause Training! These vectors can then be compared with vectors for essays or for texts of known content quality. The angle between the two vectors represents the degree to which the two essays discuss information in abc 123 a similar. For example, an ungraded essay can be compared to essays that have already been graded. If the angle between two essays is small then those essays should be similar in content. Thus, the semantic or conceptual content of two essays can be compared and a score derived based on their similarity.
Note that two essays can be considered to have almost identical content, even if they contain few or none of the same words, as long as they convey the same meaning. Evaluating the effectiveness of automated scoring. #9;Based on comparing conceptual content, several techniques have been developed for essays accidents and preventive, assessing essays. Abc 123 Essays! Details of these techniques have been published elsewhere and summaries of particular results will be provided below. One technique is to compare essays to ones that have been previously graded.
This technique provides a holistic score measuring the overall similarity of content (Laham, 1997; Landauer, Laham, Rehder, Schreiner, 1997). #9;The holistic method has been tested on a large number of anne hutchinson thesis essays over a diverse set of topics. The essays have ranged in grade level, including middle school, high school, college and college graduate level essays. Essays! The topics have included essays from classes in introductory psychology, biology, history, as well as essays from standardized tests, such as analyses of root cause training studies arguments, and abc 123, analyses of issues from the essays on road and preventive measures, ETS Graduate Management Achievement Test (GMAT). For each of these sets of essays, LSA is first trained on abc 123, a set of texts related to the domain. Then the content of each of the essays accidents and preventive, new essays is compared against the content of a set of pre-graded essays on the topic. In each case, the essays were also graded by at least two course instructors or expert graders, for example professional readers from Educational Testing Service, or other national testing organizations.
Across the datasets, LSA's performance produced reliabilities within the range of their comparable inter-rater reliabilities and within the generally accepted guidelines for essays, minimum reliability coefficients. For example, in term a set of 188 essays written on the functioning of the human heart, the average correlation between two graders was 0.83, while the correlation of LSA's scores with the abc 123, graders was 0.80. A summary of the performance of LSA's scoring compared to ethic, the grader-to-grader performance across a diverse set of essays 1205 essays on 12 topics is shown in Figure 1. Thesis! The results indicate that LSA's reliability in scoring is equivalent to that of human graders. #9;In a more recent study, the holistic method was used to grade two additional questions from the GMAT standardized test. The performance was compared against two trained ETS graders. For one question, a set of 695 opinion essays, the correlation between the two graders was 0.86, while LSA's correlation with the ETS grades was also 0.86. For the abc 123 essays, second question, a set of 668 analysis of argument essays, the correlation between the two graders was 0.87, while LSA's correlation to the ETS grades was 0.86.
Thus, LSA was able to perform near the same reliability levels as the on road accidents, trained ETS graders. Figure 1 . Summary of reliability results (N = 1205 Essays on 12 Diverse Topics) While the holistic technique relies on abc 123 essays, comparing essays against a set of pre-graded essays, other techniques have been developed that also effectively characterize the quality of essays. A second technique is to compare essays to an ideal essay, or gold standard (Wolfe et al., 1998), . In this case, a teacher can write his or her ideal essay and all student essays are then judged based on how close they are to the teacher's essay. In two final techniques, essays can be compared to hutchinson, portions of the original text, or compared to essays, sub-components of ethic term papers texts or essays (Foltz, 1996; Foltz, Britt Perfetti, 1996). Abc 123 Essays! In this final componential approach, individual sentences from digital dissertation a student's essay can be compared against a set of predetermined subtopics. This permits the determination of essays whether an on road accidents and preventive, essay sufficiently covers those subtopics. LSA derived scores based on the degree of coverage of abc 123 essays subtopics in essays show equivalent correlations with human graders as graders correlate with each other.
Anomalous essay checking. While it is important to verify the effectiveness of computer-based essay grading, it is also important that such a grader be able to determine if it can not grade an essay reliably. Thus, a number of hutchinson additional techniques have been developed that can detect anomalous essays. If an essays, essay is sufficiently different from the comparing contrasting two friends, essays for which it has been trained, the computer can flag it for human evaluation. We currently flag ones that are highly creative, off topic, or violate standard formats or structures for abc 123 essays, essays.
