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Richard iii essay prompts

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oa framework resume Display regular commands. Display regular commands as DML. Display . Prompts. commands in DML format (top bar of links is given) Display . Essay Assessment. commands that start with a* (wildcard) as DML. Lists all loaded debugger extensions. Lists all loaded debugger extensions as DML (where extensions are linked to a .extmatch) .extmatch /e ExtDLL FunctionFilter. .extmatch /D /e ExtDLL FunctionFilter. Show all exported functions of an richard, extension DLL. FunctionFilter = wildcard string.

Same in room advanced higher english, DML format (functions link to !ExtName.help FuncName commands) Open WinDbg's help. Text = text to look up in the help file index. Dump version info of iii essay, debugger and essay, loaded extension DLLs. Dump command line that was used to start the debugger. Version of richard iii essay prompts, target computer. Toggle verbose mode ON/OFF.

In verbose mode some commands (such as register dumping) have more detailed output. Set number base. Show number formats = evaluates a numerical expression or symbol and for the scarlet, displays it in multiple numerical formats (hex, decimal, octal, binary, time, ..) Example 1: .formats 5. Example 2: .formats poi(nLocal1) == .formats @@($!nLocal1) Displays the most recent exception or event that occurred (why the richard iii essay prompts debugger is waiting?) .effmach x86 | amd64 | ia64 | ebc. Dump effective machine (x86, amd64, ..): Use target computer's native processor mode. Use processor mode of the the student advanced dissertation code that is executing for richard iii essay, the most recent event. Use x86, amd64, ia64, or ebc processor mode. - which processor's unwinder is used for stack tracing.

- which processor's register set is active. display time (system-up, process-up, kernel time, user time) attach to a process. ends the debugging session, but leaves any user-mode target application running. Quit = ends the debugging session and fire investigation essay, terminates the prompts target application. Remote debugging: q= no effect; qq= terminates the debug server. Restart target application. Command separator (cm1; cm2; ..)

Evaluate expression (use default evaluator) Evaluate c++ expression. Choose default expression evaluator. Show current evaluator. Show available evaluators. Set c++ as the default expression evaluator. Set masm as the default expression evaluator. Comment Line Specifier.

Terminated by: end of line. Terminated by: end of line OR semicolon. Echo Comment - comment text + echo it. Terminated by: end of line OR semicolon. With the essay depression $$ token or the richard iii essay prompts * token the intelligence debugger will ignore the inputted text without echoing it. DML allows output to include directives and extra non-display information in the form of iii essay, tags. Debugger user interfaces parse out the the student room advanced higher english extra information to richard iii essay prompts, provide new behaviors.

Kick of to great depression, other DML commands. .prefer_dml [1 | 0] Global setting: should DML-enhanced commands default to DML? Note that many commands like k, lm, .. output DML content thereafter. .help has a new DML mode where a top bar of links is given. .chain has a new DML mode where extensions are linked to a .extmatch. .extmatch has a new DML format where exported functions link to iii essay, !ExtName.help FuncName commands. lm has a new DML mode where module names link to lmv commands. k has a new DML mode where frame numbers link to a .frame/dv. Allows for interactive exploration of code flow for a function. Builds a code flow graph for the function starting at the student room english dissertation the given start address (similar to uf) Shows the basic block given the target address plus links to referring blocks and iii essay, blocks referred to by the current block Example: .dml_flow CreateRemoteThread CreateRemoteThread+30.

User-Mode Extensions (non-OS specific) User-Mode Extensions (OS specific) Debugging managed code. Wow64 debugger extensions. Kernel-Mode driver framework extensions. Graphics driver extensions. Display detailed help about an dissertation, exported function.

NAME = placeholder for extension DLL. FUNCTION = placeholder for exported function. Load symbols for richard, Module. Load symbols for all modules. Get state of essay, symbol loading. Set noisy symbol loading (debugger displays info about richard prompts, its search for symbols) Set quiet symbol loading (=default) x [Options] Module!Symbol.

Examine symbols : displays symbols that match the specified pattern. verbose (symbol type and fire investigation, size) sort by address. sort by prompts, size (size of a function symbol is the scarlet size of the iii essay function in english dissertation, memory) List nearest symbols = display the symbols at iii essay prompts or near the scarlet given Addr. Useful to: determine what a pointer is pointing to when looking at a corrupted stack to iii essay, determine which procedure made a call. Display or set symbol search path. Append directories to previous symbol path.

displays current symbol options. Set symbol store path to advanced dissertation, automatically point to http://msdl.microsoft.com/download/symbols. + = append it to the existing path. DownstreamStore = directory to be used as a downstream store. Default is iii essay WinDbgInstallationDirSym.

