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Essay cultural differences

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Compile and Install Instructions for Magic. In the current stable (8.1) and development (8.2) distributions, compile and install instructions can be found in the INSTALL file in the top-level directory of the cultural source distribution. In releases prior to 7.4, see the file README.Tcl in elizabeth pa the source distribution for complete instructions on compiling the Tcl/Tk-based version of essay, magic. For the impatient, the on essay general rule is: List all of the compile-time options. Cultural! --prefix= DIR. Set the install destination to directory path DIR . The default installation destination is /usr/local . Armstrong Essay Neil! Magic will be installed in essay various subdirectories of the prefix, such as /bin for executables and /lib for neil, run-time files (technology files, startup scripts, display settings, etc.).

This is especially useful to install magic in a local directory to avoid requiring root privileges to install, or to install a test version of a new release of magic which won't conflict with any existing installed versions. --libdir= DIR. Specify the install location of run-time files. On systems where the run-time files and the executables have the same root directory $ , $ is $ /lib and exectutables are installed int $ /bin . When runtime files are to be installed somewhere else, for example, /usr/share in some distributions, $ must be set with this switch. --with-interpreter= TYPE. Cultural Differences! Compile magic with an interpreter. Armstrong Essay Neil! Possible values of TYPE are tcl , scheme , or no . The default compilation is to cultural, use Tcl/Tk if found, or no interpreter otherwise. Use this option only to force a non-Tcl-based compile. Generally, the Tcl/Tk-based version is essays tire elizabeth pa, preferred, due to the large number of enhancements available under the TCL version (such as the GUI frontend). Some systems may run into trouble with the TCL interpreter, OpenGL, Cairo, or X11 if they are installed in unusual places. The autoconf script goes to great lengths to find them, but in case of failure, the location of differences, files may be specified explicitly by passing an on art argument to cultural, autoconf. --with-tcl= DIR.

One of the on art most likely problems with configure is the inability to differences, find Tcl/Tk libraries and/or header files. Usually this is due to having an executable-only version of Tcl/Tk (libraries but no header files), but it can also be due to having Tcl/Tk installed in an unexpected place. If header files are nonexistant, the solution is either to essay in school, install them, or to essay cultural, compile the latest version of Tcl/Tk from source. Otherwise, if header files and libraries exist, then use the option above with DIR pointing to the directory containing the file tclConfig.sh . Research! --with-tk= DIR Specifies the essay path to find the file tkConfig.sh . This is likely to be necessary if you need to use the --with-tcl= option. --with-opengl= DIR. OpenGL capability is a runtime option. Magic defaults to tire elizabeth, the X11 interface; enable the OpenGL graphics by specifying -d OGL on the command line at runtime. This option is preferred when OpenGL libraries are available on systems with fast graphics and a hardware implementation of OpenGL on the video card. It is not recommended on systems running a software emulation of OpenGL calls, such as Mesa GL in essay cultural differences conjunction with an unsupported video card.

There is no reason not to on science, compile in OpenGL support, and so it is enabled by default. If the OpenGL libraries and/or header files cannot be found, they may need to be downloaded from the video card vendor. If they exist but are in a non-standard location, the location of the header files can be specified by essay cultural differences DIR . --with-cairo= DIR. Cairo 2D rendered graphics capability is a runtime option. Magic defaults to the X11 interface; enable the Cairo graphics by on science in school specifying -d CAIRO or -d XR on the command line at essay cultural, runtime. This option is preferred when Cairo libraries are available on systems with fast graphics and vido card hardware acceleration. There is no reason not to compile in Cairo support, and so it is enabled by default. If the Cairo libraries and/or header files cannot be found, they may need to be downloaded from the image analysis video card vendor.

If they exist but are in essay cultural differences a non-standard location, the location of the essay header files can be specified by DIR . --x-libraries= DIR. Specifies the path to find the X11 library files (e.g., libX11.so and so forth). This is usually not necessary but some platforms may put the cultural X11 in an unexpected place. If so, it may also be necessary to specify --x-includes= DIR to point to the directory where X11 header files can be found. --disable-locking. Disallow file locking for essay, multiple-user environments (used with magic version 7.4). Magic 7.4 has a simplified file locking mechanism that does not create directories and files, but uses the fcntl advisory lock system. However, each locked file must remain open, and it is possible that some platforms may not allow enough open file descriptors, causing magic to essay cultural differences, be unable to open layout files. Should this happen, magic can be recompiled with file locking disabled. --enable-framebuffer-backing-store. Normally OpenGL uses Tk pixmaps for managing backing store (graphics acceleration through saving and copying the screen image). Implementations of OpenGL that do not allow direct rendering to on science, off-screen targets will require this to be enabled.

If the cursor box doesn't erase but keeps getting drawn multiple times on the screen as it is moved around (in OpenGL graphics mode), then you need to enable this option. Cultural Differences! --enable-cairo-offscreen. Usually if off-screen rendering doesn't work for the backing store (see above), then the generation of the layer images on the buttons in the GUI window doesn't work, either. If magic exits with an X11 server Bad Drawable error, then this needs to image analysis, be enabled (and the Cairo libraries and include files need to be installed on essay cultural differences, the system). --disable-client-render. Disable client-side rendering, when OpenGL has been selected as an optional graphics package. Some video drivers may not handle server-side rendering correctly, although this is pretty rare. All of the optional modules in magic can be enabled or disabled by individual switches on the command line. Normally, these should be left alone. Essay Exhibition! --enable-locking. Allow file locking for multiple-user environments (used with magic versions other than 7.4). File locking allows layout databases to be accessed by multiple users.

Only one user at a time may edit a layout file, preventing accidental overwrites. Because having this option turned on essay cultural differences, allows magic to create new directories for lock files, it is disabled by default. However, even with the option enabled, magic cannot create new directories unless a system-level directory /usr/local/flock has been created (it is not created by the install process). This directory must be world-writable. --disable-readline. Disable the tire elizabeth pa readline package. Note that the Tcl-based version of magic does not use readline, so this option has no effect unless compiling with either the SCHEME interpreter or no interpreter. --disable-threads. Disable the essay differences use of POSIX threads (pthreads) with the X11 graphics interface. This reverts back to the use of a forked helper program to capture graphics calls. This is unlikely to be necessary unless there is some suspicion of a thread-related lock-up. --disable-nonmanhattan. Refutation On Essay! Disable the non-Manhattan geometry extensions. --disable-calma. Disable the GDS module.

There is no reason to do this. --disable-cif. Disable the essay CIF module. Note that this will also disable the for students GDS module, which depends on it. So there is no reason to do this, either. --disable-lef. Disable the LEF/DEF format module. --disable-plot. Cultural Differences! Disable the armstrong essay plot module. --disable-route. Differences! Disable the various router modules (these can not be enabled or disabled individually). --disable-rsim. Writing Questions! Disable the IRSIM interface. Note that the Tcl-based version of magic interfaces with IRSIM through the interpreter, so this option has no effect unless compiling with the SCHEME interpreter or no interpreter. --disable-new-macros. Disable the use of the new macros, reverting back to the macros used by magic versions 6.5 and earlier.

Veteran users of Magic may prefer the older macros. The newer macro set, developed by Philippe Pouliquen, makes use of the keypad and cursor keys for directional actions such as move and stretch. The older macro set mapped the keys QWER to essay, directions. For even more obscure options which may effect compilation on essay questions for students, peculiar systems, refer to the text dump from essay cultural, configure --help . Note that distributions which require the use of --libdir= DIR may also need to use the equivalent --mandir= DIR to point to the manual pages directory. --bindir= DIR can be set likewise. However, if all three switches are used, then prefix no longer has any meaning, since its only writing for students, use is to define the default values of libdir , mandir , and bindir . Distribution Maintainers: Those maintainers who wish to compile in the so-called sandbox can do (as of Magic distribution version 7.4.6 and differences, development version 7.5.4): ./configure [ options ] make DESTDIR= staging_area install This procedure will install everything into the specified directory tree rooted at staging_area , without breaking the papers on art hard-coded links to essay cultural, run-time files. To run Magic from the staging area, either chroot to the staging area directory, or set setenv CAD_ROOT staging_area / libdir where libdir is, by default prefix /lib , unless otherwised specified in the configure options , and prefix is by essay neil default /usr/local unless otherwise specified in the configure options . A Note about Autoconf: The actual autoconf script is in the subdirectory scripts , but there is a top-level shell script wrapper called configure that invokes scripts/configure . Part of the essay purpose of the wrapper script is to allow much of the useless cruft that has to accompany the GNU autoconf files to armstrong, be stuffed in an out-of-the-way subdirectory.

The other is to set up the CFLAGS environment variable, so that the optimizer flag can be removed. Cultural! Magic may run marginally faster with compile-time optimization; if you wish to enable it, then you may add -O2 to CFLAGS in the top-level configure shell script. Image Analysis! However, please note that optimized executables are very difficult to debug should something go wrong with the program during run-time. A Note about Tcl/Tk: Compilation under Tcl/Tk is probably both the most common option and the most problematic. A number of standard OS distributions do not come with all the cultural differences bits and armstrong, pieces necessary to compile a Tcl/Tk extension. If this is the case, then you will see this when you do configure when it says: checking for tclConfig.sh. no. Assuming that you really, really want the Tcl version of magic (and in my opinion, you really, really do), your best bet is to download, compile, and essay, install new versions of essays tire pa, Tcl and Tk.

This is pretty straightforward. Get the latest version from the Tcl/Tk Developers Exchange (click on differences, the download link up near the top). One important thing to essay on science in school, know when compiling your own: The executables for tclsh and wish will be installed as tclsh8.4 and wish8.4 (or whatever is the current version number). wish is differences, critical, because magic uses it. On Art! You will need to rename or remove any existing executable for wish, and then either rename wish8.4 to wish or else create a symbolic link ln -s wish8.4 wish (preferred). For example, I had a RedHat system which came with Tcl/Tk 8.0 installed in /usr/bin/. Compiled from differences, source, Tcl/Tk 8.4 installed by armstrong essay neil default in /usr/local/bin/. Cultural Differences! I changed /usr/bin/wish to tire, /usr/bin/wish8.0 and changed /usr/local/bin/wish8.4 to cultural differences, /usr/local/bin/wish (hmm, did I just say preferred?). Note that Magic version 7.2 compiled with Tcl makes use of the optional Tcl/Tk package BLT. Magic will run fine without it (it detects its absence and works around it), but if you don't have it, you'll miss the cell manager widget with the hierarchical cell view. BLT can be downloaded from SourceForge at the following location: BLT Toolkit Project on SourceForge. The methods described below progress from on essay, easiest to most difficult, but each can be useful depending on how and when the program bites the dust. attach process_id using the result of the first command for process_id in the gdb attach command.

On machines that don't recognize the -C switch to ps, use whatever variant that will show you the process ID of the wish executable. Note that once gdb is running, the program may be interrupted at any point with a control-C key sequence in the terminal running gdb, to check variables, calling sequences, set breakpoints, etc. The gdb command continue resumes the program after attaching the debugger to the process. Essay Cultural Differences! If you want the magic developers to investigate a segmentation fault, run the program under the debugger using the above method, and try to repeat the minimum number of steps leading to the crash. After the image analysis crash condition has caused the process to drop back to the debugger prompt, run the command where to get a stack trace of the subroutine call stack. Email this information to the developers, along with any other relevant information. If the program fails during or after loading the technology file, but does not crash, it is essay cultural, still possible to use this method by attaching gdb, setting a breakpoint, then running tech load tech_name from the writing essay for students magic command line. The tech load command clears out most of the allocated memory structures used by magic and regenerates them from scratch as the technology file is loaded back in.

If the program crashes too fast to attach gdb to the running process, then one of the methods below may be necessary. source /usr/local/lib/magic/tcl/magic.tcl Note that with this kind of manual startup, it is not possible (or at least, it's not easy) to cultural differences, use the tkcon console window. run The other is magicdnull and is normally invoked when running magic as magic -dnull . It is not possible to create a layout window when using this version: gdb /usr/local/lib/magic/tcl/magicdnull. magic::start For fatal errors (crashes), do the exhibition in school following: gdb wish.

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Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and essay differences, Citation Analysis. Dr. Ranganathan S. R. (1969) coined the term 'Librametry' and presented his concept in ASLIB conference held at Leamington Spa. He used the essay exhibition term to include statistical approaches to study library and its services. However, the practice of differences using quantitative method to measure information sources were made even before Dr.

Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in image analysis common use before the term Librametry. Cole and Eales (1917) graphically mapped the literature and called this method of essay differences analysis as 'Statistical analysis'. Hulme (1923) studied the literature and called it 'statistical bibliography', but the research terms were found to be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken. Later the term was coined as bibliometrics by Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in Use:- Many attempts have been made to define the cultural differences term bibliometrics and armstrong neil, its analogous terms since the use of the term 'statistical bibliography' by Hulme (1923), and according to him 'the purpose of statistical bibliography is to throw light on the process of written communication and the nature and essay cultural, course of development of a discipline (in so far as this is displayed through written communication) by means of counting and analyzing its various facets of essay exhibition written communication'. Raising (1962), in his article clearly defined the term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and interpretation of statistics relating to essay books and periodicals to demonstrate historical movements and to determine national and tire elizabeth pa, universal research, use of books and journal, and to ascertain in many local situations the general use of books and journals'. This definition is also treated as one of the classical definitions of bibliometrics. The term Bibliometrics was first coined by Pritchard (1969) in preference to existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is fair likelihood to essay cultural differences misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to books and other media of communication'. According to Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of properties of recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to it'.

British Standard Glossary (1976) of documentation explained the term bibliometrics as 'the study of use of documents and patterns of publication in which mathematical and statistical methods have been applied' which is armstrong essay neil, basically similar to cultural Pritchard's original definition of bibliometrics. Hawkins (1977), in his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the bibliographic features of a body of literature'. Nicholas and Ritchie (1978), in their books entitled 'Literature on Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the structure of knowledge and refutation, how it is communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into essay cultural differences, two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of a literature (descriptive studies) and those examining the relationship formed between the image analysis components of essay cultural differences literature (behavioural studies). More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship'. Schrader (1981), has also tried to define the writing essay questions term in a more simplified manner and stated that bibliometrics is 'the scientific study of recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of various definitions of bibliometrics and proposed an alternative definition for bibliometrics. According to him, bibliometrics is the quantitative study of physically published units or of bibliographic units or of surrogates of either. More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the term as 'organization, classification and quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by mathematical and statistical calculus'. A more elaborate concept of bibliometrics has been recently explained by essay differences Egghe (2000), as 'development and application of mathematical models and techniques to all aspects of communications.' From these definitions it is concluded that statistical bibliography is replaced by bibliometrics and it means study of research on art measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship by means of using citation studies.

3.3 What is Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by Pritchard (1969) in his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in the 'Journal of differences Documentation'. On Essay? 'Biblio' means book and 'Metric' means a scale or measure. Essay Differences? Bibliometric means application of statistical studies in library and information science. According to Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is defined as 'the application of mathematics and statistical methods to books and other media of communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the research on art publication pattern of all forms of written communication and their author'. In Bibliometrics and cultural differences, Librametry as an area in which studies 'information process and papers, information handling in libraries and information canters by quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and behaviour of documents, library staff, and library users.' The study of bibliometrics and Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc. It is also a quantitative study of literatures as reflected in bibliographies. Bibliometrics is the use of quantitative analysis and statistics to essay describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of literature. Bibliometrics is a set of essay methods to quantitatively analyze scientific and technological literature (Bellis 2009). The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and content analysis. Content analysis or textual analysis is a methodology used in the social sciences for studying the cultural content of communication. Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws.

According to Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is considered a scholarly methodology in the humanities by which texts are studied as to research on art authorship, authenticity, or meaning. Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and semiotics. Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the core questions of essay content analysis and stated that 'Who says what, to whom, why, to what extent and with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of content analysis as any technique for making inferences by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages. Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of content analysis:Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of tire pa messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to essay cultural the types of variables that may be measured or the essay on science context in which the messages are created or presented. Garfield (1983) and Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the essay frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in articles and books'.

Content analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links to other works or other researchers. Citation analysis is one of the most widely used methods of refutation on essay bibliometrics. Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the citations or references or both which forms of part of the scholarly publication.' According to Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is a systematic enquiry into the structural properties of the literature of the subject' he explains that the structure of literature is of a good quality. Bibliometric method is most often used in the field of library and cultural, information science; as well it has an equal applicability in other areas also. In fact, in many research fields use of bibliometric methods is carried out to explore the impact of their field, the impact of a set of researchers, or the impact of a particular paper etc. Bibliometrics are now used in quantitative research assessment exercises of academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the quality of the research output of research on art UK universities and on the basis of the assessment results, allocate research funding (http://www.ref.ac.uk/) Bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. Citation analysis, which involves examining an item's referring documents, is used in searching for cultural differences materials and analyzing their merit. Citation indices, such as Institute for Scientific Information's Web of refutation Science, allow users to search forward in time from essay cultural differences a known article to more recent publications which cite the known item.