In addition, the digital, computer can determine whether any essay is too similar to other essays or to the textbook. The program is thus able to detect different levels of plagiarism. If an abc 123, essay is thesis import detected as being anomalous for any reason, the essay can be automatically forwarded to the instructor for additional evaluation. Experiences in the classroom: grading and essays, feedback. Over the past two years, the Intelligent Essay Assessor has been used in a course in Psycholinguistics at New Mexico State University. Designed as a web-based application, it permits students to submit essays on a particular topic from their web browsers. Within about 20 seconds, students receive feedback with an estimated grade for comparing contrasting two friends, their essay and a set of questions and essays, statements of additional subtopics that are missing from their essays.
Students can revise their essays immediately and resubmit. A demonstration is available at: http://psych.nmsu.edu/essay. To create this system, LSA was trained on root case, portion of the psycholinguistics textbook used in the class. The holistic grading method was used to provide an overall grade for any essay. In this method, each essay was compared against 40 essays from previous years that had been graded by essays, three different graders.
To verify the effectiveness of this approach for providing accurate grades, the average correlation among the three human graders was 0.73 while the average correlation of LSA#146;s holistic grade to the individual graders was 0.80. To provide feedback about missing information in each essay, individual sentences in each essay were compared against sentences that corresponded to subtopics of the comparing contrasting, essay topic. Essays! If no sentence was found that matched a subtopic then the student received feedback about the fact that their essay did not properly cover that subtopic. Students were permitted to use the system independently to write their essay and were encouraged to revise their essays and resubmit them to the computer as many times as they wanted until they were satisfied with their grades. The average grade for the students#146; first essays was 85 (out of 100). By the last revision, the average grade was 92.
Students#146; essays improved from revision to on road accidents and preventive measures, revision, with the improvements in scores ranging from 0 to 33 points over an average of 3 revisions. Abc 123! An additional trial is underway with a similar system in a Boulder Colorado middle school in root cause training case which students summarize texts on sources of energy. Abc 123! Preliminary results indicate that two-thirds of the students were able to improve their summaries based on the IEA's feedback. In both the undergraduate and middle school trials, students and teachers have enjoyed and valued using the system. A survey of usability and thesis import, preferences for/against the system in the psycholinguistics course showed that 98 percent of the abc 123 essays, students indicated that they would definitely or probably use such a system if it were available for their other classes. Overall, the essays accidents measures, results show that the IEA is successful at abc 123 essays, helping students improve the quality of their essays through providing immediate and root training case, accurate feedback. Implications of computer-based essay grading for education. There exist a variety of applications within education to which the IEA can be applied. At a minimal level, the abc 123 essays, IEA can be used as a consistency checker, in which the ethic, teacher grades the essays and then the IEA re-grades the essays and essays, indicates discrepancies between the comparing contrasting essay, two grades. Because the IEA is not influenced by fatigue, deadlines, or biases, it can provide a consistent and objective view of the quality of the essays.
The IEA can further be used in large scale standardized testing or large classes, by either providing consistency checks or serving as an automatic grader. At a more interactive level, the IEA can be used to help students improve their writing through assessing commenting on it. Essays! By providing instantaneous feedback about the quality of their essays, as well as indications of information missing from their essays, students can use the IEA as a tool to practice writing content-based essays. Due to a lack of cause analysis sufficient teachers and aides in many large section courses, writing assignments and essay exams have often been replaced by multiple choice questions. The IEA permits students to receive writing practice without requiring all essays to be evaluated by the teachers. Because the IEA's evaluations are immediate, students can receive feedback and make multiple revisions over the course of one session. Essays! This overall approach is consistent with the goals of the Writing across the Curriculum approach by allowing the introduction of more writing assignments in courses outside of hutchinson English or the humanities. Thus, the abc 123, IEA can serve to improve learning through writing. Finally, the IEA can be integrated with other software tools for essays on road accidents, education. In most software for distance education, tools for administering writing assignments are often neglected in favor of tools for creating and grading multiple choice exams. Abc 123 Essays! The IEA permits writing to be a more central focus.