.reload [/f | /v] Module. Reload symbol information for thesis scarlet, all modules** f = force immediate symbol load (overrides lazy loading); v = verbose mode. Module = for Module only. Also check the !lmi command. Display or set source search path. Append directory to the searched source path. Controls noisy source loading. Toggle source line support: enable; disable; toggle. l (small letter L) show line numbers. suppress all but [s] source and line number.

source mode vs. assembly mode. Go exception handled. What happened? Shows most recent event or exception. Display information about the prompts current exception or bug check; verbose. User mode: Analyzes the thread stack to thesis scarlet, determine whether any threads are blocking other threads. See an iii essay prompts, exception analysis even when the higher dissertation debugger does not detect an richard prompts, exception. Show all event filters with break status and handling. notify; don't break.

reset filter settings to default values. display most recent exception record. display exception record at Addr. displays exception context record (registers) associated with the current exception. Display content and type of C++ exception. lm[ v | l | k | u | f ] [m Pattern] List modules; verbose | with loaded symbols | k-kernel or u-user only symbol info | image path; pattern that the for gcse module name must match. DML mode of lm; lmv command links included in output. !dlls -c ModuleAddr. all loaded modules with load count.

by initialization order. by load order (default) by memory order. with version info. only module at ModuleAddr. information about relocated images. detailed info about a module (including exact symbol info) !dh -f ImgBaseAddr. !dh -s ImgBaseAddr. Dump headers for richard, ImgBaseAddr. f = file headers only. s = section headers only.

(DML) displays current processes and allows drilling into processes for more information. Print status of investigation essay, all processes being debugged. lists all processes running on the system. display formatted view of the process's environment block (PEB) thread that caused the current event or exception. thread whose ordinal is Number. thread whose thread ID is TID (the brackets are required) switch to thread N (new current thread) Number e CommandString. Execute thread-specific commands (CommandString = one or more commands to be executed) for: thread which caused the current event. thread with ordinal. Freeze thread (see. for Thread syntax)

Unfreeze thread (see. for Thread syntax) Suspend thread = increment thread's suspend count. Resume thread = decrement thread's suspend count. display formatted view of the thread's environment block (TEB) !tls [-1 | SlotIdx] TebAddr. -1 = dump all slots for current thread. SlotIdx = dump only specified slot. TebAddr = specify thread; if omitted, the current thread is richard iii essay prompts used. display thread times (user + kernel mode) display information about time consumed by for gcse, each thread (0-user time, 1-kernel time, 2-time elapsed since thread creation). quick way to prompts, find out which threads are spinning out of control or consuming too much CPU time. Dump last error for current thread.

Dump last error for essay test, all threads. SetLastError( dwErrCode ) checks the value of kernel32!g_dwLastErrorToBreakOn and prompts, possibly executes a DbgBreakPoint. Other calls to SetLastError are redirected to a function located in essay, NTDLL.DLL, RtlSetLastWin32Error. !error ErrValue 1. Decode and richard, display information about an essay, error value.

Treat ErrValue value as an NTSTATUS code. Clear all breakpoints. Disable all bps. bp [Addr] [CmdString] Thrd] bp[#] [Options] [Addr] [Passes] [CmdString] Set breakpoint at iii essay address. CmdString = Cmd1; Cmd2; .. Executed every time the BP is hit. Thrd == thread that the for gcse help bp applies too. Passes = Activate breakpoint after #Passes (it is ignored before)

Set unresolved breakpoint. bp is set when the richard module gets loaded. bm SymPattern [CmdString] Thrd] bm [Options] SymPattern [#Passes] [CmdString] Set symbol breakpoint. SymPattern can contain wildcards. CmdString = Cmd1; Cmd2; .. Executed every time the investigation essay BP is hit.

Thrd == thread that the bp applies too. Passes = Activate breakpoint after #Passes (it is ignored before) ba [r|w|e] [Size] Addr. Thrd] ba[#] [r|w|e] [Size] [Options] [Addr] [Passes] [CmdString] Break on Access: [r=read/write, w=write, e=execute], Size=[1|2|4 bytes] Thrd] == thread that the richard prompts bp applies too. Passes = Activate breakpoint after #Passes (it is ignored before) br OldID NewID [OldID2 NewID2 . Thesis For The. ] renumbers one or more breakpoints.

With bp, the breakpoint location is iii essay always converted to an address. In contrast, a bu or a bm breakpoint is for the always associated with the symbolic value. Breakpoitns with options. Breakpoints with commands: The command will be executed when the iii essay prompts breakpoint is intelligence hit. r eip = poi(@esp) - Set EIP (instruction pointer) to the value found at offset 0x0. DriverEntry has 2x4 byte parameters = 8 bytes + 4 bytes for iii essay prompts, the return address = 0xC. r esp = @esp + 0xC - Add 0xC to Esp (the stack pointer), effectively unwinding the essay stack pointer. Use the l+t and l-t commands or the buttons on richard iii essay prompts, the WinDbg toolbar to switch between these modes. Go up = execute until the fire investigation essay current function is complete. - $csp = same as esp on x86.

- $ra = The return address currently on the stack. p =StartAddress [Count] [Command] Thread] p [=StartAddress] [Count] [Command] Single step - executes a single instruction or source line. Richard Prompts. Subroutines are treated as a single step. Count = count of essay depression, instructions or source lines to step through before stopping. Command = debugger command to richard iii essay prompts, be executed after the step is performed. StartAddress = Causes execution to begin at the specified address. Default is the current EIP. Thread = The specified thread is room advanced higher thawed and iii essay prompts, all others frozen.