Today citation analysis tools are easily available to compute various impact measures for scholars based on data from essay questions citation indices. These have various applications, from the identification of expert referees to review papers and grant proposals, to providing transparent data in support of academic merit review, tenure, and promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in his article 'Literature and Bibliometrics' explained the importance of citation analysis and its applications in LIS. He pointed out that information scientists and cultural differences, librarians use citation analysis to quantitatively assess the core journal titles and research papers, watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from different institutions and schools of thought; and related data about the academia. Some more pragmatic applications of this information includes the planning of retrospective bibliographies, finding the cultural differences age of material used in a discipline (Half life) , and comparison between use of recent publications versus older ones, comparing the coverage of armstrong secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and competition, and can aid librarians in cultural differences evaluating the effectiveness of their stock. There are also some limitations to the value of citation data. They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is required to truly understand the neil rationale behind citing to allow it to differences be confidently applied. Thus it is revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to analyze the refutation on essay impact of literature in any subject areas and in LIS it is useful to decide the policies for cultural different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of new service, ranking of periodicals, half life of literature in essay exhibition in school any subject discipline formatting and collection development policies and related policies etc. 3.4 Laws of Bibliometrics:-

The three most commonly used laws in bibliometrics are. 1) Bradford's Law of Scatter: - which describes how the literature of a subject area is cultural differences, distributed in its journals and which forms the basis for calculating how many journals contain a certain percentage of published articles? 2) Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity: - A formula for measuring / predicting the productivity of scientific researchers. 3) Zipf's Law of essay on science exhibition Word Occurrence: - which describes the frequency of the appearance of certain words or more specifically, suggests that people are more likely to select and cultural, use familiar rather than unfamiliar words. Among all these three laws, Bradford's Law is more useful to LIS professionals and related to citation analysis. 3.4.1 Bradford's Law of Scatter:- Bradford (1934), pointed out that if scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of essay in school articles on a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several groups and zones containing the same number of articles as the nucleus when the number of essay differences periodicals in the nucleus and succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2. Bradford's Law states that journals in a single field can be divided into image analysis, three parts, each containing the same number of articles: * A core of journals on the subject, relatively few in number, that produces approximately one-third of all the articles; * A second zone, containing the same number of articles as the first, but a greater number of journals, and. * A third zone, containing the same number of articles as the second, but a still greater number of journals.

The mathematical relationship of the number of journals core to essay differences the first zone is a constant n and to the second zone the relationship is n. Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of elizabeth geophysics, covering 326 journals in the field. He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and differences, 258 contained 404 articles. So it took 9 journals to contribute one-third of the articles, 5 times of 9, or 45, to produce the next third, and 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to tire elizabeth produce the last third. Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to librarians in determining the number of core journals in any given field. Essay Differences? Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is still commonly used as a general rule of thumb. 3.4.2 What is Citation:- Citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source).

More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. Newell84) embedded in essay on science exhibition in school the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for essay the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of essay questions for students others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears. Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is differences, commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). A prime purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources and to allow the reader to research on art determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is Reference:- Reference is derived from Middle English referren, from Middle French rfrer, from Latin referre, to carry back, formed from the essay prefix re- and ferre, to bear. A large number of words derived from this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the basic meaning of the writing questions for students original Latin as a point, place or source of origin.

A referee is the provider of this source of origin, and a referent is the possessor of the source of origin, whether it is knowledge, matter or energy. Because of cultural its meaning, the word reference is used in every sphere of for students human knowledge, adopting shades of meaning particular to the contexts in essay which it is used. References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of defining references within the scope of the on essay various fields that require an essay differences origin, point of departure, or an original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from essay some observers, as in cryptography. Citations are measured to find the different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in LIS.

An essential part of research papers, particularly in science is the list of references indicating towards prior publications. Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is cultural, embedded in the literature of the subject'. Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the acknowledgement that one document gives to another; a citation is the acknowledgement that one document receives from another'. Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' From these statements of stalwarts it is very clear that citation has an on essay importance while publishing scientific or research communications. It is differences, must to cite the author from which data is used. The research activity built on citing papers and using previous knowledge. The use of citation and its study reveals many concepts useful for developing libraries properly. Image Analysis? Citation analysis is the area of essay bibliometrics which deals with the study of their relationships which might be useful for bridging research. Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for citing and quoting references in research study as under. 1. Giving homage to pioneers. 2. Giving credit for related works (Homage to Press.)

3. Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Providing background reading. 5. Correcting one's own work. 6. Research Papers On Art? Correcting the work of others. 7. Criticizing previous work and adding quality and innovation.

8. Essay Cultural Differences? Substantiating claims. 9. Alerting to forthcoming work. 10. In School? Providing leads to poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11.

Authenticating data and cultural differences, classes of fact-physical constants etc. 12. Identifying original publications in which an idea or concept was discussed. 13. Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14.

Disclaiming work or ideas of others. (Negative Claims) 15. Disputing priority claims of essay neil others. (Negative Homage) Apart from these points references appended in the research study is valid indicator of its significance. The facts stated in the research needs to be supported by earlier citations (studies) and there is always a relation between citing theses or book or an article indicating similarity of the research. 3.4.4 Importance of differences Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an important role in research. Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is embedded in the subject of research literature, as a reference (citation) which is acknowledgement for the use of information by the another author who cites in his writing. The relation of cited and citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' Citation analysis is the area dealing with the essay cultural bibliometrics and deals with study of relationship of cited and citing document and such studies are essential to track the scholarly development in any subject field. 3.5 Citation Analysis:- When one author cites another author, a relationship is established.

Citation analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links. Essay Questions For Students? Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries. Citations both from and to a certain document may be studied. One very common use of citation analysis is to determine the impact of a single author on a given field by counting the differences number of essay on science times the author has been cited by others. One possible drawback of this approach is that authors may be citing the single author in a negative context (saying that the author doesn't know what s/he's talking about (Osareh 1996). 3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:-

Co-citation coupling is a method used to establish a subject similarity between two documents. If papers A and B are both cited by paper C, they may be said to be related to one another, even though they don't directly cite each other. If papers A and B are both cited by many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. The more papers they are cited by, the stronger their relationship is. 3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:-

Bibliographic coupling operates on a similar principle, but in a way it is the mirror image of co-citation coupling. Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the same articles, so that if papers A and B both cite paper C, they may be said to be related, even though they don't directly cite each other. The more papers they both cite, the stronger their relationship is. 3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:- Historically bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. The bibliometric research uses various methods of citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work.

The Bibliometric studies are conducted to identify the peers, social change and the core journal, etc. Essay? indexing and research, Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in case of automated system, comparative assessment of the secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of retrospective bibliographic and library Management. Collection development includes planning, implementation and evaluation of essay collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to map information needs, to develop aims and essays pa, make decisions about essay cultural priorities. Knowledge about the essay on science structure of a subject field and about the information resources used in the field is needed for planning the collection. Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and co-citation analysis can be used to map the essay cultural differences knowledge structure and the use of armstrong literature. Implementation of the collection includes library routines, communication and information provision. A working indexing language, which reflects the modern terminology, is needed to organise the collection. Knowledge about the important themes in a field gives a base for developing the terminology. These themes are based on the knowledge structure received by essay cultural bibliometric methods. Collection Evaluation is analysis and assessment of the collection according to its aim and functions. Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the scattering of articles to journals and analysis of the obsolescence of literature are used for this purpose.

Application of bibliometric research identified by Wallace (1989), indicated that the research papers use is for developing libraries. - Improving the bibliographic control of literature. - Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the spread of ideas and growth of a literature. - Improving the efficiency of information handling services.

- Predicting publishing trends and needs. - Describing patterns of book use by patrons. - Developing and evaluating library collections. 3.7 Strengths of essay cultural differences Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and have a quantitative base. The method helps analysis status and strength is in: ' Methods are objective and repeatable. ' Results have a wide range of potential practical value.

' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in data that are collected unobtrusively, from the published record, and can be easily replicated by others. 3.7.1 Limitations of essay questions for students bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the study are observed by. Results are only valid to extent that citations are assumed to represent significant link between citing and cited documents. ' Technical issues related to data obtained from citation indexes and essay differences, bibliographies. ' Variations and misspelling of author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of armstrong essay neil non-English publications. 3.8 Application of Bradford's Law in essay differences Library and Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is used to solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in any libraries.

The basic concept is to conduct Bradford analyses of journals i.e. to sort the journals in armstrong essay Bradford zones and thus identify which belong to the core and which does not. Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Differences? Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in this field; 2. List the essay neil sources (usually journals) that publish the articles (or items) in rank order beginning with the essay differences source that produces the most items; 3. While retaining the armstrong neil order of the sources, divide this list into groups (or zones) so that the number of items produced by each group of sources is about the same. The 'most obvious potentials' of Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the core. ' The law of diminishing returns. ' Calculation of cost based on various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals. Bradford's law is cultural, used to image analysis solve practical problems related to information seeking and retrieval. An automatic option for sorting the output from online searches of journal literature, which he argued would help online users. 'Computerized sorting of hits by the journals in which they appear, and then of journals, high to low, by the number of hits appearing in each'.

Special libraries and information officers make good use of data generated using bibliometric techniques in selecting and maintaining collections of the most needed serials. Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and citation analysis have contributed to the effective operation of essay special libraries' From the various studies it is analysed major thrust areas of research in Library and Information Science are using application of bibliometrics and the reasons are: 1. Refutation? Identify the quantum and structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period. 2. Examine the growth literature output in cultural differences a subject during a period of time. 3. Essays Tire? Identify the source and country-wise distribution of research literature in essay differences a particular subject. 4. Compare and on science in school, measure the growth rate of literature on essay cultural differences a particular subject in various countries. 5. Analyze the authorship pattern of literature on writing essay a particular subject published from various countries.

6. Analyze the degree of single versus multiple author publication and study the trend in essay cultural differences authorship pattern. 7. Refutation On Essay? Apply Lotka's authorship productivity concepts on the frequency distribution of authorship productivity. 8. Track the development of research literature on essay cultural a particular subject and its language of publication during the period of coverage and analyze the trend in the language of publication. 9. Tire Pa? Study the language of the publication in the context of quantum of pages. 10. Essay Differences? Study the frequency distribution of applications in the context of country-wise breakdown. 11. Analyze quantitatively the annual literature output on a specific subject. 12. Identify the variety of research publication on refutation on essay a particular subject.

13. Analyze the cultural trend among the various types of image analysis publication. The recent developments and essay, methods used and developed the research on art techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:- The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to articles published in science and social science journals. It is cultural, frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. In case of journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those of lower ones.

The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of in school Thomson Reuters. Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and listed in . In a given year, the impact factor of a journal is the average number of differences citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its papers published in 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each on average in 2008. The 2008 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the essay 2008 publications have been processed by the indexing agency. A = the number of times articles published in cultural 2006 and 2007 were cited by indexed journals during 2008. B = the total number of essay questions for students citable items published by that journal in 2006 and 2007. (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is used by many libraries as a tool for selecting Journals for subscription, similarly researcher try to contribute in essay cultural differences using it journals for credits. New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an impact factor after two years of indexing; in this case, the citations to the year prior to on essay Volume 1, and the number of articles published in the year prior to Volume 1 are known zero values.

Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for three years. Annuals and other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in a particular year, affecting the count. The impact factor relates to a specific time period; it is possible to essay cultural calculate it for any desired period, and the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor. Research Papers On Art? The JCR shows rankings of journals by essay impact factor, by discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. The terminology used later and becomes popular is Infometrics which covers: The h-index is an index that attempts to measure both the productivity and impact of the published work of a scientist or scholar.

The index is research, based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. Cultural Differences? The index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of research a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country. The index was suggested by Jorge E. Essay Differences? Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools. Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and the Web of essay on science Knowledge provide automated calculators. Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the h-index based on Google Scholar entries. In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of scholars to keep track of their own citations and also produces a h-index and an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the I10 index indicates the number of academic papers an author has written that have at least ten citations from others.

It was introduced in July 2011 by Google as part of their work on Google scholar. A search engine dedicated to academic and related papers. Each database is likely to produce a study different h for the same scholar, because of different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and Web of Science but the smaller citation collections tend to be more accurate. Essay Cultural? In addition, specific databases, such as the Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for essay researchers working in High Energy Physics. Infometrics is the study of quantitative aspects of information. This includes the production, dissemination and use of all forms of essay differences information, regardless of its form or origin. As such, infometrics encompasses the fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is similar to on art webometrics, but broadens its definition to include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of recorded information.

Scientometrics and webometrics are the latest methods. Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the development of science and of the essay mechanism of scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in refutation which the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research is essay cultural differences, studied by means of (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to research papers on art the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. ' Includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies.

Scientometrics is concerned with the essay cultural quantitative features and characteristics of science and scientific research. Emphasis is placed on investigations in which the development and mechanism of science are studied by statistical mathematical methods. The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and preliminary reports, and review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on research scientometrics. Due to cultural differences its fully interdisciplinary character, the essay neil journal is indispensable to research workers and essay cultural, research administrators. It provides valuable assistance to librarians and documentalists in central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and laboratories. Scientometrics includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Consequently its aims and scope cover that of the latter, namely, to bring the results of essays tire pa such investigations together in one place. Bibliometrics and cultural, scientometrics are two closely related approaches to measuring scientific publications and science in general, respectively. In practice, much of the work that falls under this header involves various types of citation analysis, which looks at how scholars cite one another in publications. This data can show quite a bit about networks of scholars and scholarly communication, links between scholars, and the development of areas of knowledge over time. Bibliometrics are also one of the key ways of measuring the essay impact of scholarly publications.

If an article is published in a journal with a high impact factor, which is determined in part by the number of citations to essay differences articles within a particular journal, this raises the publishing profile of the author. The number of citations to pa that article over time is also a key measure of the productivity and the impact of that scholar. These techniques are very well developed for traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for new types of outputs, including data sets, websites, and digitized collections. For items such as these, when researchers have used the materials to support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to them to essay differences cite the material. Exhibition In School? Many of the style guides do not have clear guidance for how to cite a database, for instance, or whether to cite a digitized resource in a way to identify its digital location, or that cites the original item, whether or not the researcher actually consulted it. 3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):- The concept of webometrics is based on bibliometrics, because like the cultural differences bibliometrics study, one can measure the different quantitative aspect of the web in webometrics study. Research On Art? Secondly it is based on Infometrics. The Infometrics study is such type of study, which measures the quantitative aspect of differences any type of information and through webometrics study one can get the essay information about web (web site). That's why the above phrase is used. The science of webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to measure the World Wide Web to differences get knowledge about the number and essay on science in school, types of essay hyperlinks, structure of the tire World Wide Web and usage patterns.

According to Bjrneborn and Ingwersen (2004), the definition of webometrics is the study of the quantitative aspects of the construction and use of information resources, structures and technologies on the Web drawing on essay cultural bibliometric and Infometrics approaches. The term webometrics was first coined by Almind and Ingwersen (1997). Refutation On Essay? A second definition of webometrics has also been introduced as the study of essay differences web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to one field of study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the development of applied methods for use in the wider social sciences. Essays Elizabeth? The purpose of this alternative definition was to help and publicize appropriate methods outside the cultural differences information science discipline rather than to replace the original definition within information science. Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and web mining. One relatively straightforward measure is the Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by Ingwersen (1998). The WIF measure may be defined as the number of web pages in a web site receiving links from other web sites, divided by the number of refutation on essay web pages published in the site that are accessible to the crawler. However the use of WIF has been disregarded due to the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of these variables. Other similar indicators using size of the cultural institution instead of number of web pages have been proved more useful. There is essay, one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by the Spanish National Research Council that is devoted entirely to this discipline.

Cyber metrics is a branch of knowledge which employs mathematical and differences, statistical techniques of quantity web sites or their components and concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and use examines the authenticity of content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the efficiency of cyber information services and systems, services and products and assesses the impact of cyber age on society. Citations in scholarly works are used to establish links to other works. It is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics and studies reference to and from documents Gooden (2001). The benefit of bibliometrics and citation analysis is expressed by Van Raan (2003), which is reinforced by the studies (Lal and essay, Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of essay cultural differences research enquiry to evaluate a library collection. Citation analysis reveals interesting information about armstrong essay neil knowledge producers in terms their information seeking behaviour and usage of various information sources. It can highlight the familiarity, awareness and usage of knowledge producers regarding the online and print information sources.

Citation analysis examines the frequency, patterns and graphs of essay cultural differences citations in articles and books (Garfield, 1983). This chapter satisfy the objective set for the study i.e. 'To study the essay neil significance of citations as well as citation study and bibliometrics'. This chapter elaborates the detailed study of citations, reference, need of citation study and laws etc. ' Aksnes, D.W. Essay Cultural Differences? (2006), Citation rates and perceptions of scientific contribution. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009).

Bibliometrics and citation analysis: from the Science citation index to Cybermetrics. Scarecrow Press, p.417. ISBN 0-8108-6713-3. Located at http://books.google.com/books/about/Bibliometrics_and_citation_analysis.html?id=ma4YjaKyM9cC accessed on 23.08.2011. ' Bhughman J C (1974), A structural analysis of the literature of sociology, Library Quarterly, Vol. 44 (Oct), p.293-308. ' Birger Hjrland and Jeppe Nicolaisen 'Bradford's Law of Scattering: Ambiguities in the Concept of image analysis Subject Royal School of Library and cultural differences, Information Science, Birketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark @db.dk.

' Bradford, S.C. Sources of information on specific subjects. Tire Pa? Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86. ' British Standards Institution. British standards of documentation terms. BSI; London; 1976, p.7.

' Broadus R N (1987a), early approaches to bibliometrics, journal of the American society for information science, 38, p.127-129. ' Cole, F J and Eales Nellie B (1917), the history of comparative anatomy: a statistical analysis of the essay cultural literature, Science Progress (11), p.578-596. ' Earl Babbie (2010), the practice of social research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9. ' Egghe L (2000), Lectures Potter, W G (1981) Introduction to Bibliometrics. Library Trends Vol 30, p.5. ' Egghe L (2000).

A heuristic study of the armstrong first-citation distribution. Essay Cultural Differences? Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. A. (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319'343. ' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on some concepts in the curriculum of social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. ISSN 1818-4952. ' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and application in science, Technology and Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. (1983). Citation Indexing - Its Theory and papers on art, Application in Science, Technology and Humanities. Philadelphia: ISI Press. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Located at http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ci/contents.pdf. accessed on 12.04.2011. ' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities Philadelphia's Press.

' Gooden, A.M. (2001). Citation analysis of chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study. Retrieved October 13, 2008 Located at cultural, http://www.istl.org/01-fall/refereed.html accessed on 27.12.2011. ' Google scholar blog (2011), Google scholar citations open to all, Google. Located at http//en.wikipedia.ogr/wiki/I10-index accessed on 03.09.2011. ' Hawkins D T (1977), Unconventional uses of on-line information retrieval system on line British metric studies. Papers? Journal of American society for information science, 28(1), p.13-18. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and essay differences, Fernstrom, K. (2009).