For example, in web-based training systems, the IEA can be incorporated as an thesis import, additional module which would permit teachers to add writing assignments for their web courses. Essays can be evaluated on a secure server and scores can be returned directly either to the students or to the teachers along with the essays. Textbook supplements can similarly use the IEA for automated study guides. At the end of chapters, students can be asked to write essay questions addressing topics covered in essays the chapter. Based on an analysis of on export their essays, the software can suggest sections of the textbook that the students needs to review before they take their exams. The Intelligent Essay Assessor presents a novel technique for assessing the quality of content knowledge expressed in essays. It permits the automatic scoring of short essays that would be used in any kind of content-based courses.
Based on evaluations of the IEA over a wide range of essay topics and levels, the IEA proves as reliable at evaluating essay quality as human graders. Essays! Its scores are also highly consistent and objective. While the analysis studies, IEA is not designed for assessing creative writing, it can detect whether an essay is sufficiently different that it should be graded by the instructor. The IEA can be applied for both distance education and for training in the classroom. In both cases it may be used for assessing students content knowledge as well as providing feedback to students to help improve their learning. Overall, the IEA permits increasing the amount of writing assignments without overly increasing the grading load on the teacher. Because writing is a critical component towards helping students acquire both better content knowledge and better critical thinking skills, the IEA can serve as an effective tool for increasing students' exposure to writing. The web site http://lsa.colorado.edu provides demonstrations of the essay grading as well as additional applications of abc 123 essays LSA.
In addition, it provides links to many of the articles cited. This research was supported in part by a contract from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency-Computer Aided Education and on export, Training Initiative to Thomas Landauer and Walter Kintsch, a grant from the McDonnell Foundation#146;s Cognitive Science in Educational Practice program to W. Essays! Kintsch, T. Landauer, G. Thesis! Fischer, and an NMSU Dean's small grant to Peter Foltz. The Intelligent Essay Assessor has a patent pending: Methods for Analysis and Evaluation of the Semantic Content of Writing by P. W. Foltz, D. Laham, T. K. Landauer, W. Kintsch B. Rehder, held by the University of abc 123 Colorado. Deerwester, S., Dumais, S. T., Furnas, G. W., Landauer, T. K., Harshman, R. (1990). Indexing By Latent Semantic Analysis. Journal of the American Society For Information Science, 41 , 391-407. Foltz, P. W. (1996) Latent Semantic Analysis for text-based research. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments and Computers. 28 (2), 197-202. Foltz, P. W., Britt, M. A., Perfetti, C. A. (1996) Reasoning from multiple texts: An automatic analysis of readers' situation models. In G.W.
Cottrell (Ed.) Proceedings of the 18th Annual Cognitive Science Conference. (pp. 110-115), Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Laham, D. (1997). Automated holistic scoring of the quality of content in thesis directed student essays through Latent Semantic Analysis. Unpublished master#146;s thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado. Landauer, T. K., Dumais, S. T. (1997). Abc 123! A solution to Plato's problem: The Latent Semantic Analysis theory of the acquisition, induction, and representation of knowledge. Psychological Review , 104 , 211-240.
Landauer, T. K., Foltz, P. W., Laham, D. (1998). Latent Semantic Analysis passes the test: knowledge representation and multiple-choice testing . Manuscript in preparation. Landauer, T. K, Foltz, P. W. Laham, D. (1998) An introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis. Discourse Processes , 25 , 23, 259-284. Landauer, T. K., Laham, D., Rehder, B., Schreiner, M. E., (1997). How well can passage meaning be derived without using word order? A comparison of Latent Semantic Analysis and humans.
In M. G. Shafto P. Langley (Eds.), Proceedings of the 19th annual meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. On Export Import! 412-417). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Page, E. B. (1994). Computer grading of student prose using modern concepts and software. Journal of Experimental Education, 62 127-142. Rehder, B., Schreiner, M. E., Wolfe, B. W., Laham, D., Landauer, T. K., Kintsch, W. (in press).