Single trace - executes a single instruction or source line. For subroutines each step is for the traced as well. Step to next return - similar to richard iii essay prompts, the GU (go up), but staying in context of the current function. If EIP is already on a return instruction, the entire return is executed. After this return is ict coursework returned, execution will continue until another return is reached. Trace to next return - similar to the GU (go up), but staying in context of the current function.

If EIP is already on iii essay, a return instruction, the debugger traces into the return and continues executing until another return is advanced higher english dissertation reached. Step to next call - executes the richard iii essay program until a call instruction is canada reached. If EIP is already on a call instruction, the entire call will be executed. Iii Essay Prompts. After this call is test returned execution will continue until another call is reached. Trace to next call - executes the program until a call instruction is reached. If EIP is already on richard iii essay, a call instruction, the debugger will trace into the call and continue executing until another call is reached.

pa StopAddr Command pa =StartAddress StopAddr [Command] Step to address ; StopAddr = address at which execution will stop. Called functions are treated as a single unit. Command = debugger command to be executed after the step is performed. StartAddress = Causes execution to begin at room dissertation the specified address.

Default is the current EIP. Trace to address ; StopAddr = address at which execution will stop. Called functions are traced as well. wt -m Module [-m Module2] .. wt -i Module [-i Module2] .. Trace and richard, watch data . Go to ict coursework for gcse, the beginning of a function and do a wt . Richard Prompts. It will run through the entire function and essay, display statistics. l = maximum depth of traced calls. m = restrict tracing to iii essay, Module. i = ignore code from essay Module. oa = dump actual address of call sites. or = dump return register values (EAX value) of sub-functions. oR = dump return register values (EAX value) in richard, the appropriate type.

nc = no info for great, individual calls. ns = no summary info. ns = no warnings. Dump current filter list = functions that are skipped when tracing (t, ta, tc) FilterList = Filter 1; Filter 2; . Richard Prompts. symbols associated with functions to be stepped over (skipped) clear the filter list. dump stack; n = with frame #; f = distance between adjacent frames; L = omit source lines; number of stack frames to display.

all params: param type + name + value. all params formatted (new line) FPO info, calling convention. display raw stack data + possible symbol info == dds esp. DML variant with links to .frame #;dv. Set stack length. The default is 20 (0x14). show current frame.

show register values. When executing a near call, the processor pushes the value of the investigation essay EIP register (which contains the offset of the iii essay instruction following the CALL instruction) onto ict coursework for gcse, the stack (for use later as a return-instruction pointer). Richard Iii Essay. This is the first step in building a frame. Great Depression. Each time a function call is made, another frame is created so that the called function can access arguments, create local variables, and iii essay, provide a mechanism to essay depression, return to calling function. Richard. The composition of the frame is dependant on the function calling convention. !uniqstack [b|v|p] [n] show stacks for essay great depression canada, all threads. [b = first 3 params, v = FPO + calling convention, p = all params: param type + name + value], [n = with frame #] !findstack Symbol [0|1|2] locate all stacks that contain Symbol or module. [0 = show only TID, 1 = TID + frames, 2 = entire thread stack] To get more than 3 Function Arguments from the stack. dd ChildEBP+8 (Parameters start at iii essay prompts ChildEBP+8) dd ChildEBP+8 (frame X) == dd ESP (frame X-1)

Thread r [Reg:[Num]Type] Dump all registers. Dump only specified registers (i.e.: r eax, edx ) Value to test, assign to prompts, the register (i.e.: r eax=5, edx=6 ) ib = Signed byte. ub = Unsigned byte. iw = Signed word (2b) uw = Unsigned word (2b) id = Signed dword (4b) ud = Unsigned dword (4b) iq = Signed qword (8b) uq = Unsigned qword (8b) f = 32-bit floating-point. d = 64-bit floating-point. Default is full register length, thus r eax:uw would display two values as EAX is essay great canada a 32-bit register.

rM Mask Reg1, Reg2. rM Mask Reg=Value. Dump register types specified by iii essay, Mask. Dump only specified registers from current mask. Value to assign to the register. 0x1 = basic integer registers. 0x4 = floating-point registers == rF. 0x8 = segment registers.

0x10 = MMX registers. 0x20 = Debug registers. 0x40 = SSE XMM registers == rX. Dump all floating-point registers == rM 0x4. Dump only specified floating-point registers. Value to assign to the register. Dump all SSE XMM registers == rM 0x40. Dump only essay, specified SSE XMM registers.

Value to assign to iii essay prompts, the register. Dump default register mask. This mask controls how registers are displayed by the r. Dump a list of higher english, possible Mask bits. Specify the mask to use when displaying the iii essay prompts registers. dt [mod!]Name Field [Field] dt [mod!]Name [Field] Addr. dt [-n|y] [mod!]Name [-n|y] [Field] [Addr] -abcehioprsv. Dump variable info. Dump only 'field-name(s)' (struct or unions)

Addr of struct to be dumped. list symbols (wildcard) -y Name = partially match instead of default exact match. -b = Dump only contiguous block of struct. -c = Compact output (all fields in one line) -i = Does not indent the subtypes. -l ListField = Field which is for gcse help pointer to the next element in list. -o = Omit the richard offset value (fields of struct) -p = Dump from physical address. -r[l] = Recursively dump subtypes/fields (up to essay intelligence, l levels) -s [size] = For enumeration only, enumerate types only of given size. display local variables and parameters. vars matching Pattern. i = type (local, global, parameter), t = data type, V = memory address or register location. a = sort by Addr, n = sort by name, z = sort by size.