The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. Armstrong Neil? 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for England, Located at http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Research/ref/. and http://www.ref.ac.uk/ accessed on 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to bibliography bibliometrics and citation indexing, 4, p.241-273. ' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of bibliometrics an dictation indexing and cultural differences, analysis, Royal institute of tire elizabeth pa Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden. Located at http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/ palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and cultural, http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics accessed on 25.08.2012. ' Hulme, E.W. On Essay? (1923), Statistical Bibliography in Relation to the Growth of Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the doctoral dissertation in library and essay cultural differences, information science accepted by the universities in Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. Image Analysis? 88. (Ph. D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Research in plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis.

Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the analysis of essay differences political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525. ' Lotka A J (1926), the frequency distribution of scientific productivity, Journal of the on science exhibition Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 16 (12), p.317-323. ' Malin M V (1968), the science citation index: A new concept in Indexing, Library trends, Vol.

16, p. 376. ' Martin, M U (1968), Science citation index: A new concept in cultural differences indexing, Library Trends, Vol. 16, p.376. ' Martyn L A (1976), Use studies in image analysis library planning, Library Trends 24(30). ' Nann F et al (1976), Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of publications and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, cherry Hill, N J, Computer Horizon Inc, p.334-337. ' Narin, Francis and et. Al. (1976), evaluative bibliometrics: the use of essay cultural differences publication and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, Cherry Hill, New Jercy, Computer Horizon Inc. p.334-337. ' Neuendorf, Kimberly A. (2002), the refutation on essay Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978), Literature and essay, Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.28-29.

' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978). Literature and on essay, Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.12-28. ' Ole R. Holsti (1969(, Content Analysis for essay cultural differences the Social Sciences and Humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ' Potter W G (1981), Introduction to image analysis bibliometrics, Library Trends, Vol. 30, p.5. ' Pritchard A (1969), Statistical bibliography an interim bibliography, New Western Polytechnic school of Librarianship, London. ' Pritchard A (1969), statistical bibliography; an interim bibliography, North-western polytechnic, school of Librarianship, p.60. ' Pritchard, A and Witting, G R (1960), Bibliometrics: A bibliography and cultural differences, index (1874-1959), Aaih Books, Westford, ' Raising L (1962), Statistical bibliography in the health sciences, Bulletin the medical library Association, 50, p.450-461.

' Ranganathan S. R. (1969) Librametry and its scope. DRTC Seminar (7) paper DA Bangalore: DRTC, ISI and essay, Sarada Ranganathan Endowment of Library Science. Reprinted in : JISSI : The International Journal of Scientometrics and Infometrics; Vol.1, No.1 (1995), p.15-21. (ISSN-0971-6696) ' Rubin, Richard (2010). Foundations of library and cultural, information science (3rd ed.). New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55570-690-6. Accessed at http://books.google.com/books?id=Pk1TSAAACAAJ accessed on 09.02.2012. ' Von Sara Ungern-Sternberg Applications in on essay teaching bibliometrics, PhD, Senior lecturer, Abo Akademi University, Department of differences Library and Information Science, FINLAND.

' Schrader, Alvin M. (1981) Teaching Bibliometrics, Library Trends 30, p.151-172. ' Sengupta I N (1990), Bibliometrics and its application in refutation information science and libraries, Atlantic, New Delhi, p.256. ' Swapna Kumar Patra and Prakash Chand (2006), 'Library and essay cultural, Information science Research in India: a Bibliometric Study' Annals of Library and Information Studies, Vol 53, December, p.219-223. ' Van Raan, A.F.J. (2003). The use of bibliometric analysis in research performance assessment and monitoring of interdisciplinary scientific developments. Technikfolgenabschatzung, Theories und Praxis/ Technology Assessment- Theory and Practice, 12(1), p.20-29. ' Weinstock M (1974), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of library and information science, Vol.5, New York, Dekker, p.19. ' Ziman John M (1968), Public knowledge: An essay concerning the armstrong social dimension of science, Cambridge, Cambridge university press, p.58. ' Zipf, G. K. (1949) 'Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort' Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley Publishing co, p.34. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages.

4.1 Introduction 104. 4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and essay, Information Science Education in India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107. 4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in India 108. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of Education 110. 4.8 First Course of Library Science in India (Certificate, Diploma and Training Courses) 112. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113.

4.10 Degree Courses 114. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS 115. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in image analysis India 115. 4.14 Specialization 116. 4.15 Syllabus 116. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part 116. 4,17 Practical Exposure 117.

4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and differences, Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119. 4.21 Research Trend in Indian Universities 128. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in refutation LIS.

Higher education in each country has its own unique form of system and varies from streams or branches of knowledge. Higher education is imparted by universities and in colleges having equal facilities. Cultural? Academics in higher education plays an important role in making the society strong as stated different policies are adopted in different countries similarly LIS is a specific subject discipline which support in all educational branches through library systems. Schools of library science provide useful professional education universally and develop library and information professionals to manage the refutation on essay libraries efficiently. The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and managerial skills through the LIS education. Essay Cultural? Following paragraphs briefly narrated the status of LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview: Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out it in his study that the main theme in LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for public libraries and research papers on art, as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for school libraries. Essay Cultural? There is no formal education system for academic and special libraries. In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. were more focused. Wilson (2012), in his article 'Fifty years of LIS education' in neil USA and conducted a survey of research productivity and LIS educators during the period 1959-2008.

Author narrated the progress of LIS education in cultural USA and stated that prior to 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to syllabus and essay on science, examination conducted by library associations and cultural differences, similar status was also in Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and information association (ALIA) was taking care of the education system.. Latter LIS education moved to higher education institute since 1980. Chu (2006) in tire pa his paper 'Curricula of LIS programs in the USA: A content analysis' in which the syllabi was reviewed by author from 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in USA. This study brought to the notice that more elective courses offered in LIS education in USA, while number of core requirement is reduced to few. Author has also pointed that 10% of the LIS courses in USA are designed in such a way to deal will emerging subject and latest development in the field of essay cultural differences LIS. Thus subjects covered in the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and information sources services, management, research in on science exhibition LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. As indicated by author in USA education system is giving more emphasis on essay cultural elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and services, technical services etc. to manage latest situation. Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour. - Digital publishing etc. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India:- LIS education in research papers India is cultural differences, completing a century of its existence during the period progress have been achieved in developing LIS education to essay tune with current practices.

Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in education sector including LIS by establishing advisory commission for libraries, national policy for library etc. Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and upgraded of essay cultural LIS education in India. The progress from certificate courses to elizabeth pa research level through regular and distance mode took leading developing education in India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in education and higher education around the globe. Every country worth its name and has developed a system of education and infrastructure to educate its people, and India is no exception. There has been a fast growth in institution of higher education since the dawn of twentieth century and more particularly, after India attained independence in essay cultural 1947. The new India started its development program to achieve the new educational, cultural and economic objectives at the national level. Such developments at these institutions contributed to the development of more libraries, which in turn had to accept new responsibilities to meet society's changing needs and demands. Libraries are recognized to play an important role in essay exhibition in school education, scientific research and social-economic development of a country. This envisages the need for professionally qualified personnel to differences manage and run the libraries and information centres effectively and efficiently.

In order to feed the growing number of libraries, more trained library professionals were needed. In School? For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and library science developed into a distinct field of specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and practices that were deemed sufficient to meet the growing dimensions of cultural differences library services. Handling of research on art recorded knowledge in modern libraries has given birth to the functional aspects of collecting, organizing and promoting the use of reading materials relevant to the users through information transfer activities. Essay Cultural Differences? These activities, no doubt, assist in defining the spectrum of studies for librarianship. Papers On Art? The basic tenet of LIS education is to provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to cover all aspects of professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of librarianship. LIS education aims at providing trained manpower to manage different types of libraries, information and documentation centres which, over essay a period of time have undergone changes in terms of needs, functions, types and on science exhibition, range of services offered as well as tools and techniques being used when offering the services. Research in library and information science in India is not deep rooted. In the beginning it was in the form of a trial and error method. It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of library science who lifted trail librarianship to the level of a science with the differences formulation of laws of library science, and establishment library schools and research centres. He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and postulates. Ranganathan cut new grounds and blazed new practices in library and information science initially by solo research.

This is evidence from the published literature that Ranganathan era's is characterized by image analysis a period of cultural intellectual contribution to the library and information science, particularly library classification. The root of the library and information science research in image analysis India were off shoots from the country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of Library and Information Science, University of Delhi) instituted by Dr S R Ranganathan a day of library science profession in India in 1946. Essay Cultural? The first research degree in the library and information science in the country and even in the commonwealth countries was awarded by the University of refutation Delhi in 1957 to D B Krishna Rao for cultural differences his thesis 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the image analysis supervision of Dr. S R Ranganathan. 4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in the history of education for librarianship began in cultural differences the mid-1800s as librarians around the world recognized that systematic education and training were required so that proper order could be brought to the collections that had been growing in all libraries.

The need for professionally qualified personnel to manage these libraries effectively and efficiently was duly recognized during the first half of the on essay present and essay, consequently, the library education programme had been started at several places much before Independence. The history of the education of library science in India may be traced far back as the year of 1911 with the starting of a short term training programme in library science in the Baroda State, under the patronage of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda, who, impressed by image analysis the splendid work done by essay differences public libraries in the West, secured the services of an American librarian Mr. W. A. Research Papers? Borden as Director of the State Library Department. Mr. Bordon had been a pupil of Mr. Melvil Dewey, who established the first library school in the Columbia College, New York in 1887. In 1915, another student of Dewey, Mr. Essay Cultural Differences? A Dickenson, the then librarian of Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for working librarians. Before Independence, only image analysis, five universities namely the Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and Madras University were offering diploma course in library science. Library education was given a new status and design by Professor S. R. Ranganathan in 1920, when the first systematic programme in essay differences library education was started under the auspices of the Madras Library Association in collaboration with the Madras University. Image Analysis? This library school was subsequently taken over by differences the Madras University in 1931 and in armstrong 1937 the course was converted into Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in differences Library Science.

This was the first diploma programme in Library Science in India. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full-fledged Department of Library Science just before independence in 1946, and started admitting students to the PG Diploma in 1947. In 1951, the diploma was changed to Master in essay exhibition Library Science (M.Lib.Sc). Later, between 1956 to 1959, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. Since 1960s, the number of LIS departments has continued to increase. Essay Cultural Differences? After Independence the essay on science in school stimulus for the growth and development of libraries and library science education has come from the differences progress in and extension of education, scientific research and refutation on essay, programmes of socio-economic development which started in 1951 with the commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. Cultural? As a result of these developments, Library and Information Science today is a well-recognized discipline of essays elizabeth study and research at essay, the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in the country. The Baroda and essay on science, Nagpur universities started training course in library science in essay differences 1956 and the Vikram University in 1957. 4.5 Present scenario of LIS Education in India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and developed into a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject.

LIS courses at bachelors, masters and research level are being impacted by different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and specialized institutions. There are now 96 universities in India imparting Library and Information Science education as independent departments in different levels. Essays Tire Elizabeth Pa? The list is shown in appendix. Apart from these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and information science education. Worth mentioning is the two years Associateship in Documentation and essay, Information Science (ADIS) imparted by Documentation Research and Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and National Institute of essay questions for students Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is equivalent to Mater degree of essay differences Library and Information Science (LIS). In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education. The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and the polytechnic institutions throughout the country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in Library and Information Science. With the realization of the on essay importance of higher education and research, research in Library education is not lagging behind like other disciplines. The University Grants Commission (UGC) and the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to research activity in library and information science by awarding scholarships to research and doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education:- The goal of differences library and information science education is the neil preparation of personnel for the task of successful performance at different levels of competence in different types of libraries with an insight into essay cultural, the role of these libraries in a fast changing society.

It should impart a thorough grounding in the intellectual foundations of the profession and competence in the technical and technological skills required for their day-to-day practice in different positions. In other words, education for library and information science should be both knowledge and theory oriented task or practice oriented. The two aspects of theory and practice blend harmoniously in a sound programme of library and writing essay for students, information science education because on this aspects LIS education depend the effectiveness and success of the programme. In achieving this objective the methods of teaching and essay differences, evaluation employed are as important as the quality of the faculty. Essay On Science Exhibition? The main objectives of LIS profession are to essay provide training for building up leadership qualities among the LIS profession develop knowledge on the latest techniques of information storage, transfer and retrieval of information help to acquire necessary skills in handling information, accessing and application of electronic resources, tools and media; and help to know the essay latest developments in the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the basic aims of library and information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of various sources of information, necessary to give traditional and essay cultural, modern library services. ' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of Education:-

Out of the 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and one year Masters Degree in Library and Information Science at the postgraduate level. Thirteen of these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in Library Science. These programme further leads to M.Phil. and PhD levels. The levels of LIS education in papers India are discussed as follows in essay cultural brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in Library Science (C/D. Lib. Sc.):- Many polytechnic colleges, schools and Library Associations impart the low level of library science courses in India having duration of six months to one year. The basic qualification for writing essay these courses is 10+2. This course prepares students for low level professional positions in libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc.

1.7.2 Bachelor of Library and Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is a one-year post graduate degree course. The basic eligibility is a three years degree from any discipline. This course prepares students for essay cultural junior professional positions at all types of libraries and they perform technical libraries. 1.7.3 Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS):- In the early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners. But, gradually the tasks performed by librarians became more complex and more dependent on essay in school technology. As a result, the study of library science has moved from the essay cultural differences work-setting to writing questions for students professional schools in Universities. The first ever library school was started by Melvil Dewey in USA in 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University). In 1889 the programme moved to the New York State Library in essay differences Albany when Dewey became the Director there. The success of Dewey's training programme and essay exhibition in school, the publication of Training for Library Service, a book by the economist Charles Williamson in 1923, led other universities, institutes of technology, and large public libraries to establish their own professional degree programmes in library science.

Master of Library and Information Science is differences, imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in some universities while in some, it is conducted as a two years integrated course. Many universities which offered one year BLISc and MLISc courses are now switching to two years integrated MLIS course in the line of other masters degree courses. Image Analysis? The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course. This course trains persons for senior professional position in libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and essay differences, teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (Now know as Master of research papers Science in Information Science). Differences? The National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in Documentation (AID) after graduation. The course offered by the DRTC and NISCAIR have upper age on the courses as offered by essay questions for students the university departments in differences terms of ICT syllabus and intake of the enrolments.

1.7.5 Master of Philosophy in Library and Information Science (M.Phil):- In Library and Information Science prepares a student for further advanced research in LIS. The basic eligibility for admission for this programme is minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by the UGC. Armstrong Essay Neil? With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for superior position, many students are opting for M.Phil. Courses to better equip them for better positions and develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of Philosophy of cultural Library and Information Science:- This is an advanced level of research programme being offered after the completion of MLISc or M.Phil.

The general aim of a research degree, whether M.Phil. or Ph.D. is to refutation on essay provide training in doing research as well as to develop in cultural the candidate a critical and analytical process of thinking with the purpose that they would be able to provide leadership in the profession. They would also be able to help librarians and information scientists to develop techniques and skills required to meet their requirements of the refutation fast changing society. They should be able to cultural differences identify the needs, set objectives, identify and analyze the problems and find appropriate solutions. They would also be in on essay a position to participate in the planning, organization and implementation of essay programmes at various levels. 1.8 First Course of Library Science in India(Certificate, Diploma and Training courses):- In India the essays elizabeth pa existence of in essay differences service training was initiated by John Macfarlane, the first librarian of the Imperial Library (Now National Library) at Calcutta from 1901-06, as mentioned in image analysis some reports.

In subsequent years, the training programme was opened to the staff of other libraries and even those interested in librarianship who deals with books and other documents. 1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the ruler of Baroda state called the American librarian Mr. William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of Melvil Dewey to create a cadre of men for cultural the newly established libraries in the state library system. In 1912, he initiated the first training school in library education in India. In 1913, another training class for working librarians of writing essay town libraries was started. These classes continued even after the departure of Borden.

1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the essay cultural differences Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from USA. He started the second educational course of three month duration in on science exhibition in school library science in the year 1915. This happens to be the first university course in essay cultural India. Mr. Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the Librarian of Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916.

1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in 1914) started conducting 'training classes for the library workers' at Vijayawada in 1920. The classes covered a module on on science running adult education classes in essay cultural addition to library technique. 1.8.4 Mysore State:- In 1920, a course for questions the training of librarians was conducted at Bangalore under the 'program of library development' initiated by the then Dewan of Mysore Mr. M. Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:- A summer school for college librarians and lecturers in charge of college libraries in Madras was held in 1928 and repeated in 1930.

The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929. Then in 1931, University of Madras took up the training course of essay cultural MALA in 1931 and started offering the course on a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:- Andhra University started a certificate course in 1935, which was letter abandoned. 1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:- The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the supervision of its librarian Mr. Essays Elizabeth Pa? K. M. Asudulah in essay differences 1935. Refutation? It was a full time regular Diploma course in librarianship at cultural differences, the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata). It continued till 1946.

4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of tire elizabeth Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in place of the certificate course of three month duration. This was the first P G Diploma in library science in India. The second university to start a post graduate diploma course was the Banaras Hindu University in 1942. University of Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to Banaras Hindu University in essay cultural differences 1943.

A training course for the staff working in various government organizations was started in 1953. This course was recognized as equivalent to the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib. Science Course for the first time in the country. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full fledged Department of essay on science exhibition in school Library Science in 1946. Essay Cultural? It also instituted the first post diploma degree course in image analysis 1948. Cultural Differences? In 1949, the structure was changed. The programme of Master of Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to elizabeth pa Bachelor of Library Science. In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. Essay? In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to B.Lib.Sc.

Degree course. By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of Madras following the recommendation of Review Committee Report of UGC in introducing different degree courses. The Government Polytechnique for questions for students women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of two years duration in late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. Essay Cultural? S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Previously DRTC courses were of 14 month duration which was later on moved to two years programme. INSDOC conducted a short term course for Asian Documentalists in essays tire elizabeth pa 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in Documentation and Reprography leading to 'Associateship in Documentation and Reprography'. In 1977, the cultural differences programme was renamed as 'Associateship in Information Science (AIS)'.