Using Latent Semantic Analysis to assess knowledge: Some technical considerations. Discourse Processes . Wolfe, M., B. Schreiner, M. Abc 123 Essays! E., Rehder, B., Laham, D., Foltz, P. W., Kintsch, W. Landauer, T. Anne Hutchinson Thesis! K (1998). Learning from text: Matching readers and texts by Latent Semantic Analysis. Discourse Processes, 25 , 23, 309-336.
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Download a Resume Template That Employers Will Love. Are your Resume and abc 123 essays online job search profiles not yielding you the results you need to find gainful employment and finally afford to pay your bills? No doubt about anne hutchinson thesis, it; it’s tougher to find a job now than it’s been in decades. That doesn’t mean, however, that you can’t give yourself every fighting chance of snagging the next available job. While there is plenty to be said for effective interviewee skills, the absolute most important step for abc 123 essays getting hired is writing a winning Curriculum Vitae. Without a highly attractive C.V, you’re just one of dozens or more applicants that begin to blend together after a while. Comparing Contrasting Two Friends Essay! You want your most relevant skills and experience to jump off the page and grab the abc 123, attention of the person responsible for reviewing the group of CVs in which yours is stacked or filed online. Direct access to resume templates advices. 1. Choose your favorite Curriculum Vitae. 2. Download selected resumes on your desktop.
No front page content has been created yet. How To Write a Winning Curriculum Vitae. Understand What Makes a Great Resume. Many job applicants are under a misconception that a great Curriculum Vitae means fluffing up terms, adding lots of jobs and experience, listing as many skills as possible, and engaging in digital, other overkill tactics. Abc 123! Excessive and irrelevant information only clutters the page and makes it more difficult to find the skills and information for which your prospective employer is searching. The best resumes are those that are concise and specific to the job being sought. As such, a separate resume should be used for each job if the required skills, education, and contrasting two friends experience are different.
At the end of this article, we will review a few time saving tips building each specific Curriculum Vitae. Abc 123 Essays! First, though, let’s take a look at training studies, how to write a winning CV. Review All Job Description Material and More (If Necessary) While some employers seem to essays be in the habit of posting as little information as possible, others provide a great deal of valuable information relevant to term papers not only the skills, experience, and education of abc 123 essays a desired employee, but also the description, expectations, and demands of the job itself. Acquire as much information as you can about the position. If the employer provided you with pages and pages of descriptions, read them before building your resume. Ethic Term Papers! If the employer posted minimal information about the job, you may find information by reviewing the website or even calling and asking for details. The more you know about essays, your prospective employers, the on export import, more power you have to abc 123 essays show them a picture-perfect employee on paper.
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If you have multiple jobs dating back for cause studies a number of years, try to list only the most relevant jobs within the past 5-7 years on the first page and either make a note that a more extensive job history is abc 123 available upon request or attach a separate sheet with a complete history in import, case the abc 123 essays, reviewer is measures so inclined to abc 123 read it. Whatever you do, DO NOT let a full page of outdated and irrelevant details take away from the razzle and dazzle of the first page of your resume. Remember that your developed skills are more important than your experience. Yes, you need experience to thesis demonstrate the fact that you’ve had time to hone those skills, but employers need to know the essays, capabilities you have that are relevant to the job for which you’re applying. The Verbiage of thesis on export import Your Curriculum Vitae. You want your C.V to sound professional, but it doesn’t have to sound like it came out abc 123 of the Oxford Dictionary. Remember, it’s not as though you’re writing a dissertation; you’re listing bits and pieces of concise and relevant information to present a snapshot of what you have to offer. Refer to the job description and on road accidents and preventive other material posted by your prospective employers. If they used industry-specific jargon, use the same jargon wherever applicable. Review their posted list of required skills and job duties and use it as a guide for listing all of your valid and applicable skills and job duties with previous employers.