You can get our process's PEB address with r @$peb or with !peb. Note: dv will also display the value of richard iii essay, a THIS pointer for methods called with the this calling-convention. BUG: You must first execute a few commands before dv displays the correct value. Right at a function's entry point the THIS pointer is present in ECX, so you can easily get it from test there. d[a| u| b| w| W| d| c| q| f| D] [/c #] [Addr] Display memory [#columns to richard, display] u = Unicode chars. W = word (2b) + ascii. c = dword (4b) + ascii. D = floating point (double precision - 8b) d = binary + dword.

e[ b | w | d | q | f | D ] Addr Value. e[ a | u | za | zu ] Addr String D = floating point (double precision - 8b) za = ascii string (NULL-terminated) u = Unicode string. zu = Unicode string (NULL-terminated) Dump string struct (struct! not null-delimited char sequence) s = STRING or ANSI_STRING. Display words and symbols (memory at room advanced higher english dissertation Addr is assumed to be a series of addresses in the symbol table)

Display referenced memory = display pointer at specified Addr, dereference it, and then display the memory at the resulting location in richard iii essay, a variety of formats. dd* - 32-bit pointer used. dq* - 64-bit pointer used. dp* - standard size: 32-bit or 64-bit, depending on the CPU architecture. d*a - dereferenced mem as asci chars. d*u - dereferenced mem as Unicode chars. d*p - dereferenced mem as dword or qword, depending on the CPU architecture. If this value matches any known symbol, this symbol is displayed as well. dl[b] Addr MaxCount Size.

Display linked list (LIST_ENTRY or SINGLE_LIST_ENTRY) b = dump in reverse order (follow BLinks instead of FLinks) Addr = start address of the list. MaxCount = max # elements to ict coursework for gcse, dump. Size = Size of each element. Display info about the memory used by the target process. Dump info for region with Addr. Dump summary info for process. Dump specified regions (RegionUsageStack, RegionUsagePageHeap, ..) Dump virtual memory protection info. Dump name of the file containing given Addr. Note: For stack overflows SubRegionSize (size of committed memory) will be large, i.e.:

Determine stack usage for a thread From MSDN CreateThread dwStackSize Thread Stack Size: Each new thread receives its own stack space, consisting of both committed and reserved memory. By default, each thread uses 1 Mb of reserved memory, and prompts, one page of committed memory. Essay. The system will commit one page block from the reserved stack memory as needed. c Range DestAddr. m Range DestAddr. f Range Pattern. Fill memory. Pattern = a series of bytes (numeric or ASCII chars) s Range Pattern. s -[Flags]w Range 'Pattern' s -[Flags]d Range 'Pattern' s -[Flags]q Range 'Pattern' s -[Flags]a Range Pattern s -[Flags]u Range Pattern s -[Flags,l length]sa Range.

s -[Flags,l length]su Range. s -[Flags]v Range Object. Pattern = a series of bytes (numeric or ASCII chars) Pattern = enclosed in single quotation marks (for example, 'Tag7') u = Unicode string (must not be null-terminated) Pattern = enclosed in richard iii essay prompts, double quotation marks (for example, This string) Search for any memory containing printable Unicode strings. Length = minimum length of such strings; the fire default is 3 chars. Object = Addr of richard iii essay prompts, a pointer to the Object or of the Object itself. w = search only essay, writable memory.

1 = output only addresses of search matches (useful if you are using the .foreach) Flags must be surrounded by a single set of brackets without spaces. Example: s -[swl 10]Type Range Pattern. .holdmem -a Range. .holdmem -c Range. Hold and iii essay, compare memory. The comparison is made byte-for-byte. Memory range to safe. Display all saved memory ranges. Compares Range to essay intelligence, all saved memory ranges.

Delete all saved memory ranges. Delete specified memory ranges (any saved range containing Addr or overlapping with Range) !heap -h [HeapAddr | Idx | 0] !heap -v [HeapAddr | Idx | 0] !heap -i [HeapAddr] !heap -x [-v] Address. List heaps with index and richard iii essay, range (= startAddr(=HeapAddr), endAddr) Detailed heap info [Idx = heap Idx, 0 = all heaps] Validate heap [Idx = heap Idx, 0 = all heaps]

Summary info, i.e. reserved and committed memory [Idx = heap Idx, 0 = all heaps] Detailed info for intelligence, a block at given address. Search heap block containing the richard prompts address (v = search the whole process virtual space) Search for potentially leaked heap blocks. !heap Heap -b [alloc | realloc | free] [Tag] !heap Heap -B [alloc | realloc | free] Set conditional breakpoint in the heap manager [Heap = HeapAddr | Idx | 0] Remove a conditional breakpoint.

!heap -flt s Size. !heap -flt r SizeMin SizeMax. Dump info for allocations matching the specified size. Filter by range. !heap -stat -h [HeapHandle | 0] Dump heap handle list. Dump usage statistic for every AllocSize [HeapHandle = given heap | 0 = all heaps]. The statistic includes AllocSize, #blocks, TotalMem for depression, each AllocSize.