On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of writing for students Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). At present, it is conducting 'Courses in Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on the training of professionals for special and industrial libraries and information centres. Cultural Differences? Their course contents are biased toward information science and technology. The programme of exhibition these two institutes are class apart from essay differences other similar programmes offered by various institutes. In India advanced professional education has remained attached to universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in library science to train paraprofessionals.

At present, about 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and polytechnics, have library science education courses. Out of these, M. Lib. I. Sc. course is being offered by more than 75 universities. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS:- In 2010, University of Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in refutation on essay Library and Information Science and thus becomes the first university to launch such course in LIS domain. The entry qualification for this course was set at Higher Secondary (10+2) in Arts / Science or Commerce. Launching of this course will force the learners to choose the LIS by choice and not by chance. Cultural? It will again help the students to grasp and understand the contents for LIS in a better and exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India:- Only few departments and associations now provide Certificate Courses in Library and Information Science (CLIS) and Diploma in essay neil Library and Information Science (DLIS).

The others provide BLISc and MLISc courses. Essay Differences? In most of the universities, the prerequisite for admission into the Bachelor or Master degree course in essay exhibition Library and essay differences, Information Science is 10+2+3 years of education from any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). The majority of the universities generally conduct two separate courses for the Bachelor's degree followed by the Master of Library and Information Science of one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of four semester duration. The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and essay on science in school, introduced five years integrated course in cultural differences LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Similarly IGNOU and YCMOU are also playing major role in imparting LIS education along with deemed and formal universities. Students in most schools of library and information science have the opportunity to develop at papers on art, least some degree of specialization. Some may take advanced courses in particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular type of library, such as a course in medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship.

In simple, there are many different courses available in LIS. It makes the professionals available to work at all levels of library irrespective of type, structure and function. The University Grants Commission (UGC), from differences time to time recommended the broader outlines of courses of Library and Information Science. The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and essays tire, other higher bodies now give emphasis to essay cultural differences semester system rather than annual system, and credit-based rather than marks-based system.

Every university being autonomous is free to on science exhibition in school frame its own course of studies, and syllabi of many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to educate librarians share certain characteristics. Essay Differences? Programmes typically offer courses in the history of research books and librarianship to give students a background in the profession's past. Differences? It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of essay users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and management of the collection (preservation conservation of essay cultural differences documents). It also includes contents related to scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part:- Technology is entering in a very big way in every sector and in refutation LIS where it has been used extensively to store and retrieve information in different forms and essay cultural, structures. Armstrong? This new dimension is reflected in the course structure of almost all universities that provides courses in LIS. The courses include topics that impart new skill in organizing web resources, and providing web-based services. 4.17 Practical Exposure:-

All courses provide scope of practical knowledge rather than restricting to only theory. Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to cultural differences undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:- All universities which provide Library and Information Science courses witness a great flow of learners. But they are able to accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the universities, students desire to study the LIS has to go through a very competitive entrance examination for admission.

4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:- LIS is a professional course and so it has the limitations of any other professional courses. The non-inclusion of Library and Information Science in UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is a very common. The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of LIS and low level of awareness among the general people about this course. 4.19 LIS Research in India:-

The LIS research briefly means the collection and analysis of original data on a problem of librarianship, done within the library school according to scientific and scholarly standard. Research in this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at the doctoral, post doctoral and on science exhibition, research staff level, It also includes in differences house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and documentalists, etc. The aim of research in LIS, like any other discipline is to contribute towards the advancement of subject and contribution to the existing knowledge. 4.19.1 Dr. Research Papers? S. R. Ranganathan's Effort:- The era of LIS research in India started with S. R. Ranganathans efforts. He performed individual research for several years. His works that lead to some of the fundamental and theoretical principles have dominated the research activities for five decades. His idea of classification and cataloguing becomes the area of research in different library schools all over the world. The library and academic community of those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in LIS.

Some of essay cultural his worth notable contributions are. a) Five laws of research papers library science. b) Colon Classification. c) Prolegomena to library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and its facets.

f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to reflect in two programs. 4.19.2 M. Phil Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- University of Delhi was the first to introduce M. Cultural? Phil programme in Library and Information Science in 1980. Image Analysis? Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme. Cultural Differences? The duration of M. Phil programme in almost all universities in this country is one year. 4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of tire Delhi:- The credit for introducing the doctoral degree programme in library science in India goes to Dr. S. R. Essay? Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started PhD program in Delhi University in 1958. The university offered first doctoral degree in Library science to D. B. Krishan Rao for his 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the guidance of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan.

In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D. Essay On Science In School? Today more than 125 Universities in India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore.

Since its inception, it has been carrying out research studies on documentation and related areas. iii) Library Associations:- The contribution of cultural library association of India towards research activities is image analysis, negligible but they restrict their activities in the field of publication of journals, organization of seminars, conferences and workshop, etc. for making ground to do research in LIS. IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the mentionable among them. iv) Funding of LIS Research in India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is essay differences, promoting LIS research by refutation on essay awarding different kinds of fellowships to the students. Indian Council of differences Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by refutation on essay awarding scholarship to essay differences doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:- In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to Dr. B. B. Image Analysis? Shukla.

It claimed to be the first such degree in library science all over the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of different countries to analyse the trends in LIS research at global scenario and essay, record the essay neil research trends in LIS research at global level based on the analysis. The different national studies in essay research were conducted by these two authors as an assignment of IFLA project during 1997-1998 and compared national and international trends in pa LIS research and recorded the development in research. Essay? The countries covered in the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. The analytical study conducted and image analysis, results reported by IFLA provided a descriptive account of research conducted in various prominent countries of the world. The author's analysis on the research activity and broad subject in which prominent research covered during the period 1965-1995 indicated that the major focus in LIS research at International level was concentrated mainly of the following topics. 1. Information storage and retrieval (87)

2. Library and information services (77) 3. Information seeking behavior (8) 4. Other LIS topics (25) Thus out of 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and ISB were in essay differences prominent areas. Though these are common during the essay questions period the trend was almost similar in other countries also. European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and retrieval where as in UK the essay cultural differences same situation was reported. In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in universities. Papers On Art? Information science research took leading position in European countries. The research trends in Australia reflected in LIS services, information seeking and differences, history were more prominent (74). In China principals in LIS , LIS services, information industry were the major research areas, were more considered but library and essays tire elizabeth, information services area was more popular. The most popular sub topics on which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in China were : ' Library management and administration.

In China during the period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and 1991 onward developing stage and information service, library education were the prominent areas. A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for LIS research in essay cultural Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. also reflected European trends in LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in research concentration at neil, broad information topics. It was found that research at international level had orientation towards solving information problems. In LIS many authors reviewed the research methods used by LIS scholars for conducting effective research and noticed that the among the different methods in which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by Layzell Ward (1998) and pointed out the research trends and informed that research output was low initially and essay cultural differences, increased latter after establishment of essays tire elizabeth library association which setup research committee 1946 and from 1960 Government funding made available for LIS research. Since the establishment of British Library 1994 the growth in research gradually increased after 1980 and information technology, information storage and retrieval become more popular topics. From the above global study it is noticed that LIS research progress was slow and different topics were grouped in to three areas based in traditional practices and since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of libraries, Publishing and book industries. 2. Library and information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and seeking behavior, User education.

3. Information storage and retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. Information seeking behavior: Methods of information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. Scientific and professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and structures, Methods of essay communication. At the end of image analysis 2001 centre for information research at essay differences, university of central England, Birmingham examines the research landscape in LIS domain. They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and recorded potential gaps in refutation LIS research activities. The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and colleges, government libraries etc. the survey was focused on core areas in LIS. The centre reported that in LIS research domain may be local regional, national and essay cultural differences, international have a practice or academic focus. Hayns et. al (2000), pointed out that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the essay major types of research.

Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to cultural differences theoretical investigation and image analysis, helps in essay differences understanding principals of information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications. Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. For Students? Action research covers findings solutions to problems at essay, work places worked of different services in 1984 Stewert felt that research area in LIS. This covers resources and services, new technologies, management of change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. thus the prominent areas in LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and access to knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in research on art above areas using different research methods for conducting research in LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and experimental research, bibliographic methods etc.

The data collection techniques used by essay cultural researcher while conducting the study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and refutation, secondary analysis. In UK research conducted mainly in the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and retrieval etc. (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in which analysed research articles published in 39 core journals published during the period 1950-1975 from LIS to essay differences find out the publishing trends in the stream. Author analysed about 900 journals articles and recorded the research research trends. Similar study was also performed by Atkins (1988) and cultural differences, he analysed subject trends in LIS research carried out during the period 1975-1984 using questionnaire. The purpose of the author in conducting this study was to find past, present and future trends in LIS research. Atkins in his study presented a table indicating popularity of the subject in which research articles were publish and refutation on essay, these were treated as a base to conduct LIS research.

The areas isolated by essay differences him are : 1. Library management. 2. Information retrieval. 5. Public library. 6. Library automation. 7. Library history. 8. Library finance. 9. Collection development. 10.

Information services. 15. Citation studies. 16. Special libraries. 17. Research libraries. 18. Library education. 19. University library. 20. Library building. 21. Special collection. 22. National library. 23. Library security.

The author opined that in developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and since 1980 emphasis was given on latest trends related topics which were in currency like databases, ICT applications. The growth of OCLC, RLIN and WLN gave more attention towards research in research papers on art the advanced topics and modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by the researcher. Cultural? 'Citation analysis' was the subject area proved more popular and reported more studies as compared to other topics in LIS, due to its applications in the field to manage libraries and provide better services to users and uses in library at its highest potential. Mcnicol and Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and prognosis' conducted a survey of research in LIS covering the period in image analysis two parts 1997-2002 and 2002-2005. The comparative analysis of the study leads to find out trends in research in LIS. Essay? This study highlighted LIS research landscape to identify trends and analysis as well as the armstrong essay neil gaps in research. Slewart (1984) in differences his study prepared a research agenda and indicated few research areas in LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Resources utility and user and services requirement. 2. New technologies. 3. Management change.

4. Library services. 7. Retraining staff. 8. Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on the following research topics and also opined that there is a need to work on the current development to get the quicker solution . 1. Library principals. 2. Identify trends. 3. New user needs. 4. New type of services. Pluse and Prythech (1996), studied and analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and identified few prospective areas like:

1. Operational management. 2. Standards and benchmarking. 3. Essay On Science? Use of internet. 5. Staffing pattern. Few authors pointed out areas of research conducted in UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and reported few of the prominent areas considered more in developed countries are: 1. Information retrieval. 2. Information skill. 4. Professional development.

7. LIS education. 8. User development. 9. Electronic services. Thus research conducted in differences developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and it was highest since 2001. Further while indicating future research development themes for research activities suggested were, 1. Essay? Electronic information.

2. Information policy. 3. Multimedia policy. 4. LIS education. 5. Essay Differences? Business information. Electronic resources and information services based on digital media is the need of the time including internet resource management. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. Impact of digital resources. 2. Digital library development. 3. ICT and school library. 4. Use of electronic resources.

5. Community building. 6. Controlled vocabulary. 7. Information searching. 10. Semantic web and controlled terminologies.

The editorial of library and information science research (1997), in which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by Burke and papers, others and focused the areas in LIS research before 1997 and next bilinear were also highlighted. Information seeking and information retrieval, storage and preservation technology, information quality was covered more. Essay Differences? The opinion of editorial board covers the major topics like economics, manage rising cost of journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and its impact on libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to application of essays tire information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the major core areas to be looked in to 2000 onwards. Samdani (2011), in his article narrated the status of differences doctoral research in LIS in Pakistan and appended the views indicating the LIS research was started in 1967 from university of Karachi. Refutation? In Pakistan seven universities and one private university is offering doctoral research programme in LIS. During 1967-1971 only five candidates admitted for research program and only one i.e. M A H Chishti completed his thesis and awarded degree in 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'. In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to Nasim Fatima under the guidance of Dr. Differences? Jamil Jalibi from university of Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and essays elizabeth, standardization of Urdu manuscripts'. The third degree awarded to Munira Ansari in cultural differences 2005 entitled 'Information needs and information seeking behaviour of the media practitioners in Pakistan'. The fourth degree awarded to Shamshad Ahmed in 2009 for essay neil entitled 'A study of library and archival record in directorate of Sindh archives Karachi'.

The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in research programme and their topics are information generating and handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and information science education curriculum, reference and essay differences, information sources etc. It is review that university of refutation Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of essay differences Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in 1971. First degree awarded in 2004 and second degree awarded in 2005. The topics were funding model in library and papers, collection management in libraries, at present till 2009, three students have submitted the thesis. In university of Sindh research programme started in cultural differences 2001 first degree awarded in 2005 and presently four students have registered for ongoing research program and their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. From Islamia University started doctoral program in 1986 and first degree awarded in 1991 for university library and presently three students have registered for PhD ongoing research program. Questions For Students? From university of Balochistan only one candidate having registered in 2003.

University of Peshawar, Urdu university of Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at initial stage. It is thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in LIS were awarded during 1964-2010. From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in 46 years duration, almost single degree in essay differences a twice year. During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and this is the real contribution of Pakistan. The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. as compared Indian progress is excellent. Miwa (2011), in his article trends in Japanese LIS education is highlighted in which more trace was given on LIS education to essay for students maintain quality. The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. it has also same educational pattern followed in India i.e. any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in LIS, master degree and doctoral in LIS. In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the essay major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc. The review of LIS research in different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is covering latest trends in the profession.

From the review of India the same picture is reported except the ICT and technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in Indian Universities: The research activity in Indian universities is gathering momentum as there is a greater demand for the research in tire pa the discipline. During the cultural recent past, quite a number of research activities have been carried out in the universities and research institutions in various parts of the world. In India, due to the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and their active support, many students are caring out M. Phil. and essays, PhD degrees. During pre-independence, there were only cultural differences, few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the research output increased drastically in every field. In India about 125 universities and research institutions are offering PhD programs in LIS. Many researchers made an effort to collect data from refutation different universities and analyzed it to fix the research productivity of the various universities in India (Chandrashekara 2009). The credit for the formal institution of the doctoral degree program in library science in India goes undeniably to Dr.

S.R. Differences? Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started library science education at the University of Delhi. The University of Delhi awarded the first de jure degree in library science in 1957 to D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on 'faceted classification for agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010). Armstrong? Doctoral research remained in the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to Delhi in 1955. In 1960s and 1970s some doctorates in library related topics were earned by library professionals under the guidance and supervision of faculties belonging to the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and the like. The purpose of reviving and furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by J. Essay Differences? S. Sharma (1924'1993), the then university librarian and head of the library science department of the Panjab University, Chandigarh. Under his guidance, the second de jure (de jure means devoting something and someone) Ph.D. in library science was awarded in 1977 after a gap of two decades.

Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and enthusiasm and essays tire, doctoral research raised since 1980s and essay differences, gradual improvement in facilities paved ways for India to maintain its third world leadership in library research and library literature. Essays Tire? PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the lack of differences facilities or adherence to standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010). Chandrashekara (2009) collected the data from various authorized sources for the degrees awarded in Indian universities from 1957 to 2008 in LIS discipline and analyzed in proper manner in his paper. His results indicated that during the image analysis period 1957 to 2008 about 802 theses were submitted and awarded the degrees to the researchers. From his analysis it is very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on an average degree awarded per year were 36 and essay cultural, from 1957 to 1990 only 8 per annum average degrees were awarded.

The drastic change is reported since 2003 onwards and on tire elizabeth pa an average 43 degrees were awarded per year in Indian universities. Even author had grouped decennial growth of research degrees awarded in Indian universities. The trends resulted from the data presentation indicated that the real growth starts from 1980 to 2008 and during 1950 to 1979 only 15 degrees were awarded. The analysis of degrees awarded in cultural different states and on art, arranging them the top 10 states in cultural India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and other states contribution is (141). The analysis made by Chandrashekara and Ramashesh (2009) regarding the image analysis research conducted in India during the period 1957-2008 and found that research activity in Karnataka state is essay differences, leading and Maharashtra is exhibition in school, ranked at 4th position. The library and information science deals with all aspects of information and knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and conservation of documents and so on.

The library and information science closely related to all other subjects. It forms its own foundation by taking the help of essay cultural some other subjects. Refutation? Dr. S. R. Ranganathan is a pioneer in the field of Library and Information Science in the world and essay cultural differences, India in particular. Exhibition In School? He contributed in almost all aspects of the library science. Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in Library and Information and its related subjects. Differences? It ranges from certificate course to PhD.

The research trends indicated the growth at global level and also in India. This chapter satisfies the objective 'To study research growth and armstrong neil, research trends in LIS and compare it with current developments in LIS'. This chapter summarizes the essay cultural progress in LIS education, LIS research at refutation on essay, global and national level. ' Asundi, A Y and essay cultural, Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and Information Science Education in India: International perspective with special reference to Developing Countries. DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology Vol.

27(2) March, p.5-11. ' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in library and information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and information science education, Accessed at http://www.netugc.com/library-and-information-science-education-in-india dated on 14.04.2012. ' Burke R M and others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and information science research, Vol. 19(3), p. 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and information science research literature in Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the university librarians association of Sri Lanka, Vol. Research Papers? 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and Information Science Research in India.

Asia Pacific Conference on LIS education and practice, p.530-537. ' Gupta, D K and Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of Library and Information Studies. Vol. 57(Dec), p.333-338. ' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and research area for developing countries.

5th International CALIBER. Essay Cultural Differences? Punjab University Chandigarh. 8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and research, P. Vakkari. 1993.

The evolution of library and information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of essay cultural journal articles. Information Processing and Management, 29(1): 129-144. ' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and information science education in India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of library and information technology, Vol. 30(5), Sept., p 67-73. ' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in library and information science in India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. (1997). The nature of essay exhibition in school UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from a bibliometric study. IFLA General Conference in Copenhagen, 1997. Library Theory and Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at cultural differences, http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla63/63rocm.htm accessed on 12.06.2012. ' McNicol; Sarah and Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and Information Research News 26(83), pp.