If you have additional skills or job skills than are not posted on the job description by your prospective employer, consider leaving them out. If you feel you must include them somewhere, follow the abc 123, same rule as job history: Keep them off the cause training, first page. Instead, attach them at the top of the page containing your extensive job history. You have 2 primary goals for your curriculum vitae: Make it easy to abc 123 read and make every word count. In order to accomplish this, you need to use a font of at least 10-12 and make each section of papers your document stand out from the next by staggering blocks of essays information that take up different levels of horizontal space.
For example, you may place your name, physical address, phone number, and email address at essays and preventive, the top in the center. For contrast, you would place a sentence outlining your objective; perhaps something like: To obtain consistent and abc 123 essays long term employment with a company in which my skills and talents will be utilized and anne hutchinson appreciated. Because that sentence will take the entire width of the page, your next sections should be small and centered. This would be a great place to abc 123 list your skills. If you place your employment in the next section, that would be a great contrast to your skills. Make a table with 2 columns and a few rows (just enough for your most relevant jobs). Add your title, previous employers, and their contact information in the left column and your job duties on the right. Finally, underneath your employment history, enter your education information centered on the page. Employers may or may not be interested in anne thesis, speaking with your personal references. If there is any reason why your prospective employers shouldn’t speak with your previous supervisors, try to avoid putting their contact information on your Curriculum Vitae.
Otherwise, there should be plenty of professional references in your format for them to review. You can post a sentence on the bottom of essays your Curriculum Vitae either inviting your potential employer to call contacts from your employment history and/or letting him/her know that you have a list of anne hutchinson thesis personal references available if requested. If you have room on the page after leaving plenty of space in between each section, increase the font size of your name. If you have adequate or advanced linguistic skills, consider writing a short cover letter (3-5 small to moderate paragraphs) introducing yourself and outlining your skills, dedication, ambition, work ethic, and essays any other relevant piece of information that increases your appeal to an employer but may not have a proper place on your Curriculum Vitae. Cover letters are easy to disregard if an thesis import, employer isn’t interested, and they can help to set you aside from other applicants if there is an interest in learning more about you by abc 123 reading your cover letter.
You can either use the outline provided in this article or you can create your own curriculum vitae outline containing your name, contact information, and the basic sections you will need to fill out per application. Save the outline and consistent information in a master file, and once you’ve finished preparing a Curriculum Vitae for a job, choose ‘Save as’ and create a specific name for it. To find your Curriculum Vitae more quickly and conveniently, consider using the same name and changing only the last word. Ethic Term! For example, you may save your resume as ‘MyResumeCompany.doc’. Replace the word ‘Company’ with each different place to which you submit your curriculum. How to Write a Great Cover Letter.
Landing a job is abc 123 essays undoubtedly difficult in today’s economy. On Road! Writing a great cover letter is probably the most important step you can towards landing the essays, job of their dreams. Why is writing a cover letter so important? It is the first thing a potential employer sees, and it will dictate whether or not the employer even looks at thesis, your resume. Abc 123! Even the most polished, professional resume doesn’t stand a chance against a poorly written cover letter. How do you write a cover letter that not only comparing two friends essay, a potential employer to read your resume, but also gets you invited for an interview? Writing a winning cover letter is essays not difficult if you follow a few simple steps: Just like an essay, employer won’t look at a resume that’s attached to a poorly written cover letter, the employer won’t even bother to read the cover letter if it’s a messy jumble of text.
To create a professional-looking cover letter, be sure to abc 123 essays use plenty of white space. You should have, at a minimum, one inch margins and double spaces between paragraphs. Follow the guidelines for writing a basic business letter and thesis be sure to include a simple, text-only letterhead. Your letterhead should be the same letterhead that appears on your resume. This is abc 123 essays your one and only chance to name drop, so take advantage of it. Potential employers want to know how you heard about the position.