!heap -p -h HeapHandle. Extended page heap help. Summary for NtGlobalFlag, HeapHandle + NormalHeap list ** Detailed info about a page heap with Handle. Details of heap allocation containing UserAddr.

Prints backtraces when available . Details of all allocations in all heaps in the process. The output includes UserAddr and iii essay, AllocSize for every HeapAlloc call . It seems that the following applies for windows XP SP2: For normal heap: HeapHandle == HeapStartAddr. For normal heap this range is further within Heap[startAddr-endAddr] For every HeapCreate a _HEAP struct is intelligence created. You can use !heap -p -all to richard prompts, get these addresses. You can use !heap -p -all to fire investigation, get these addresses. For every HeapCreate a _DPH_HEAP_ROOT is created.

You can use !heap -p -all to get these addresses. You can use !heap -p -all to get these addresses. Enable page heap. Richard Iii Essay. Then you can use !heap -p -all to get addresses of the student room dissertation, actual _DPH_HEAP_ROOT structs in your process. Enable page heap. Then you can use !heap -p -all to get addresses of actual _DPH_HEAP_BLOCK structs in your process. Note that dds will dump the stack with source information included . b) Alternatively you can use !heap -p -all to get addresses of all _DPH_HEAP_ROOT's of your process directly. Do a dt ntdll!_DPH_HEAP_ROOT CreateStackTrace [MyHeapRootAddr] , where is the prompts address of thesis for the letter, a _DPH_HEAP_ROOT retrieved in step 2 Do a dds , where [CreateStackTrace] is the value retrieved in step 3. If RegionUsageHeap or RegionUsagePageHeap are growing, then you might have a memory leak on iii essay, the heap.

Proceed with the following steps. Enable Create user mode stack trace database for assessment, your image in GFlags (gflags.exe /i MyApp.exe +ust) From WinDbg's command line do a !heap -stat , to get all active heap blocks and their handles. Do a !heap -stat -h 0 . Richard Prompts. This will list down handle specific allocation statistics for assessment test, every AllocSize. For every AllocSize the iii essay prompts following is listed: AllocSize, #blocks, and TotalMem. Take the AllocSize with maximum TotalMem . Letter. Do a !heap -flt s [Size] . [Size]=AllocSize that we determined in iii essay, the previous step. This command will list down all blocks with that particular size. Do a !heap -p -a [UserAddr] to get the stack trace from where you have allocated that much bytes. Use the [UserAddr] that you got in step 4. Note that dds will dump the essay stack with source information included . Application Verifier profiles and richard iii essay, tracks Microsoft Win32 APIs (heap, handles, locks, threads, DLL load/unload, and more), Exceptions, Kernel objects, Registry, File system.

With the investigation essay !avrf extension we get access to this tracking information! Displays Application Verifier options. If an iii essay, Application Verifier Stop has occurred, reveal the nature of the stop and great depression, what caused it. Searches ADDR in richard iii essay prompts, the vspace log. Searches ADDR in the heap log. CCriticalSection calls this implicitly. Searches ADDR in the critical section delete log. global counters (WaitForSingleObject, HeapAllocation calls, . ) thread information + start parameters for ict coursework help, child threads. TerminateThread API log.

dump stack trace with INDEX. dump or set/reset break triggers. - Create user mode stack trace database - Stack Backtrace: (Megs) - 10. - It seems that you sometimes also need to check and specify the Debugger field in GFlags. displays all Logexts.dll extension commands. Enable logging + possibly initialize it if not yet done. Richard. Output directory optional. Initialize (=inject Logger into the target application) but don't enable logging. List output settings. Enable/disable [d - Debugger, t - Text file, v - Verbose log] output. Use logviewer.exe to essay great canada, examine Verbose logs.

List all categories. List APIs in category # Enable/disable all categories. Print buffer contents to debugger. Flush buffer to log files. Display module inclusion/exclusion list. Specify module inclusion/exclusion list.

1) TODOs - break after driver load before its entry point is called. 2) In the Event Filters select the Load module event. click Arguments and richard, enter the name of the driver in question ( 77fba431 in our case) Last event: Load module 77fba431.sys at ba644000. debugger time: Wed Mar 31 21:12:56.937 2010 (GMT+2) start end module name. ba644000 ba645e00 77fba431 (deferred) Image path: 77fba431.sys. Image name: 77fba431.sys. Timestamp: Tue Mar 30 20:10:51 2010 (4BB23EAB) Translations: 0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.0 4b0 0409.04e4.

Evaluate expression: -1167828646 = ba64595a. *** ERROR: Module load completed but symbols could not be loaded for essay, 77fba431.sys. 0 e ba64595a 0001 (0001) 77fba431+0x195a. Breakpoint 0 hit. ba64595a 8bff mov edi,edi. I peeked into nt!IopLoadDriver on richard, Windows XP SP3.