10-16. ' Miwa M et. al. Essay On Science Exhibition In School? (2011), Global LIS: An effort to essay cultural differences describe trends in Japanese LIS education for global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on Library information education and practice 2011. ' Naukri24 (2012), Library and information science education in India, Accessed at http://www.news24online.com/Library-and-Information-Science-Education-in-India--Options,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on 14.04.2012. ' Peritz (1981), the methods of library science research: some results from a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. 251-268. ' Pluse, John M., and papers, Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in essay Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on Research in Public Libraries, British Library Research and Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC.

' Rath, P (2010) Information and neil, communication technology - Application in essay differences higher education with special reference to north Eastern region. Located at www.caluniv.ac.in/news/prabhakar.doc accessed on 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and essays tire elizabeth, Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. 166-175. ' Rochester Maxine K (1995), Library and information science research in Australia 1985-1994. A content analysis of research articles in the Australian Academic and Research Libraries 26, p. 163-170. ' Rochester Maxine K and Vakkari Pertti (2003), International library and information science research: A comparison of national trends, IFLA professional reports, Nr. 82. ' Samdani R A and Bhatti R (2011), doctoral research in LIS by Pakistani professionals: An analysis, Library philosophy and essay cultural differences, practice, accessed on http://inillibunl.edu/lpp accessed at 25.02.2012. ' Sumsion John (1994) strategic research areas and elizabeth pa, possible research models for UK public libraries, Library Review, Vol. 43(4), p 7-26.

' Tsuji Keita, Yoshida Yuko and Miva M (2006) Survey on faculty of Library and Information Science education in Japan, Graduate school of cultural differences library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 2-3, Kasuga, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8550. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of research on art us is qualified to essay differences a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in image analysis your email box, in as little as 3 hours.

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Cultural Differences Essay | Bartleby

Most Ridiculous College Mascots and Nicknames of differences All Time. Colleges around the country have some very strange mascots and team names. These 30 colleges have the strangest mascots and/or team names in the entire country. 30. Virginia Tech Hokies - HokieBird. The Hokie isn't even a real thing. It is defined as a devoted Virginia Tech fan and is modeled after a turkey. Exhibition In School? It looks like a jolly, old mascot, but it's strange to have someone you'd eat for Thanksgiving dinner as the essay, symbol for your school.

30. Virginia Tech Hokies - HokieBird. The Hokie isn't even a real thing. Essays Pa? It is defined as a devoted Virginia Tech fan and is modeled after a turkey. It looks like a jolly, old mascot, but it's strange to essay differences have someone you'd eat for Thanksgiving dinner as the symbol for your school. 29. Research? Georgetown Hoyas - Jack the Bulldog. He looks like a nice guy doesn't he? There's having an intense mascot and essay differences, then there's having a mascot that looks like he's ready to attack you.

Additionally, the mascot doesn't even match the refutation on essay, team name, which doesn't make a whole lot of essay cultural differences sense. 29. Georgetown Hoyas - Jack the Bulldog. He looks like a nice guy doesn't he? There's having an intense mascot and papers on art, then there's having a mascot that looks like he's ready to attack you. Cultural? Additionally, the mascot doesn't even match the team name, which doesn't make a whole lot of sense. This mascot falls into the random category.

All told, the mascot is actually pretty cool looking. He looks like a buff alien. At least he's had a lot to cheer about at football games the last several years. This mascot falls into the random category. All told, the mascot is actually pretty cool looking. He looks like a buff alien. At least he's had a lot to cheer about at football games the on essay, last several years. Obviously a tiger is cultural, a very popular nickname for a team, but Aubie is very strange looking. Essentially, Aubie looks like a librarian that happens to writing be a tiger.

That's not exactly the intense look the program is probably looking for. Obviously a tiger is essay differences, a very popular nickname for a team, but Aubie is very strange looking. Essentially, Aubie looks like a librarian that happens to be a tiger. That's not exactly the intense look the armstrong essay, program is probably looking for. From one Alabama school to their rival, the Alabama mascot doesn't make much sense either. Crimson Tide is actually a pretty cool nickname for a school, but who's the one who piped up and was like, We're the Crimson Tide, I know, let's make our mascot an elephant! Separately, the nickname and mascot are pretty cool, but together they make no sense. From one Alabama school to their rival, the Alabama mascot doesn't make much sense either. Cultural? Crimson Tide is essay for students, actually a pretty cool nickname for essay differences, a school, but who's the one who piped up and was like, We're the Crimson Tide, I know, let's make our mascot an elephant! Separately, the nickname and mascot are pretty cool, but together they make no sense.

25. Oklahoma State Cowboys - Pistol Pete. The huge head on Pistol Pete is what really gets people. Everything else looks like a normal cowboy, but then the head is gigantic. He really looks like he's a caricature of armstrong neil a cowboy, which probably isn't what Oklahoma State wanted when they created him. 25. Essay Cultural Differences? Oklahoma State Cowboys - Pistol Pete. The huge head on essay on science exhibition, Pistol Pete is essay cultural, what really gets people. On Science In School? Everything else looks like a normal cowboy, but then the head is gigantic. He really looks like he's a caricature of a cowboy, which probably isn't what Oklahoma State wanted when they created him. What represents a cyclone any better than a bird?

Nothing about the Cyclones' mascot makes any sense, although it would be hard to have a mascot that perfectly represented rapidly spinning winds. Everyone seems to agree they could've come up with something better than a cardinal, though. What represents a cyclone any better than a bird? Nothing about the Cyclones' mascot makes any sense, although it would be hard to have a mascot that perfectly represented rapidly spinning winds. Everyone seems to agree they could've come up with something better than a cardinal, though. Reveille is actually an absolutely beautiful dog and mascot, but he doesn't match with the team's name. Essay? Texas AM is image analysis, named after the agriculture industry, so having a dog doesn't make a whole lot of sense. Essay Differences? Sure, it would be weird to on art have any foods grown on a farm, but they could have cattle or something like that.

Reveille is actually an absolutely beautiful dog and mascot, but he doesn't match with the essay, team's name. Texas AM is named after the agriculture industry, so having a dog doesn't make a whole lot of sense. Sure, it would be weird to have any foods grown on a farm, but they could have cattle or something like that. 22. St. Louis University Billikens - Billiken. Billiken looks like something straight out of a horror movie. Really, he looks like the trouble maker, pale child who plays tricks on people in essay on science some old, abandoned mansion.

Perhaps that's going too far, but this mascot is beyond creepy and it's hard to believe he can inspire much excitement without scaring people. 22. St. Louis University Billikens - Billiken. Billiken looks like something straight out of a horror movie. Really, he looks like the trouble maker, pale child who plays tricks on people in some old, abandoned mansion.

Perhaps that's going too far, but this mascot is cultural, beyond creepy and it's hard to believe he can inspire much excitement without scaring people. This one is tire, a real head scratcher. Who thought it would be a good idea to make the school mascot Okra? That might be the least intimidating nickname of all time and the mascot just emphasizes the obscurity of the name. This one is a real head scratcher. Essay Cultural? Who thought it would be a good idea to make the school mascot Okra?

That might be the least intimidating nickname of all time and the mascot just emphasizes the questions for students, obscurity of the cultural differences, name. 20. Wake Forest Demon Deacons - The Demon Deacon. One has to think this mascot was modeled after the first head master of the school or something like that, because that's what he looks like. Refutation? For some reason, he rides in on differences, a motorcycle, despite the fact he looks like an armstrong neil, old man that belongs in his law library. Nothing about it makes sense. 20. Wake Forest Demon Deacons - The Demon Deacon. One has to think this mascot was modeled after the first head master of the school or something like that, because that's what he looks like. Differences? For some reason, he rides in on a motorcycle, despite the fact he looks like an image analysis, old man that belongs in his law library. Differences? Nothing about it makes sense.

Poor, Oski. Golden Bears is refutation on essay, a pretty cool nickname for a team, but Oski looks so bizarre. His face is cultural differences, far too large and refutation on essay, something about him just looks off. Yes, he looks pretty nice, but without knowing who he was the mascot for, most people probably wouldn't be able to essay guess what he was. Poor, Oski. Refutation On Essay? Golden Bears is essay differences, a pretty cool nickname for a team, but Oski looks so bizarre. Essay Exhibition In School? His face is far too large and differences, something about image analysis him just looks off. Yes, he looks pretty nice, but without knowing who he was the mascot for, most people probably wouldn't be able to essay cultural guess what he was. C'mon MIT, you're some of the smartest people in the country, you couldn't think of a more creative name? People going to the school are mostly engineers and so their teams are named after that profession. Can you imagine if every school made their mascot according to on essay this?

There would be a lot of differences schools with the mascot of the armstrong essay neil, Undeclareds. C'mon MIT, you're some of the smartest people in the country, you couldn't think of a more creative name? People going to essay cultural differences the school are mostly engineers and so their teams are named after that profession. Can you imagine if every school made their mascot according to writing questions this? There would be a lot of schools with the mascot of the Undeclareds. 17. Texas AM Corpus-Christi - Izzy the Islander.

Izzy is actually one of the coolest mascots in essay cultural college sports. However, that doesn't make him any less strange. His big Tiki head walking around strikes people right away and makes him a prime target for a photo op with fans. Count him as one of the most creative mascots in college athletics. 17. Texas AM Corpus-Christi - Izzy the Islander. Izzy is actually one of the tire elizabeth, coolest mascots in cultural college sports. On Essay? However, that doesn't make him any less strange. His big Tiki head walking around strikes people right away and makes him a prime target for differences, a photo op with fans. Count him as one of the most creative mascots in college athletics.

16. Essay For Students? Cal State Long Beach Dirtbags - Prospector Pete. Prospector Pete is nowhere to essay cultural be seen, so he's a little bit of a mystery, but the nickname Dirtbags is a bit of papers on art a head scratcher. It makes people think that anyone playing for this team must be a dirtbag, which usually has a negative connotation attached to essay cultural differences it. 16. Cal State Long Beach Dirtbags - Prospector Pete. Prospector Pete is nowhere to be seen, so he's a little bit of a mystery, but the nickname Dirtbags is a bit of a head scratcher. It makes people think that anyone playing for this team must be a dirtbag, which usually has a negative connotation attached to it. 15. Dartmouth Big Green - Keggy the research papers, Keg. Now, this is a great, straightforward mascot.

More colleges should adopt this straightforward approach, really. Cultural Differences? An Ivy League school having a mascot modeled after beer and drinking is essay, pretty hilarious. The mascot itself actually looks pretty cool too, although it looks like he's been sipping a bit from his own keg. 15. Dartmouth Big Green - Keggy the Keg.

Now, this is essay cultural differences, a great, straightforward mascot. More colleges should adopt this straightforward approach, really. An Ivy League school having a mascot modeled after beer and drinking is armstrong neil, pretty hilarious. The mascot itself actually looks pretty cool too, although it looks like he's been sipping a bit from his own keg. Credit: Christopher Hanewinckel, USA Today Sports. Nothing says we're going to essay cultural differences beat you than having an item you can find in elizabeth pa the grocery store as your mascot. Yes, the cultural, orange involved in research on art Syracuse's uniforms makes them look really cool, but Otto is a very weird, bumbling mascot. The biggest question is, how does the person inside see through that costume?

Nothing says we're going to beat you than having an item you can find in the grocery store as your mascot. Yes, the essay cultural differences, orange involved in Syracuse's uniforms makes them look really cool, but Otto is a very weird, bumbling mascot. Essay On Science Exhibition In School? The biggest question is, how does the person inside see through that costume? 13. Tulsa Golden Hurricane - Captain Cane.

Like Iowa State, Tulsa didn't exactly know how to make a mascot based on a natural disaster, but the differences, choice they went with is very weird. Someone who looks like Captain America shouldn't be representing a golden hurricane, whatever that is. For that matter, Golden Hurricane sounds a bit like an inappropriate nickname. 13. Research? Tulsa Golden Hurricane - Captain Cane. Like Iowa State, Tulsa didn't exactly know how to make a mascot based on a natural disaster, but the choice they went with is very weird. Someone who looks like Captain America shouldn't be representing a golden hurricane, whatever that is. For that matter, Golden Hurricane sounds a bit like an inappropriate nickname. Credit: Mike Carter, USA Today Sports. Brutus is differences, a beloved mascot that is very popular because of the Buckeyes' athletic success, but take a second to realize how strange he is. Essentially, his head is an image analysis, actual buckeye from a buckeye tree, which is kind of cool, but it also makes him look like one of the goofiest mascots in college sports.

Brutus is cultural differences, a beloved mascot that is image analysis, very popular because of the Buckeyes' athletic success, but take a second to realize how strange he is. Essentially, his head is an actual buckeye from a buckeye tree, which is essay cultural differences, kind of cool, but it also makes him look like one of the goofiest mascots in college sports. 11. Essays? Toledo Rockets - Rocky the Rocket. This is cultural differences, a slick looking mascot. Rocky really looks like something out of the future. Why Toledo, in armstrong essay neil particular, has this mascot doesn't really make sense, but hey, more power to them.

11. Toledo Rockets - Rocky the cultural, Rocket. This is a slick looking mascot. Rocky really looks like something out of the future. Why Toledo, in essays elizabeth pa particular, has this mascot doesn't really make sense, but hey, more power to them. 10. Stanford Cardinal - Stanford Tree. Forever the goofiest mascot of essay cultural all time, the Stanford Tree looks like something you should be decorating on Christmas, not something that should be representing a sports team. The poor guy doesn't even have any arms, how sad is that? 10.

Stanford Cardinal - Stanford Tree. Forever the goofiest mascot of all time, the Stanford Tree looks like something you should be decorating on Christmas, not something that should be representing a sports team. Elizabeth Pa? The poor guy doesn't even have any arms, how sad is essay cultural differences, that? 9. Wichita State Shockers - WuShock. In Kansas, this mascot makes sense, but it doesn't make a whole lot of sense anywhere else. Image Analysis? Just in this picture, he's eating corn. For an agricultural symbol, though, he looks a bit aggressive. 9. Wichita State Shockers - WuShock. In Kansas, this mascot makes sense, but it doesn't make a whole lot of sense anywhere else.

Just in this picture, he's eating corn. For an essay cultural differences, agricultural symbol, though, he looks a bit aggressive. Cayenne gives off the spicy vibe, which apparently is on science exhibition, what Louisiana Lafayette is essay differences, going for, but he looks so weird. The way his eyes look makes it seem like perhaps the spiciness is getting to image analysis him, which probably wasn't the intention. Cayenne gives off the spicy vibe, which apparently is what Louisiana Lafayette is going for, but he looks so weird. The way his eyes look makes it seem like perhaps the essay differences, spiciness is pa, getting to him, which probably wasn't the essay cultural, intention. 7. UC Irvine Anteaters - Peter the Anteater. Anteaters sleep 20 hours a day, so why would you want your team mascot to be one?

UC Irvine apparently wants to tire elizabeth pa be represented by it and their mascot looks so weird. Essay? You can't deny based on this picture, though, it looks like he gets his work in at essay questions the gym. 7. Essay Cultural? UC Irvine Anteaters - Peter the Anteater. Anteaters sleep 20 hours a day, so why would you want your team mascot to be one? UC Irvine apparently wants to be represented by refutation, it and their mascot looks so weird. Cultural? You can't deny based on this picture, though, it looks like he gets his work in at the gym. 6. Penn State Nittany Lions - The Nittany Lion. There might not be a creepier mascot in image analysis college sports than the Nittany Lion at Penn State. It looks like a bad Halloween costume with a bizarre mask attached to it. For having such a cool logo, Penn State really seems to have screwed up its mascot's look. 6. Essay Cultural Differences? Penn State Nittany Lions - The Nittany Lion.

There might not be a creepier mascot in college sports than the Nittany Lion at Penn State. Refutation On Essay? It looks like a bad Halloween costume with a bizarre mask attached to it. For having such a cool logo, Penn State really seems to have screwed up its mascot's look. When he's moving around, he looks hilarious and is certainly entertaining. The inspiration for cultural, the costume, though, the world may never know. When he's moving around, he looks hilarious and is certainly entertaining. The inspiration for essay neil, the costume, though, the world may never know. The few schools that use inflatable mascots are very weird and Nebraska's is the cultural, weirdest of the on art, bunch. A little kid as your mascot for a team with a bizarre nickname is just confusing.

To get back to their winning ways, maybe they should adopt a mascot closer to the age of most of its athletes. The few schools that use inflatable mascots are very weird and Nebraska's is the cultural, weirdest of the pa, bunch. A little kid as your mascot for a team with a bizarre nickname is just confusing. To get back to their winning ways, maybe they should adopt a mascot closer to differences the age of most of armstrong essay neil its athletes. 3. UC Santa Cruz Banana Slugs - Sammy the Slug. If anyone knows what a banana slug is, please let UC Santa Cruz know that it should not be their mascot.

Sammy the Slug looks like something you'd shoot out of your nose when you have a cold. Basically, not the ideal mascot for a college sports team. 3. UC Santa Cruz Banana Slugs - Sammy the essay cultural differences, Slug. If anyone knows what a banana slug is, please let UC Santa Cruz know that it should not be their mascot. Sammy the Slug looks like something you'd shoot out of your nose when you have a cold. Basically, not the ideal mascot for a college sports team. 2. Williams College Ephs - The Purple Cow. D-III Williams College has such a strange mascot, it had to make the essays tire, list. Differences? This purple cow is a living legend, despite the fact he makes no sense. Sometimes, having a mascot that doesn't make sense, actually makes it a little bit funnier.

2. Williams College Ephs - The Purple Cow. D-III Williams College has such a strange mascot, it had to on science exhibition make the differences, list. This purple cow is a living legend, despite the fact he makes no sense. Neil? Sometimes, having a mascot that doesn't make sense, actually makes it a little bit funnier. 1. Western Kentucky Hilltoppers - Big Red. Any mascot that looks like he can eat a fan at any time that he wants is cultural, a strange one. On Science? Big Red might be the essay cultural, only one in college sports that fits that description. He looks so goofy with no jaw and a mouth that is huge, but his red body brings together the entire costume that makes him the strangest mascot in college sports. 1. Western Kentucky Hilltoppers - Big Red. Any mascot that looks like he can eat a fan at any time that he wants is a strange one. On Art? Big Red might be the only one in college sports that fits that description.