You should also identify the specific position that you are seeking, and papers state that you are applying for this position. Yes, it’s obvious, but cover letters follow a long-established pattern, and this isn’t the time to be a rebel. Finally, set the essays, tone for thesis on export import the rest of the letter, and briefly state what you will be discussing.. If you have more than a few years of experience in essays, the field to which you are applying, your professional experience should be presented before your educational experience. First, write a topic sentence that presents one unified idea. If you’ve held several jobs in this career, find the one aspect that these jobs have in common that will most impress your potential employer. You also need to link this paragraph to your educational experience. Similar to your employment paragraph, you need to develop one unified idea rather than simply presenting a list of all the schools you’ve attended and courses you’ve taken. Determine which aspect of divide dissertation your education is most important to the position you’re applying for and present it here.
A fourth and abc 123 essays even fifth paragraph may be added if you need to present additional relevant information. Just remember to develop one idea per paragraph, and to keep the entire letter under one page. This is root cause your opportunity to tie everything together, leading the reader to invite you to an interview. You need to reference your resume and any other included attachments. In addition, you need to politely, yet confidently state that you wish to abc 123 essays be invited to an interview. Finally, state the easiest way for the employer to reach you, referring to cause analysis case the phone number and e-mail address in your letterhead.
For important documents like cover letters, you need to go beyond your computer’s spell check and essays grammar check. Place the digital divide dissertation, cover letter aside for a few hours, or overnight if possible, and look at it with fresh eyes. You might find errors that you didn’t see previously. As a final step, ask someone, who you trust will do a decent job, to abc 123 proofread your cover letter. Now, you have a well-written cover letter that will hopefully lead a potential employer to read your resume and ultimately invite you to an interview.
The rest is two friends up to you! How to prepare for a winning job interview. In a competitive market for available jobs, potential candidates should put in the necessary time and effort to make a solid impact. You must simply accept that it’s a buyer’s market, the abc 123, buyer, in this case is the organization. Your first job as the seller is to sell yourself. You need to essays on road accidents and preventive stand out from the other candidates like a house with a shiny red door in a cookie-cutter neighborhood. Abc 123! Assume your resume and cover letter is in a pile on a desk with plenty of others, therefore you must find a way to rise to the top.
You need to put yourself in hutchinson thesis, a stronger position, instead of you trying to chasing the job, make them convince you to take it. Your mindset dictates the demeanor you portray. If you seem too desperate, you don’t make it to the next step, however, too arrogant and abc 123 doors will close. You have to thesis on export import put yourself in the shoes of the interviewer and determine your moves every step of the way. Spend about five hours preparing for each hour of interview, you want to investigate how you can deliver value to the organization. By researching and probing how you can make an impact in the position, you are going beyond the canned responses of most candidates. Your resume should announce that you are qualified for abc 123 essays the position. After the interview, you want to leave the impression that you can start the job tomorrow. You want to contact somebody who does the same job at anne, the organization or similar enterprise and ask several questions.
It’s a must that you discover the current challenges for the position within the organization and the industry as a whole. The next step is succeed where so many candidates fall short, you want to show initiative by suggesting ideas for the position. Hiring managers have so many job functions to abc 123 essays perform, by proving that you not only did research concerning the ethic papers, position, but proposed suggestions, you show tremendous potential. Abc 123! You would be surprised how those that have been performing the job for years have not expressed such aptitude. Be prepared to essays on road and preventive measures go beyond lip service, you want to demonstrate the homework you have done. Reaching out to essays a current employee performing the same job function puts you over the top. Don’t be shy or feel like you are intruding. Many employees have innovative ideas about how to perform their jobs better, tap into thesis that information for essays free and then add your own spin. Use the power of imagination to accidents measures stand out from the crowd, everybody else is going to be following the essays, same job interview tips that get recycled over the web. Anne! If you want to make a lasting impression, you must put in abc 123, the sweat and effort.
Find someone who you can practice with until it comes out anne hutchinson thesis natural. Landing an offer in abc 123 essays, a tough economy requires considerable effort. Term! If you can demonstrate you can make an abc 123, impact in your interview, your name will rise to the top of the pack. Copyright Curriculum-Vitae.In 2013 - Contact : webmaster curriculum-vitae.in. All the term, Curriculum Vitae templates are at your disposal without any guaranty.
The use of abc 123 these Curriculum samples is at your sole risk.