It might bee slightly different on Windows Vista or Windows 7 installations. Nevertheless I think you got the idea and ict coursework for gcse, will be able to iii essay, change the intelligence breakpoint if necessary. You could set a similar conditional breakpoint on richard iii essay prompts, nt!MmLoadSystemImage . Note that its first parameter is the path of the driver: ChildEBP RetAddr Args to Child. ba507c74 8058107b ba507cf8 00000000 00000000 nt!MmLoadSystemImage. ba507d54 80581487 80000748 00000001 00000000 nt!IopLoadDriver+0x371. ba507d7c 80538789 80000748 00000000 8a8e8640 nt!IopLoadUnloadDriver+0x45. ba507dac 805cff72 ae22acb0 00000000 00000000 nt!ExpWorkerThread+0xef. ba507ddc 8054611e 8053869a 00000001 00000000 nt!PspSystemThreadStartup+0x34. 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 nt!KiThreadStartup+0x16. I hope this helps,

Also, the problem is that I would like to set a breakpoint before the driver is scarlet letter loaded. Richard Iii Essay. So I would need something like bu driver+rva_ep. This article is essay great very nice, I#039;m a beginner to windbg and richard iii essay prompts, this is helping me a lot. Also, I have a question: Could you tell me please, how do I set a bp on a driver entrypoint if driver name is hex convertible? driver name is intelligence 77fba431.sys.

so, normally I would do something like bp 77fba431+rva_entrypoint (just like lets say bp ntfs+rva) but of course 77fba431 is richard iii essay prompts read as an address, so windbg will actually set a bp to address 77fba431+rva_entrypoint. Higher English Dissertation. So, how can I tell windbg that 77fba431 is actually a module name not an richard iii essay, address ?

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31 annoying words and phrases on your r©sum© that make hiring managers cringe. Time to give your 'delete' button a workout. Richard. Getty Images. While many large companies use automated r©sum©-screener software to cut down the the student room higher dissertation, initial pool of richard job applicants, loading your r©sum© with meaningless buzzwords and phrases is not the smartest way to get noticed . Nearly everyone is advanced guilty of using buzzwords from time to time, but professionals are evaluated increasingly on iii essay, their ability to communicate, says Paul McDonald, senior executive director for professional-placement firm Robert Half. Assessment. Some of the major problems with using buzzwords, according to Mary Lorenz, a c orporate-communications manager at richard prompts CareerBuilder, are that they have become so overused that they've lost all meaning, and they don't differentiate the job seeker from other candidates because they're so generic. Other, less jargony words and terms should be avoided when they serve little purpose to the hiring manager. All these words do is waste space and the reader's time and, as a result, you lose out on the few precious seconds a recruiter spends scanning your r©sum©. Instead, Lorenz says job seekers should speak in ict coursework for gcse help terms of accomplishments and iii essay show rather than tell. Avoiding overused terms can help job seekers convey their message and stand out from the crowd, McDonald says. Here are some words and phrases you should avoid: According to LinkedIn, leadership was the assessment, top buzzword on its user's profiles. And if the word doesn't help you stand out on your LinkedIn profile, you can bet it won't make your r©sum© more eye-catching, either.

Rather than saying you have excellent leadership skills, you'd do better to iii essay highlight specific examples of when you demonstrated these skills and what kind of results you saw. Tina Nicolai, who has read more than 40,000 r©sum©s since founding her company R©sum© Writers' Ink, tells Business Insider that skills like being an exceptional communicator are baseline expectations in today's market. Room Higher Dissertation. Stating that you are really great at communication isn't, in fact, saying very much. When CareerBuilder surveyed more than 2,200 hiring managers , it found best of breed to be the richard iii essay, most irritating term to be seen on a r©sum©. Investigation Essay. The phrase offers little meaning and doesn't help differentiate candidates. Employers want to know what makes the job seekers unique, and how they will add value to the specific organization for richard, which they're applying, Lorenz says.

Career coach Eli Amdur tells Business Insider that there is no reason to put the word phone in front of the actual number: It's pretty silly. They know it's your phone number. The Student Room Advanced English. The same rule applies to richard prompts email. Instead of simply saying that you're results-driven, write about essay what you did to actually drive results €” and what those results were, Lorenz suggests. Not only does this word conjure up images of curly fries, says Rita Friedman, a Philadelphia-based career coach, but it is well-recognized as a code word for 'much, much older.' McDonald says using terms like highly qualified or extensive experience won't make you seem better suited for the job €” in fact, it could have the opposite effect. Instead, he suggests you focus on the skills, accomplishments, and richard iii essay credentials you bring to the student advanced higher english dissertation the role. Superfluous words like responsible for, oversight of, and duties included unnecessarily complicate and hide your experience, says Alyssa Gelbard, founder and president of R©sum© Strategists. Be direct, concise, and richard iii essay prompts use active verbs to describe your accomplishments, she suggests. Canada. Instead of writing, Responsible for training interns . Richard Iii Essay. simply write, Train interns . Vicky Oliver, author of essay intelligence Power Sales Words and 301 Smart Answers to richard prompts Tough Interview Questions, says you should spell out any acronyms first and put the essay test, initials in parentheses.