He looks so goofy with no jaw and a mouth that is essay cultural, huge, but his red body brings together the on essay, entire costume that makes him the differences, strangest mascot in college sports.

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Cultural Differences Essay | Major Tests

How to Make an Acting Resume With No Experience. Essay Differences! Putting together an actor resume is probably the first and easiest thing an aspiring actor should do. But here#8217;s the conundrum: how do you make an papers acting resume with no experience ? If you#8217;re in this position, don#8217;t sweat it. It#8217;s not a big deal. Really, it#8217;s not.

I remember myself having this exact same thought when I was just embarking on the acting journey. In reality, almost every single actor has been in a position of cultural having an empty actor resume. We#8217;ve all started out acting with no credits. Essays Tire Elizabeth Pa! As a newcomer, you#8217;ll have to get comfortable with the cultural differences idea that you#8217;re a fresh face on the block, you won#8217;t be signed by any top talent agencies in armstrong, Los Angeles (yet) and you#8217;ll have to work with what you have. Essay Cultural! Below, I will quickly walk you through what an actor resume is, what purpose does it serve, what resume you need for voice over jobs, the standards for an acting resume in image analysis, Los Angeles, and the best way to go about writing your actor resume when you have no experience to list. Before we begin, would you like a sample standard LA acting resume that you can edit with your own details? Share some social love and you can download an editable PDF.

Let#8217;s start at the beginning. After reading through this acting resume guide, if you have any questions, drop your comments here and I will try to cultural differences answer them the best I can. What#8217;s an acting resume, and why do you need one? I#8217;m sure everybody knows what a CV (curriculum vitae) is. On Art! It#8217;s that piece of paper that people use to show to their potential employers. Surprise surprise, an actor#8217;s resume is the essay cultural exact same thing that you use when they#8217;re looking to book acting auditions in LA. It serves the armstrong essay same purpose, and is even structured similarly.

Alongside your headshot, an acting resume is cultural differences, one of the most important actor#8217;s marketing tools that every aspiring thespian needs to have. It#8217;s your calling card. You will list all of your acting experience, education, acting training and writing special skills that you have alongside your contact information, and a few physical stats. Look to the right. This is cultural differences, what a Los Angeles based working actor#8217;s resume looks like.

I removed the name and contact info. When you submit for an acting job, a CD will receive your full actor#8217;s package: actor resume, headshot and, if you have it, your demo reel. The CD will look at your headshot first (!) and if you look the part, they will turn it over to see your acting resume on the other side. They#8217;ll scan through your physical stats, your credits and, sometimes, your special skills if that applies. Say your resume looks professional, your look fits the part, and the CD is happy with your experience and credits.

In this case, you#8217;re going to get a call about an audition. Congratulations! You just got your first audition. Now back to the real world#8230; Even if you have not done any acting work whatsoever, you can still put together an essay exhibition actor resume with no experience, and cultural send it over to CDs with confidence . Despite your worst delusional fears (we#8217;ve all be there, trust me), nobody#8217;s going to essay questions for students think of you poorly if you have little or no acting experience. CDs understand that every actor has to start somewhere, thus you may get by on your looks, physical stats, training and/or special skills alone. Most importantly, don#8217;t get discouraged if you don#8217;t. Simply move onto the next project. Bottom Line : An acting resume is what every actor needs to put together as soon as they#8217;ve decide to enter show business. It#8217;s their calling card. Basics of a professional actor resume.

Even though you have no credits under your belt yet, you still want to keep your actor resume looking clean and professional. Here are some basics to essay differences go by when structuring an armstrong acting CV: An acting resume is ALWAYS only one sheet of paper. No exceptions. It must have enough white space to be read easily (hey, you#8217;re perfect for it!) It should be sized to fit a 8?10 headshot so that you can staple it to the back. Use standard fonts such as Arial or Times New Roman.

Do not cram the cultural differences resume with too many things. Keep it simple and relevant. Do not use any colors. It#8217;s just black and white, plus headings for sections. Essay! Never lie on your resume. You#8217;ll be surprised how quickly that gets out.

#8220; DON’T lie on your resume. Actors do this all the time and they always get caught. If you claim to have booked a guest star role on “NCIS,” it stands to reason you would have footage from the show on essay cultural differences your reel. If you don’t, I’m going to ask why. And that’s where the lie will start to fall apart. #8221; Secret Agent Man , Backstage.com. These are the primary #8220;rules#8221; for a professional looking acting resume. Follow them and writing essay for students you#8217;ll be alright.

If you download the sample acting resume above , you#8217;ll notice that it#8217;s slightly different from the resume in the picture, but the essay cultural differences difference is irrelevant. In fact, most casting directors prefer the simplicity because it#8217;s easier to read and remember. What matters the most in an acting resume is the basic information that#8217;s easy to for students see: personal details at the top, followed by essay cultural credits and then training. Image Analysis! You can choose either format, just keep it clean and essay cultural differences easy to read. And now for the acting resume format technicalities. Neil! I suggest you opening that resume sample from above so that you understand better what#8217;s what. Bottom Line : Your acting resume should look clean, professional, adapted for quick reading, and cultural differences with the essays tire most recent and most relevant credits. Your personal information . As you can see in the acting resume template I#8217;ve linked to cultural differences above, and the provided Los Angeles actor resume example, we#8217;re supposed to start with some personal details. For the purpose of refutation this article, let#8217;s assume that you#8217;re a non-union actor with no talent agent representation, which is differences, most likely the case anyway. Actor#8217;s name . Exhibition In School! This is where your stage name (not your legal name) goes. Simple.

Union title. If you#8217;re not affiliated with any actor#8217;s union, then skip this part. Phone number . Always use the number by which you can be reached any time. Physical stats . Self-explanatory. NEVER put your age or date of birth on the resume. After the basic personal information, we#8217;re moving onto the credits and what acting experience you have. Your acting experience. Normally, this is where you would list all your credits, from television to film to theater to new media. If you#8217;re pursuing acting in Los Angeles, most of essay your work will be focused on Film/TV, thus one resume is refutation, usually enough.

However, people in New York City, for example, will often have at least two actor resumes: one focused on screen work, one on essay stage work. If you don#8217;t have much acting experience, then one acting CV will be enough. On Science! Film credits . In this section, start with the name of the show , followed by the type of role (NOT your character#8217;s name; see below) you did, then production company and finally director#8217;s name . Television credits . Similarly to cultural differences film credits, start with the name of the show , then the type of role (different to film type roles; see below), followed by television network and on science the director#8217;s name . The same applies to cultural Web Series/Webisodes productions. Theater credits . Again, begin with the name of the production/play , followed by your role/character#8217;s name (this time it#8217;s the other way around), then the theater company#8217;s name and the location of where the production took place. Papers On Art! A few quick tips: Always, always list film and television credits under separate sections. You#8217;ll see some bad actor resume examples where they#8217;re filled under #8220;Film/TV.#8221; DO NOT do this, because it will make your acting resume look very unprofessional. The reason is essay cultural differences, mostly because role types work differently on film and TV (see below). Once you get more experience under your belt, try to papers on art remove some of the older and/or less important stuff from the resume. Keeping it clean will make you look more professional. You also want to essay have casting directors focus on your best and most important work. Research Papers On Art! You can list your credits any way you want.

Some people list them chronologically, but I usually suggest listing your best work at the top so that it catches peoples#8217; attention. Never put extra/background work on your resume. The reason being is cultural differences, that extra work is not considered acting. Refutation On Essay! Some people will do so anyway to fill the space, but I strongly advise against that. If you#8217;re ever asked about that part, and you have to say that you were actually a background on the set, that will make you look very unprofessional.

When listing theater credits, you don#8217;t usually name the essay differences director. Armstrong! However, if the director#8217;s name is really well-known, I would list that either alongside the theater company#8217;s name, or instead of the location if you#8217;re short for essay cultural, space (similar to Film/TV credit format). Your training and papers education . In this section, list all the relevant acting training that you#8217;ve had so far. That usually includes: acting classes, workshops, formal theater/acting education and differences other informal acting/drama training. Questions! Begin by listing the differences name of your acting teacher (for private/group classes) or the institution where you#8217;ve studied acting. Right next to essay it you#8217;ll list what type of acting classes those were, which you#8217;ll know after you#8217;ve taken them. Cultural Differences! There#8217;s too many for essay on science exhibition, me to list, but the essay most common are Scene Study, Cold Reading, Audition Technique, Improv, and On-Camera Class. In the third column of this section, it#8217;s the location. Now in terms of image analysis what goes where vertically.

Normally, you#8217;ll have your formal and probably oldest acting education at the bottom, which is the essay cultural differences college or drama school that you went to. Even if you think it#8217;s the papers best type of training you have received, that#8217;s usually not how casting directors and cultural agents think. Keep the classes that you#8217;re currently taking at the very top of this section, and add #8220;(ongoing)#8221; right next to them. After that, list any other acting class or workshop that you#8217;ve taken chronologically with the essay on science exhibition oldest class at the bottom of the list. Your special skills . The least useful section of your acting resume is the one that actors truly obsess over.

You don#8217;t have to, because agents rarely even look here, unless there#8217;s something very specific that they want from an actor. With that in mind, don#8217;t over-complicate this part and cultural differences list the things that you#8217;re most proficient in. My advice for the special skills section would be to image analysis be honest with yourself. Cultural Differences! If you#8217;ve only papers on art, strummed a guitar a few times in your life, don#8217;t put Guitar on there. If you#8217;ve played basketball in high school which was 10 years ago, don#8217;t put Basketball in essay, there. Also, don#8217;t write down things like Running and Whistling, unless you#8217;re a professional.

The same goes for on science exhibition, listing languages. Over-exaggerating about your special skills used to cultural differences be a thing back in the day, but in 2015, agents think this just looks dumb. #8220; I want all of essay neil you to look up the differences meaning of the word “fluent.” Make sure you understand what it means before you claim you’re fluent in any language. I’m fluent in three, and I always test actors when I see one of those languages listed on their resume. Care to guess how many couldn’t respond to research papers a simple question in the language they’re supposed to be fluent in? #8221; Secret Agent Man , Backstage.com. Differences! As you can see, agents do care and they do their due diligence. Bottom Line : Always stick to the standard actor resume format, and don#8217;t reinvent the wheel. Agents and research on art casting directors should be able to scan through your resume fast.

Let me give you quick breakdown of film and television role types. Essay Cultural! This is something every aspiring actor in Los Angeles has to know. You#8217;ll be surprised how often you#8217;ll soon be using these terms. Series regular Main character(s) on the show under contract for a certain period of time, usually for the duration of the whole show/season. Recurring Second most important TV acting role type.

These are usually signed to research papers on art appear on the show on essay cultural differences multiple episodes. Exhibition! Guest star Third biggest part where the character is differences, directly involved with the plot of the TV show, usually for a single episode, but sometimes several episodes. Co-star A small speaking part that will only be involved in one episode for a small period of screen time. Under 5 (U5) Normally applicable only to daytime dramas where the character will have less than five lines. Research! Lead Protagonist. Main character of the story on whom the whole film is centered. Essay Cultural! Supporting Secondary character which can be just as important to the film/story.

Principal A small part with spoken lines where the character will usually interact with one of the above characters for a short period, but doesn#8217;t add much to the story. Featured A non-speaking part where the character gets enough facetime. This is not the image analysis same as an cultural differences Extra, but sometimes Extras are promoted to Featured roles. And that wraps up the whole technical part of an actor#8217;s resume. Please feel free to come back to this article when you#8217;ll need help with structuring your actor resume format. I#8217;ve already mentioned this, but don#8217;t stress about not having any acting experience.

Yes, it is Catch-22 where you can#8217;t get work because you have no experience but you can#8217;t get experience without acquiring work. Welcome to Hollywood. A) The first thing you may want to do is essays elizabeth, think about whether you definitely have no experience. Maybe you#8217;ve been in essay cultural differences, some small plays, or student films, or even indie films with your friends? List them all! Anything where you have actually done acting can go on your resume, even if it#8217;s a small part in essay neil, a silly project. B) The next step is obvious: you need to search for opportunities to cultural differences act. The easiest way to acquire some credits for your resume is to pa visit your local community college for some stage work.

You can also browse through free casting websites, Craigslist, filmmaking websites and essay cultural forums where people are looking for actors who would work for free. If you#8217;re willing to on art do some work for no reward, that means you#8217;ll find opportunities faster. C) The third thing you can do is produce something yourself. I#8217;ve already talked about the importance for actors to create their own projects, and the earlier you start, the cultural differences better. All you need is a few bucks, a smartphone with a decent camera and some time. Research Papers On Art! You can gather up a couple of friends, write a screenplay for a short film, shoot it on your phone and put it up on YouTube.

That#8217;s your first credit. I would advise against buying memberships on differences casting websites just yet. If this is your first time venturing into the world of tire elizabeth performing arts, give it some time, and see if you even like the craft of acting before spending money. Differences! You will be surprised how quickly your resume will start growing if you dedicate some time to this, and if you#8217;re willing to work for free. There are a lot of opportunities out there, especially if you move to neil a big city such as Los Angeles, New York City, Atlanta, Vancouver in Canada or London in cultural differences, England. Once you start receiving some acting work, remove your older, #8220;silly#8221; credits and replace them with the most recent stuff.

Finally, try to have fun. People often forget about this myself included but it#8217;s an research integral part of essay cultural succeeding as an actor. After all, don#8217;t we all want to essays tire pa become actors so that we can have fun instead of work?

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Cultural Differences

Commitment Essays and Research Papers. Ethics: Our Commitment to Integrity A company’s code of essay cultural differences ethics is a written set of guidelines issued by an organization to writing questions, its workers and . management to help them conduct their actions in accordance with its primary values and essay cultural ethical standards. On Science Exhibition! A code of essay ethics is essential for the professional functioning of a business. Image Analysis! I have chosen to analyze BP’s code of ethics. BP’s code of ethics main statement is as follows “The BP code of conduct stands for a fundamental BP commitment – to comply. Applied ethics , Business ethics , Commitment 1147 Words | 3 Pages. that time the cultural, typhoon in the Philippines had just occurred.

He booked the nearest flight to there with his crew to go help out the people on need. Many . people would judge him and say that he really didn’t care about his son, but that is the kind of commitment a person needs to change society and help the world. All around the world, you see people trying to change society, trying to help one and other, but not everyone single person succeeds or commits to that. Yes, you can see lots of writing essay questions people who have. Commitment , English-language films 1146 Words | 3 Pages. had much to do to fix the problems of the recent past, and restore confidence in his company and the brand moving forward. More importantly, Mr.

Toyoda had . given his personal commitment in his testimony to the U.S. House Committee on Oversight and essay Government Reform: “My name is on every car. You have my personal commitment that Toyota will work vigorously and unceasingly to research on art, restore the trust of cultural differences our customers.” Mr. Toyoda emphasized that being loyal to their customers was very important and refutation that. Better , Commitment , Quality 1706 Words | 5 Pages. c. affective d. cognitive 2. The degree to essay cultural differences, which a person identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her performance . Tire! important to self-worth is:A a. job involvement b. job satisfaction c. organisational commitment d. Essay Cultural Differences! job stability 3. Writing Essay Questions For Students! Organisational commitment:D a. has three separate dimensions b. Essay Cultural Differences! is an attitude c. Armstrong Essay! has a positive but modest relationship to essay, job productivity d. is all of the above 4. Job satisfaction is best described as:B a. a value b. Abraham Maslow , Commitment , Happiness 374 Words | 2 Pages.

Organizational Commitment Introduction The organizational structure of a company . is the essay on science in school, formal composition of the leadership that is involved in task and responsibility that makes it possible for the company’s management to control, coordinate and motivate employees for the full realization of essay differences a common goal (George Jones, 2005). Every company has a different model of organization even though there are between five to eight organizational. Business , Ethics , Management 2196 Words | 7 Pages. Does a strong organizational culture and organizational commitment increase the overall of a firm? Illustrate a real life example to support . your arguments. Introduction For choosing this topic for image analysis, the essay ,It is because organizational culture is the heartbeat of a firm. It determined the way the firm run and the self-value of the essay cultural, founder and the main value of the refutation, company ,After reading this essay people can easily under stand the two main element: management practice and innovation and risk. Commitment , IKEA , Management 2341 Words | 7 Pages. revolutionized the construction industry by cultural, creating convenience shopping for its customers through its air-conditioned shops, ample parking spaces, interior . design consultation, tile-cutting services, product installations, delivery service, and on art commitment to excellent service.

Its 36 years of expertise have propelled this once small company to differences, become the pioneer and leader in supplying finishing materials for essay questions for students, the building industry.? In 2003, a sister company, Wilcon Builder's Depot was launched. Building , Building code , Commitment 1227 Words | 10 Pages. FIN 370 Version 7 Week 4 Learning Team Weekly Reflection. application in cultural your field. Write a 350- to 1,050-word summary of the team’s discussion. Business - Finance FIN/571 Entire Course . WEEK 1-6 ASSIGNMENTS, PRACTICE QUIZZES FINAL EXAM SCORED 97%+ Make a commitment to your education. If you go into school thinking of it like a big party, then that's exactly what you'll get out of it. And you more than likely won't last the four years. A lot of essays tire pa money is cultural differences being spent on your education, so you need to commit yourself. Cognitive science , Commitment , Debate 381 Words | 3 Pages.

a session/lesson e.g. in an urgent situation. However they will not be required to set or allocate work to the pupils, as this will be determined by the . class teacher. The Teaching Assistant must carry out his or her duties with full regard and commitment to the Governing Body and City Council Policies. Where the postholder is disabled, every effort will be made to supply all necessary aids, adaptations or equipment to allow them to carry out all the duties of the job. If, however, a certain task. College , Commitment , Education 1090 Words | 4 Pages.

parents to Sophie. After moving on from the hostile feelings for each other, the three made their own happy family. Within this movie there are concepts . displayed that we have discussed in class. A few are motor skills, identity diffusion, identity commitment , triangulation, and Gottman’s “four horseman of the apocalypse”. Within this paper you will read about each of these five concepts and how they are shown throughout the movie. The first concept is motor skills. Exhibition! In early childhood children usually. Anxiety , Argument , Commitment 997 Words | 3 Pages. types Lists In organizational behavior and essay industrial and writing essay for students organizational psychology, organizational commitment is the . individual's psychological attachment to the organization.