For example, NYSE would read New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). For starters, acronyms are capitalized, and all caps are harder to iii essay prompts read than upper and lower case, she says. It's also really difficult to wade through a piece of thesis for the paper that resembles alphabet soup. Richard. 10. 'References available by request' This outdated phrase will unnecessarily show your age, Gelbard says: If you progress through the essay test, interviewing process, you will be asked for personal and professional references. Richard Prompts. Of course you would never say you're 'lazy' either, but calling yourself ambitious doesn't make any sense on a r©sum©, Friedman says. It can imply that you're targeting this job now, but will quickly be looking to essay canada move up in the company because you won't be satisfied in richard prompts the role, leaving the employer stuck with doing a new job search in the very near future. Who doesn't want to essay assessment test be a team player?

If you're not a team player, you're probably not going to get the iii essay, job, McDonald says. Essay Intelligence. But using this term isn't going to make you stand out from richard other candidates. Instead, use an scarlet example of how you saved a company time, money, and resources on iii essay, a team project or in collaboration with others. Yes, you and everyone else. Essay Test. It's assumed that you have a basic proficiency in Microsoft Office, Gelbard says. Unless you have expert proficiency, there's no need to include it on your r©sum©.

Words like this make you sound like an richard iii essay automaton, Oliver says. Most recruiters would rather meet with a human being. Keep your verbs simple and streamlined. It's true that a company is less likely to consider you if you haven't worked hard or don't come across as someone who will put in what it takes to get the job done, but that doesn't mean writing hard worker will convince hiring managers of the student room higher your efforts. Give concrete examples of how you've gone the extra mile, rather than using a non-memorable clich©, McDonald suggests. Speaking of the word hard, using it to describe your work tasks can also have a negative effect. ZipRecruiter hosts a database of more than 3 million r©sum©s, which small businesses, individual employers, and recruiters looking for richard iii essay prompts, candidates can rate on a scale of one to five stars (one being the essay, lowest, five the highest). After ZipRecruiter analyzed these r©sum©s and their ratings, it found a correlation between certain keywords and richard prompts low ratings. The word hard was found to have a strong correlation with one-star reviews, with up to a 79% greater likelihood of receiving the great canada, lowest rating.

It's likely the word gives employers the prompts, impression that you're put off by hard work. Being punctual is fire great, but it's also pretty basic to holding down a job. Don't waste the iii essay, space on your r©sum©. Unless it's in essay test your email address, avoid casual texting language like @. A r©sum© is a formal document and is often the first impression a potential employer has of you, Gelbard stresses.

Business language should be used to reinforce that first impression and text-style or casual words should be avoided. Clich©s like people person are impossible to prove, Oliver says, and r ecruiters have heard these phrases so many times they're likely to richard feel their eyes glaze over as soon as they see them. This one is a pet peeve of mine, McDonald says. The expression is unnecessary and great depression doesn't add value. A recruiter isn't going to be able to place you if you're not eager to start the iii essay, job and you aren't committed. Avoid using personal pronouns like I, me, my, we, or our, Gelbard says.

A person reviewing your r©sum© knows that you're talking about your skills, experience, and expertise or something related to the company for which you worked, so you don't need to include pronouns. ZipRecruiter also found people who use me or myself on their r©sum© had up to a 79% greater likelihood of receiving the lowest rating from essay hiring managers. And while you're at richard prompts it, don't bother including your career objectives. All they do is for the scarlet send the iii essay, message that you're more concerned about yourself, writes career and workplace expert J.T. O'Donnell. When the first thing a recruiter sees on your r©sum© is fire investigation what you want from them, they're turned off, TopResume job-search expert Amanda Augustine tells O'Donnell.

It's generally assumed that you were successful at whatever you are including on your r©sum©, Gelbard says. Iii Essay. There is no need to say that you successfully managed a marketing campaign or successfully led annual budget planning. Intelligence. Subjective words like creative, innovative, and exceptional, are your own opinion and have little bearing for a recruiter, O'Donnell writes. Even worse, these words make you sound cocky. Augustine tells O'Donnell that a good test is to ask yourself if you'd say these things when speaking face to face with a recruiter. Richard Iii Essay Prompts. Unless these activities are in some way related to depression canada the job you're applying for, no one really cares what you do in your spare time when they're skimming your r©sum©. Prompts. Not only is this word superfluous, just like phone, but Augustine says you shouldn't include your mailing address at all.

Nobody needs to have that on their r©sum© anymore, she says. Scarlet. And to richard be quite honest, it's a security concern. It's more about identity theft than anything else. Another reason not to include your mailing address: You don't want hiring managers trying to contact you in five different places €” that just makes more for you to keep track of. Fire Investigation Essay. Honesty is iii essay one of those things you have to show, not tell, Friedman says. It's not as if there are some other candidates out there vying for the job who are describing themselves as 'duplicitous' or ' dishonest,' she says. English Dissertation. Being a problem solver is another one of prompts those baseline expectations in the working world. A person who truly is essay intelligence a 'unique problem solver who works well in teams' will convey this succinctly and creatively on their r©sum© through a combination of few words and imagery, Nicolai tells Business Insider. Once you're out of school, your grades aren't so relevant. The exception is richard iii essay prompts if you're a recent college graduate and you have a stellar GPA.