The basis behind many of these studies was to cultural, find ways to improve how workers feel about tire elizabeth pa, their jobs so that these workers would become more committed to their organizations. Differences! Organizational commitment predicts work variables such as turnover, organizational citizenship behavior, and armstrong essay job performance. Some of the. Employment , Empowerment , Organization 2179 Words | 7 Pages. ?06-25-13 Prof. Rosemarie Gorman Essay Paper Personal Commitments In this essay I will try to essay cultural, analyze two topics from the book, “Personal . Commitments by Margaret Farley.” The first topic will discuss, “The Way of image analysis Fidelity.”, the second topic will be, “Discerning Obligation: A Love.” There are two situations when there is essay cultural differences a need for and sense for fidelity, in a love relationship, and a commitment or promise made to a person or institution. According to Farley sense of duty is not the only. Commitment , Debut singles , Interpersonal relationship 1191 Words | 3 Pages. Track VII TOURISM, BUSINESS, HOSPITALITY AND MANAGEMENT Proceedings of the International Conference on Social Sciences ISBN 978-81-924353-0-5 “JOB . Essay! SATISFACTION AS A FUNCTION OF JOB BURNOUT AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT OF TRAVEL AGENCY DRIVERS (A CASE STUDY IN IRAN)” Bahman Kord Tamini University of Sistan and Baluchestan Iran. One of the main tasks industrial and organizational psychologists perform is evaluating job satisfaction and determining ways to enhance it in an organization.

Commitment , Job satisfaction , Motivation 859 Words | 3 Pages. stronger the bond that the individual has with his or her society is, the less likely it is that they'll commit delinquent acts. Going a little further, . Hirschi discusses that the Social Bond Theory is comprised of four components: attachment, commitment , involvement, and belief. Attachment Attachment is referred to as the extent in which a person is attached to others. Attachment begins when we are born where our first type of attachment would be towards our mothers. Then as we grow older our.

Belief , Commitment , High school 2297 Words | 7 Pages. standards or demotivation may be the result as shown in the book Power Up, “The leader must somehow find a way to stretch the group without tearing it apart” . (136). Leaders must also embody Stringer’s fifth target practice, “Demonstrating personal commitment to achieving goals” (123). If leaders do not show that they care, the employees will know it, and they will not care either. I had a manager who I felt was pushing me over my limits. She would push me and push me until I felt that I could go. Commitment , Employment , Leadership 1286 Words | 4 Pages. of what love might be is essay comprised of tire elizabeth having much to do with an attractive pull between two individuals. Society has adapted to the pulls of essay differences trending and . attraction of circumstances.

The three main components of love – intimacy, passion, and commitment – are the structural building blocks of on essay all relations and essay cultural correspondence. Dean Peter Salovey lectures on intimacy as a description of “the feeling of closeness, of essay connectedness with someone, of bonding.”1 Intimacy in relation to family and education. American films , Commitment , Education 1020 Words | 3 Pages. Harnessing the essay cultural differences, Science of Persuasion Article Critique/Analysis. all of Cialdini’s principles these techniques will only work if I am sincerely interested in the person that I’m interacting with. Humans are very skilled . at detecting apathy, so if I have to fake it, it’s better to not to try. Research On Art! Consistency/ Commitment I am a pretty witty, creative guy, as such I am fairly successful with the principle of liking/similarity as stated above. I honestly struggle with the principle of consistency.

Consistency, as discussed by Cialdini, describes influencing others. Commitment , Human , Humans 868 Words | 3 Pages. Teams increasingly matter to the performance of large organizations because of their flexibility, utility, and focus. Essay Cultural Differences! The rarity of High-Performance teams . is due primarily to the difficulty in achieving and sustaining a high level of personal commitment ; in other words a personal dedication to the concept of “one for all and all for one”. This attribute is still contrary to on essay, survival precepts of essay most corporate polity.

High performance teams are where you find them not where your wish they’d be. Commitment , Leadership , Skill 1086 Words | 2 Pages. himself. Research! “I thought it would be a breeze because its just a simple home workout,” he smirked. Little did he know, he was about to challenge himself harder . than ever before. This was only the beginning of his journey to understand what dedication and commitment truly meant. Cultural Differences! A.J. decided that we should meet at his local gym which he attends daily.

I got there a little early and decided to check out the environment. Inside was a sizable room filled with machines and equipment built strictly for strength. Commitment , Exercise , Journey 968 Words | 3 Pages. Commitment First of all I’m going to talk about what I think commitment is. The word . commitment can be described in different ways. Commitment can be a promise or an on science exhibition oath. Commitment can also be an engagement or involvement.

Many people think that the word commitment refers to a relationship or goal. These are correct but commitment means so much more. Essay Cultural Differences! I feel that commitment is a choice to be constant with a certain goal. I get my commitment with a support system to keep. Commitment , Committed , Engagement 483 Words | 2 Pages. Demographic Factors Influencing Organizational Commitment. Organizational Behavior, BUS 5450 September 16, 2012 Organizational Commitment ii Abstract A great deal of research has . gone into determining which types of employees are more committed to their employers. The objective of this paper is to assess the essays tire pa, demographic factors that influence organizational commitment and work habits. Specifically, this paper will focus on organizational and occupational commitment within the context of employee education. Essay Cultural! Based on image analysis, the literature reviewed. Education , Employment , High school 1412 Words | 5 Pages.

What Is Organizational Commitment and Discuss Ways of Managing It Effectively? What is organizational commitment and discuss ways of managing it effectively? There are hundreds of articles (Mathieu amp; Zajac, 1990) . related to Organizational Commitment and multiple definitions. This paper reviews the different perspectives and examines how multiple views of organisational commitment could be integrated into essay cultural differences, businesses and what benefits would be achieved for essay neil, both the employee and employer. There are a number of essay cultural differences views on how staff become committed to an organization and variant. Behavior , Management , Organization 2176 Words | 7 Pages. or bad, shows the commitment that one needs to finish any task that comes their way. Essays Tire! Joe Davis was not the greatest child growing up, but . what ever he did he stuck with it no matter what the consequences. He thought everything he did made him cool. Joe was very committed, committed to smoking, committed to his drugs and even committed to breaking the essay, rules at school, which he had to finally drop out of.

Even though his actions were not the best he still showed his commitment to those actions. Change , Commitment , Committed 718 Words | 2 Pages. Organisational Commitment (Types, Job-Related Outcomes, Are Commited Employees More Valuable?) What is image analysis organisational commitment ? Explain the links between the various types of essay differences organisational commitment and on essay job-related . outcomes. Are committed employees necessarily more valuable to organisations than less committed employees? There are various definitions for the concept of essay cultural differences organizational commitment but they all agree that it refers to a psychological state, which can be described as the bond or the attachment between an employee and their organization. Writing Essay! McShane and Travaglione (2007:119).

Change management , Employment , Organization 2211 Words | 7 Pages. Distinguish Between the Concepts of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment and Examine the Casual Relationship Between Them. Distinguish between the concepts of job satisfaction and organizational commitment and examine the casual relationship between them. Employee . commitment gains a highly growing interest from researches. It is considered that employee commitment has an influence on organization effectiveness. It has opportunity to forecast a diversity of organizational outcomes such as decreased turnover and absence from essay differences work, increased job performance and organizational citizenship behavior. It was shown in on science several. Employment , Job satisfaction , Motivation 1945 Words | 6 Pages.

A Critical Review: Effects of Leadership and Leader-Member Exchange on Commitment. Exchange on Commitment Article by: Jean Lee (Leadership Organization Development Journal) It has been long proven and established that . Essay! leadership and success of an organization are proportional. The phenomenal growth of leader-member exchange (LMX) research aims to study the essay on science in school, diverse attributes of essay individuals in response to different leadership behaviors. Essays! In this regards, the author Jean Lee conducted a research linking the triangle relationship of Leadership ' LMX ' Commitment , wherein to. Capitalism , Charismatic authority , Classical liberalism 1179 Words | 4 Pages. The Significance of Commitment in the Development of Team Goals. These personal duties we have can be seen as commitments that we have made for our personal good. But I am committed to something much . Differences! stronger then a friendship or a work relationship we may have.

I am committed to on science, a team, this personal commitment is an cultural act of dedication and sacrifice that I have made to essay questions, fourteen other guys, and to a basketball program that has a history of essay cultural differences players with this same commitment . Neil! Just like a marriage is a commitment of two people for each other, we have that same. Commitment , Committed , Goal 890 Words | 2 Pages. out of the crowd. I have my own sets of characters qualities that make special and unique from every creature on this Earth. I am special because I trust . myself. Cultural Differences! I believe in my abilities I always do what I commit. My determination, will and commitment towards my work are what make me special. I am special because I got 10 CGPA in Std X and aim for more this year.

There are many people who love me care and elizabeth pa pray for me, wish for my well being and expect me to cultural, rise to success surpassing all the. 2002 albums , 2009 singles , Commitment 475 Words | 2 Pages. The Impact of Personal Commitment Ot Service Excellence on Leader Effectiveness. The Impact of Personal Commitment to Service Excellence on Leader Effectiveness Lauren DiStefano Taylor University of Texas at Arlington . The Impact of refutation Personal Commitment to Service Excellence on cultural differences, Leader Effectiveness In today’s highly competitive marketplace many firms broadcast their service excellence as a way to separate themselves from the in school, competition. In service oriented industries, service excellence can be noted as being the number one most important factor to cultural differences, achieve success. . Commitment , Customer service , Employment 2808 Words | 8 Pages. employee commitment has declined. Member of both organizations no longer have any emotionally attachment or involvement in their organization. . They simply become what Colquitt, Lepine and Wesson (2013) call “Continuance commitment ” or “Normative Commitment ”. Where member of both organization remain member due to cost and refutation on essay time associated with looking for a new employment, or simply because they don’t have any other choice at essay cultural differences present moment. With the increase change in employee commitments , the cost. Behavior , Employment , Job satisfaction 829 Words | 4 Pages. individual may have a number of attitudes regarding different aspects of life, but the field of OB focuses only on the study of image analysis job-related attitudes. OB . specifically focuses on essay cultural differences, three attitudes: job satisfaction, job involvement and organizational commitment Job satisfaction In the field of OB, job satisfaction is one of the most important and widely studied attitudes.

Job satisfaction refers to an individual's general attitude towards his or her job. It has been described by Edwin A. Essay On Science Exhibition In School! Locke as the. Emotion , Employment , Job satisfaction 1182 Words | 4 Pages. single 11/15.13 . Marriage is a lifetime commitment that many people enter into with a specific set of hopes, expectations and dreams. Although lots of people are happy with their spouses for many years, others come to regret their decision and end up in divorce court within a few years of getting. Alimony , Annulment , Commitment 638 Words | 2 Pages. After the cultural, lesson, the students will be able to: share to the class about image analysis, their traits and characteristics as part of essay their self-discovery. appreciate and . Research Papers On Art! respect themselves and cultural other people's unique traits and characteristics. make a personal commitment on improving oneself. II.

Subject Matter (Knowing Oneself) Johari Window was named for its creators, Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham, is a useful tool in understanding our own selves which can help us live more effective lives. The four. Better , Commitment , Identity 546 Words | 2 Pages. employees to achieve balanced lives (Garcia-Zamor pp. 6). Companies want to obtain an employee who will bring creativity and personal talents to the work. . Refutation On Essay! Therefore by incorporating spirituality at work, it can increase an employee’s morale and essay cultural commitment , and reduce stress and overworking. Both Employees and employers want to find meaning and purpose to what they are doing in the workplace by incorporating spirituality. “In most of today’s corporations, the central focus persists to be on observable. Business ethics , Emotion , Employment 2090 Words | 7 Pages. MANAGEMENT Name: Tutor: Institution: Date of . Submission: Abstract Employee engagement is the emotional commitment an employee shows for essays elizabeth, the organization and its goals (Kruse 2012). It can also be defined as the act of an employee being involved in, enthusiastic about and cultural differences satisfied with his or her work (Seijts et al.

2006). Elizabeth! An engaged employee is one who actually. Employment , Engagement , Exchange 1938 Words | 7 Pages. Critically evaluate the concept of organizational commitment and essay consider the difficulties involved in securing employee . commitment . INTRODUCTION: An organization is a social body consisting of a group of people who share a similar goal or work towards achieving a single goal. They are well structured and essay managed in such a way so the differences, goal can be reached most effectively and efficiently. Image Analysis! Organizations are of various types. Cultural Differences! It can be private (led by image analysis, an individual or a group of people) or public (led.

At-will employment , Emotion , Employment 2987 Words | 9 Pages. Act Like a Lady, but Think Like a Man. considered highly influential and a reference for many, especially women. “Act Like a Lady, Think Like a Man” written by essay, Steve Harvey was an excellent read . from cover to cover. The title spoke volumes! This novel on relationships, intimacy, and commitment had a section everyone could relate to. There was so much helpful information on proper communication throughout the image analysis, entire book; he lets you explore everything from a man’s point of view. Essay Differences! From chapter to chapter I found myself sitting in , seeing. Commitment , Gender , Man 810 Words | 2 Pages.

Employees’ Organizational Commitment and Their Perception of Supervisors’ Relations-Oriented and Task-Oriented Leadership Behaviors by armstrong essay, . Barbara B. Essay! Brown Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in Human Development Albert Wiswell, Chair George Banks Gabriella Belli Letitia Combs Eric McCollum March 25, 2003 Falls Church, Virginia Keywords. Leadership , Management , Organizational commitment 31883 Words | 152 Pages. Discuss the Stowers V. Wolodzko Case Questions. have someone committed involuntarily? If not, what would the evidence have to prove? Why? Involuntary commitment or civil . commitment is a legal process through which an individual with symptoms of neil severe mental illness is court-ordered into treatment in a hospital (inpatient) or in the community (outpatient). The criteria of this commitment vary from state to state in US. In these commitment proceedings there follow emergency hospitalization for the mentally ill person to stay in the hospital or. Civil law , Common law , Criminal law 1197 Words | 4 Pages.

“A study on differences, the role of perceived organizational support and job satisfaction on organizational commitment with reference to image analysis, employees in . Wellfit Auto Industries. “ Table Of Contents Introduction…………………………………………………….7-8 Company profile……………………………………………….9-10 Review of literature…………………………………………..11-18 Research Methodology……………………………………..19-22 Analysis…………………………………………………. 22-31 Findings, Suggestions amp; Conclusion……………………32-34 Bibliography……………………………………………….35 . Correlation and dependence , Employment , Job satisfaction 3895 Words | 15 Pages. Are Workers Who Are Happy More Productive Workers? Review and Discuss Evidence for and Against. their job positively’21. Cultural! Other Influencing Factors on image analysis, Productivity Affective commitment is defined as a personal feeling that results out of . a happy state of the employees about cultural, being a member of the organization and feeling good about what it stands for. Employees that feel emotionally attached to the organization are intended to do their best to support the organization and boost its outcomes. Affective commitment seems to take a great part in work performance. Indeed research done by Reid based. Emotion , Employment , Happiness 1881 Words | 6 Pages.

Themes Paper and Presentation that includes your selected theme, possible eras, authors, and an annotated bibliography with a minimum of six outside sources. . Submit your Proposal for Changing Themes Paper and Annotated Bibliography Make a commitment to your education. If you go into research, school thinking of it like a big party, then that's exactly what you'll get out of cultural it. And you more than likely won't last the essay exhibition in school, four years. A lot of cultural money is being spent on refutation, your education, so you need to commit yourself. Annotated bibliography , Annotation , Bibliography 411 Words | 2 Pages. marriage, jobs, and cultural friendships. However, if we consider the on science, meaning of free, without cost of essay cultural any kind to anyone at any time--past, present or future, it . Essay For Students! would be hard to find anything that is free. Essay Cultural! Every aspect of papers life carries some sort of commitment . Freedom is not free. In order for this great country of ours to possess freedom that it offers, countless numbers of cultural men and women have paid a high price to make it so.

In order for us to go about freely in this great country, we have to follow. 2009 albums , Cleanliness , Commitment 644 Words | 2 Pages. understanding, enthusiastic.Influencing or changing other people's attitudes or opinions by writing essay questions for students, expressing a viewpoint with assurance, certainty and conviction. . Using appropriate interpersonal styles and essay cultural communication methods to gain acceptance and build commitment to ideas, proposals or plans.Example: Persuading, influencing, convincing, negotiating, impressing, collaborating, reasoning.Being adaptable and able to handle a variety of situations and demands; modifying one's approach as the requirements of. Commitment , Competence , Four stages of competence 581 Words | 2 Pages. helping your client to get back on track. Values of counselling and psychotherapy Values inform principals. Essay On Science Exhibition! They represent the important way of . Cultural Differences! expressing a general ethical commitment that becomes more precisely defined and action-orientated when expressed as a principal. At all times counsellors must show a commitment to: Respecting human rights and dignity Protecting the on essay, safety of essay cultural clients Insuring the integrity of practitioner/client relationships Enhancing the quality of professional. Commitment , Ethics , Fox Life 2478 Words | 9 Pages. Anuptaphobia- Fear of Staying Single. afraid of essay on science exhibition in school being married to the wrong person.

A person may be able to offer some level of cultural differences commitment but will continue to look for on science exhibition, the ideal man . or woman to come along. Some are always looking for the “right” person even if that person is right in differences front of them. No one will ever be good enough to commit to. The person would usually be hesitant because the tire pa, fear drives him/her to worry about making commitments with the wrong person. Many people hope and plan for the day when they find the perfect. Anxiety , Commitment , Fear 440 Words | 2 Pages. much of his time for close supervision and essay differences control to ensure that the job is properly done.

He seems that he will show no involvement in teams needs and . motivation, as providing people with punishment and reward is not quite enough. The employees’ commitment will also be lower, then that of with transformational leadership style. As to the drawback of the Isabella’s transformational leadership style, I can mention that she can become very much dependable on on essay, the intellectual capabilities of her subordinates. Decentralization , Employment , Leadership 2540 Words | 7 Pages. Problem Areas Reasons for essay, Drop in Performance The unreasonable demands in the key account of Clark, Burton, and Bowers Company. . The lack of information of competitors The chaos of the new service and product lack of commitment to the company lower price competitors Promotion Process in to stagnant, and refutation on essay leading to important positions being held by employees in cultural differences the maintenance phase Below Performance Attributions Organizational Chart for OTPD Work/family Conflict . Commitment , Communication , Competition 349 Words | 2 Pages. Organizational Socialization and Job Satisfaction.

expansion. The Relationship between Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction The relationship between organizational . commitment and essay exhibition in school job satisfaction has a very strong desire to have goals and values of the differences, organization, a desire to belong to the organization and a willingness to display effort on behalf of the organization. A similar definition of commitment emphasizes the importance of refutation behavior in essay differences creating it. Essay Exhibition! Salancik (1977) conceives commitment as a state of being in differences which an on essay individual becomes. At-will employment , Employment , Management 1510 Words | 4 Pages. | |A.) Accountability |B M E . | |Accepts responsibility for own actions and decisions and essay cultural demonstrates commitment to armstrong neil, accomplish work in an ethical, efficient and | | |cost-effective manner. Essay Cultural! | . 360-degree feedback , Commitment , Human resource management 1095 Words | 9 Pages.

5 6 . Alan Harpham, 2012. “The Spirit of Project Management” , Gower Publishing, Ltd., 01?Aug?2012 ? Business Economics Rego and Cungha, 2007. “Workplace spirituality and organizational commitment : an empirical study” – Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 21 No 1, 2008 7 Kent Rhodes EDD, 2006. “Six Components of a Model for Workplace Spirituality”. Armstrong Essay Neil! Graziadio Business Review [online], Volume 9. Commitment , Employment , Management 2783 Words | 12 Pages. this agency is comprehensive and embraced by all members of the Leadership Team, who, in cultural differences turn, exemplify by example our CORE BELIEFS and VALUES. It is our . Image Analysis! COMMITMENT STATEMENT OF PRINCIPLES We, as members of the Leadership Team of the cultural differences, Clinton County Board of MRDD, Nike Center, are committed to excellence. We demonstrate this commitment by our services to essay, all individuals, families, staff members, providers, board members and the taxpaying public and by essay cultural, exceeding their expectations; reflecting. Business terms , Commitment , Customer 368 Words | 2 Pages. demonstrate and observe the similarities and research differences among the students in the classroom * Openly discuss diversity in the classroom * Create a . Differences! personal commitment statement addressing how she or he will treat others with respect Materials Needed: * Handout for students with discussion questions and personal commitment statement guidelines Procedures: # minutes | | 5 | Start the class by splitting the refutation, students into new family groups for essay cultural differences, the unit | 5 | Explain the image analysis, rules. Commitment , Julie Anne Peters , Luna 4343 Words | 16 Pages.

mind encompassing my idea of commitment . The base denotes the cultural differences, maximum level of physical, intellectual participative commitment , . while the apex tapers towards more sublime, emotional and pa spiritual level of commitment . At the foundation of the pyramid lies the essay cultural, very reason of our existence- The Earth, and the entity which sustains life on Earth- Nature. First and writing essay questions foremost, we all are obliged to be committed to our planet, and it has to essay, be a fully participative commitment because without it, life, as. 21st century , Commitment , Existence 609 Words | 2 Pages. Job Satisfaction in Organizational Psychology. motivation for research papers, success and looses interest in differences the commitment to the organization; results of pa failure in organization socialization (Jex, 2008). . Job satisfaction comes from understanding the importance in commitment of the organization. Organizational socialization impacts the satisfaction and well being of the individual. The impact the individual leaves on the company’s success is the result of the job satisfaction of the organizations member. Differences! Commitment is the key of the organization. Image Analysis! Motivation is. Employment , Hawthorne effect , Occupational safety and health 1537 Words | 5 Pages. What Are the Main Ingredients to Arelationships.

having a great relationship. Stability in a relationship that means not to break down the essay cultural, relationship and to understand each other for a long . lasting time. Essays Elizabeth Pa! Ultimately we want to cultural differences, be in a committed relationship. You have to have commitment as well. Commitment is a part of stability cause if you are not committed there is no stability then it probably will just be a short time relationship. When one or both are not able to on science exhibition, take the next step and essay cultural commit so that you have stability, then that. 2009 singles , Commitment , Respect 702 Words | 2 Pages. Case Study: Organizational Behavior. greatly compromised their commitments to the company. I infer that UBS has yet to neil, reduce the high turnover especially of its senior staffs, and . Cultural Differences! they have to improve the job satisfaction level of their employees. High turnover might cause company to incur unnecessary cost (Shehan, Tom) and it may also cause other problems such as corrosion of the company’s culture and lost in confidence of the refutation, remaining staffs. | The Three-Component Model of Organizational Commitment | Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene.

Employment , Factor analysis , Financial services 1318 Words | 4 Pages. organization. Essay! The organization goals were not in sync with the goals of the workers. Thus employee disengagement was further decreasing the annual incomes . and earnings. ? Organization commitment Though the employees were given competitive wages but there was no affective commitment and normative commitment of employees for their organization. The workers were not able to foresee any opportunities for their career growth within the organization. ? Lack of industrial knowledge of employees. Employment , Household income in the United States , Major 1098 Words | 6 Pages.

?Definition Organizational commitment may be viewed as an neil organizational member's psychological attachment to the organization. Essay Cultural! Organizational . commitment plays a very large role in determining whether a member will stay with the image analysis, organization and zealously work towards organizational goals. Theory A prominent theory in organizational commitment is the three-component model (TCM). The model argues that organizational commitment has three distinctive components: 1. Affective commitment is your emotional attachment. 2006 singles , 2009 singles , Attachment theory 579 Words | 2 Pages.

growth, which will in essay cultural return reduce the image analysis, turnover rate and absenteeism at the same time. Having considered the variations in employee discretion and . Cultural! managerial behaviour,we will now look at the evidence on image analysis, employee attitude affecting organisational commitment and employee satisfaction.employee satisfaction with the essay, sense of achievement they derive from image analysis their job varies. “my work gives me a sense of achievement (78%)”, “I wish I had more time to essay, produce better quality work (70%)”, “I wish my job gave. At-will employment , Employment , Job satisfaction 1746 Words | 5 Pages.

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Cultural Differences

Google’s Quest to Build a Better Boss. Mountain View, Calif. IN early 2009, statisticians inside the Googleplex here embarked on a plan code-named Project Oxygen. Their mission was to devise something far more important to differences the future of Google Inc. Armstrong! than its next search algorithm or app. They wanted to build better bosses. So, as only essay cultural a data-mining giant like Google can do, it began analyzing performance reviews, feedback surveys and nominations for top-manager awards. They correlated phrases, words, praise and complaints. Later that year, the “people analytics” teams at papers on art, the company produced what might be called the essay cultural differences Eight Habits of Highly Effective Google Managers. Now, brace yourself. Because the directives might seem so forehead-slappingly obvious — so, well, duh — it’s hard to believe that it took the mighty Google so long to essay on science figure them out: “Have a clear vision and strategy for the team.”

“Help your employees with career development.” “Don’t be a sissy: Be productive and results-oriented.” The list goes on, reading like a whiteboard gag from an episode of cultural differences, “The Office.” “My first reaction was, that’s it?” says Laszlo Bock, Google’s vice president for “people operations,” which is Googlespeak for human resources. But then, Mr.

Bock and image analysis his team began ranking those eight directives by cultural, importance. And this is where Project Oxygen gets interesting. For much of its 13-year history, particularly the early years, Google has taken a pretty simple approach to management: Leave people alone. Let the engineers do their stuff. Essays Tire Elizabeth! If they become stuck, they’ll ask their bosses, whose deep technical expertise propelled them into management in the first place. But Mr. Bock’s group found that technical expertise — the ability, say, to write computer code in essay cultural your sleep — ranked dead last among Google’s big eight. What employees valued most were even-keeled bosses who made time for one-on-one meetings, who helped people puzzle through problems by refutation on essay, asking questions, not dictating answers, and who took an interest in employees’ lives and cultural differences careers. “In the Google context, we’d always believed that to refutation be a manager, particularly on the engineering side, you need to cultural be as deep or deeper a technical expert than the people who work for essay for students, you,” Mr. Differences! Bock says. “It turns out that that’s absolutely the least important thing.

It’s important, but pales in comparison. Much more important is just making that connection and being accessible.” Project Oxygen doesn’t fit neatly into the usual Google story line of hits (like its search engine) and misses (like the start last year of Buzz, its stab at social networking). Management is essay questions, much squishier to analyze, after all, and essay cultural differences the topic often feels a bit like golf. You can find thousands of tips and rules for on essay, how to become a better golfer, and just as many for cultural, how to become a better manager. Research Papers On Art! Most of them seem to make perfect sense. Problems start when you try to differences keep all those rules in image analysis your head at the same time — thus the golf cliche, “paralysis by analysis.” In management, as in golf, the greats make it all look effortless, which only adds to the sense of mystery and essay cultural differences frustration for those who struggle to armstrong get better. That caveat aside, Project Oxygen is noteworthy for a few reasons, according to academics and experts in this field. H.R. has long run on gut instincts more than hard data.

But a growing number of companies are trying to essay apply a data-driven approach to essay questions the unpredictable world of human interactions. “Google is really at the leading edge of that,” says Todd Safferstone, managing director of the essay cultural differences Corporate Leadership Council of the Corporate Executive Board, who has a good perch to research papers on art see what H.R. executives at more than 1,000 big companies are up to. Project Oxygen is also unusual, Mr. Safferstone says, because it is based on essay differences, Google’s own data, which means that it will feel more valid to elizabeth pa those Google employees who like to scoff at conventional wisdom. Many companies, he explained, adopt generic management models that tell people the roughly 20 things they should do as managers, without ranking those traits by importance. Those models often suffer “a lot of organ rejection” in companies, he added, because they are not presented with any evidence that they will make a difference, nor do they prioritize what matters. “Most companies are better at exhorting you to be a great manager, rather than telling you how to be a great manager,” Mr. Essay Cultural Differences! Safferstone says. PROJECT OXYGEN started with some basic assumptions.

People typically leave a company for one of three reasons, or a combination of them. The first is that they don’t feel a connection to the mission of the company, or sense that their work matters. Refutation! The second is differences, that they don’t really like or respect their co-workers. Refutation On Essay! The third is essay, they have a terrible boss — and this was the biggest variable. Essay On Science Exhibition In School! Google, where performance reviews are done quarterly, rather than annually, saw huge swings in the ratings that employees gave to their bosses. Managers also had a much greater impact on employees’ performance and cultural how they felt about essay, their job than any other factor, Google found. “The starting point was that our best managers have teams that perform better, are retained better, are happier — they do everything better,” Mr. Bock says. “So the biggest controllable factor that we could see was the quality of the essay cultural differences manager, and how they sort of made things happen.

The question we then asked was: What if every manager was that good? And then you start saying: Well, what makes them that good? And how do you do it?” In Project Oxygen, the statisticians gathered more than 10,000 observations about managers — across more than 100 variables, from various performance reviews, feedback surveys and other reports. Then they spent time coding the image analysis comments in order to look for patterns.

Once they had some working theories, they figured out a system for interviewing managers to essay cultural gather more data, and to refutation look for evidence that supported their notions. The final step was to code and synthesize all those results — more than 400 pages of interview notes — and essay cultural differences then they spent much of last year rolling out the results to employees and on essay incorporating them into essay various training programs. The process of reading and coding all the armstrong information was time-consuming. This was one area where computers couldn’t help, says Michelle Donovan, a manager of people analytics who was involved in the study. “People say there’s software that can help you do that,” she says. Essay Cultural Differences! “It’s been our experience that you just have to essays tire pa get in there and read it.” An error has occurred. Essay! Please try again later. You are already subscribed to this email. GIVEN the familiar feel of the list of eight qualities, the project might have seemed like an exercise in reinventing the wheel. On Essay! But Google generally prefers, for better or worse, to build its own wheels.

“We want to understand what works at Google rather than what worked in essay cultural any other organization,” says Prasad Setty, Google’s vice president for people analytics and compensation. Once Google had its list, the company started teaching it in training programs, as well as in coaching and refutation performance review sessions with individual employees. It paid off quickly. “We were able to have a statistically significant improvement in manager quality for 75 percent of our worst-performing managers,” Mr. Cultural! Bock says.

He tells the story of one manager whose employees seemed to despise him. He was driving them too hard. Essay On Science In School! They found him bossy, arrogant, political, secretive. They wanted to quit his team. “He’s brilliant, but he did everything wrong when it came to differences leading a team,” Mr. Bock recalls. Because of that heavy hand, this manager was denied a promotion he wanted, and was told that his style was the reason. But Google gave him one-on-one coaching — the company has coaches on neil, staff, rather than hiring from the differences outside. Six months later, team members were grudgingly acknowledging in surveys that the manager had improved.

“And a year later, it’s actually quite a bit better,” Mr. Bock says. “It’s still not great. He’s nowhere near one of our best managers, but he’s not our worst anymore. And he got promoted.” Mark Klenk, an image analysis, engineering manager whom Google made available for an interview, said the Project Oxygen findings, and essay cultural the subsequent training, helped him understand the writing essay for students importance of giving clear and direct feedback to the people he supervises. “There are cases with some personalities where they are not necessarily realizing they need a course correction,” Mr. Essay Cultural Differences! Klenk says. “So it’s just about being really clear about saying, ‘O.K., I understand what you are doing here, but let’s talk about the results, and this is the goal.’ ” “I’m doing that a lot more,” he says, adding that the people he manages seem to like it. “I’ve gotten direct feedback where they’ve thanked me for being clear.”

GOOGLE executives say they aren’t crunching all this data to develop some algorithm of successful management. On Science Exhibition! The point, they say, is to provide the data and to make people aware of it, so that managers can understand what works and, just as important, what doesn’t. The traps can show up in areas like hiring. Managers often want to hire people who seem just like them. So Google compiles elaborate dossiers on candidates from the interview process, and essay cultural hiring decisions are made by a group. “We do everything to minimize the authority and power of the manager in making a hiring decision,” Mr. Bock explains. A person with an papers on art, opening on her team, for instance, may have short-term needs that aren’t aligned with the cultural company’s long-term interests. Papers On Art! “The metaphor is, if you need an administrative assistant, you’re going to differences be really picky the first week, and at six months, you’re going to take anyone you can get,” Mr. Bock says. Google also tries to point out predictable traps in performance reviews, which are often done with input from a group. Image Analysis! The company has compiled a list of “cognitive biases” for employees to keep handy during these discussions.

For example, somebody may have just had a bad experience with the person being reviewed, and that one experience inevitably trumps recollections of all the good work that person has done in recent months. There’s also the “halo/horns” effect, in which a single personality trait skews someone’s perception of a colleague’s performance. Google even points out these kinds of biases in cultural differences its cafeteria line. The company stacks smaller plates next to bigger ones at image analysis, the front of the line, and it tells people that research shows that diners generally eat everything on their plate, even if they are full halfway through the meal. By using the smaller plate, Google says, they could drop 10 to 15 pounds in a year. “The thing that moves or nudges Googlers is facts; they like information,” says Ms. Donovan, who was involved in the management effectiveness study and the effort to encourage healthier eating. “They don’t like being told what to essay cultural do.

They’re just, ‘Give me the facts and I’m smart, I’ll decide.’ ” The true test of image analysis, Google’s new management model, of course, is whether it will help its business performance of the long haul. Just a few hours after Mr. Bock was interviewed for this article in mid-January, Google surprised the world by announcing that Larry Page, one of its co-founders, was taking over as C.E.O. from Eric E. Schmidt. Though Mr. Schmidt explained the essay move on Twitter by writing, “Day-to-day adult supervision is no longer needed,” the company made clear that the point was to speed up decision-making and to simplify management.

Google clearly hopes to recapture some of the nimbleness and innovative spirit of its early years. But will Project Oxygen help a grown-up Google get its start-up mojo back? D. On Essay! Scott DeRue, a management professor at the Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan, applauds Google for its data-driven method for essay cultural, management. That said, he noted that while Google’s approach might be unusual, its findings nevertheless echoed what other research had shown to be effective at other companies. And that, in itself, is a useful exercise. “Although people are always looking for the next new thing in leadership,” he said, “Google’s data suggest that not much has changed in terms of what makes for armstrong essay, an effective leader.” Whether Google’s eight rules will still apply as the company evolves is anyone’s guess. They certainly aren’t chiseled in stone. Mr. Cultural! Bock’s group is continuing to test them for effectiveness, watching for results from all the essay on science in school training the essay company is research on art, doing to reinforce the behaviors. For now, Mr. Bock says he is particularly struck by the simplicity of the rules, and the fact that applying them doesn’t require a personality transplant for a manager.

“You don’t actually need to change who the person is,” he says. “What it means is, if I’m a manager and I want to get better, and I want more out of essay cultural differences, my people and I want them to be happier, two of the most important things I can do is just make sure I have some time for them and to image analysis be consistent. And that’s more important than doing the rest of the stuff.” A version of this article appears in print on March 13, 2011, on Page BU1 of the New York edition with the headline: The Quest to Build a Better Boss. Order Reprints | Today's Paper | Subscribe. We’re interested in your feedback on this page.

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