But if you're more than three years out of school, or if your GPA was lower than a 3.8, ditch it. Help. ZipRecruiter also found the word learning to have a strong correlation with one-star reviews, as it may give employers the impression that you're inexperienced and require a great deal of training. Richard Prompts. Nicolai tells Business Insider she hates overly formal words like utilize €” they're not engaging and they don't allow the reader to get a good sense of the applicant's personality, she says. And she's not alone. As one copy editor tells Grammar Girl, she usually swaps out pretentious-sounding words like utilize for unimpressive ones like use, which get the point across without much fuss. She says that sentences that use overly formal words sound fluffy and for gcse make it seem like you're trying too hard. SEE ALSO: 34 things you should remove from your r©sum© immediately. DON'T MISS: 16 interview mistakes people think will cost them the job €” but won't. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru. 31 annoying words and phrases on your r©sum© that make hiring managers cringe.

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Free Information Technology essays. Many techniques in data mining and machine learning follow a gradient-descent paradigm in the iterative process of discovering a target functions or decision model. Iii Essay Prompts! For instance, neural networks generally perform a series of fire essay iterations to converge the weight coefficients of edges in the network; thus, settling into a decision model. Richard Iii Essay! Many learning problems now have distributed input data, due to the development of distributed computing environment. In such distributed scenarios, privacy concerns often become a big concern.

For example, if medical researchers want to apply machine learning to study health care problems, they need to collect the raw data from hospitals and the follow-up information from patients. Then, the privacy of the patients must be protected, according to essay great depression the privacy rules in Health Insurance Portability and iii essay Accountability Act (HIPAA) [1], which establishes the fire regulations for the use and disclosure of richard iii essay prompts Protected Health Information. Why the researchers would want to build a learning model (e.g., neural networks) without first collecting all the training data on one computer is a natural question. If there is canada a learner trusted by all the data holders, then the trusted learner can accumulate data first and build a learning model. Richard Iii Essay Prompts! However, in many real-world cases, it is rather difficult to find such a trusted learner, since some data holders will always have concerns like ‘What will you do to room higher english my data’? and ‘Will you discover private information beyond the scope of research’? On the other hand, given the distributed and networked computing environments at present, alliances will greatly benefit the iii essay prompts scientific advances [2]. The researchers have the interest to obtain the ict coursework for gcse result of cooperative learning even before they see the data from other parties. As a concrete example, the progress in neuroscience could be boosted by making links between data from prompts labs around the thesis scarlet world, but some researchers are reluctant to release their data to be exploited by prompts others because of privacy and security concerns. 1.2 REPORT ORGANIZATION.

This thesis describes the essay design and development of the Privacy Preserving Gradient Descent Method Applied for Neural Network with Distributed Datasets, as well as the procedures used to test their effectiveness. The report is richard organized as follows: Chapter 2: Literature survey. This chapter focuses on scarlet letter, review of different related work as well as emphasizing on privacy preserving distributed datasets for iii essay prompts, solving classification problems. Chapter 3: Problem definition.

This chapter describes the problem definition and goals of proposed system. Chapter 4: System Design and fire Implementation. This chapter focuses on design of system, architecture of the system and privacy preserving gradient descent method used for implementation of the system. Also, it focuses on metrics used for evaluation of the system. Chapter 5: Experimental results and Analysis.

This chapter describes the richard iii essay experimental results obtained from the essay test system. Also, it focuses on the analysis of richard iii essay results as well as comparison of performance with other system. Chapter 6: Conclusion. This chapter summarizes the method used for ict coursework help, privacy preserving for prompts, owners of distributed dataset applied for neural network. Also summarizes experimental results obtained by comparing different methods. This chapter focuses on review of different related work and emphasizing on different techniques for preserving privacy of distributed datasets. 2.1 Present Theory and fire investigation essay Practices. D. Agrawal and R. Iii Essay! Srikant have proposed the problem of performing data analysis on intelligence, distributed data sources with privacy constraints [4]. Richard! They used some cryptography tools to efficiently and securely build a decision tree classifier. A good number of data mining tasks have been studied with the consideration of privacy protection, for example, classification [5], and clustering [6].

In particular, privacy-preserving solutions have been proposed for the following classification algorithms (to name a few): decision trees, naive Bayes classifier [8], and support vector machine (SVM) [9] Generally speaking, the essay great canada existing works have taken either randomization-based approaches or cryptography- based approaches[7] Randomization-based approaches, by iii essay perturbing data, only ict coursework, guarantee a limited degree of privacy. A.C.Yao has proposed general-purpose technique called secure multiparty computation [10]. Richard Iii Essay! The works of secure multiparty computation originate from the solution to the millionaire problem proposed by Yao, in for the, which two millionaires can find out who is richer without revealing the amount of their wealth. In this work a protocol is presented which can privately compute any probabilistic polynomial function. Although secure multiparty computation can theoretically solve all problems of privacy-preserving computation, it is too expensive to be applied to practical problems. Cryptography-based approaches provide better guarantee on privacy than randomized-based approaches, but most of the prompts cryptography-based approaches are difficult to assessment be applied with very large databases, because they are resource demanding.

For example, although Laur et al. proposed an elegant solution for privacy-preserving SVM in [9], their protocols are based on richard, circuit evaluation, which is considered very costly in practice. L.Wan, W. K. Ng, S. Han, and thesis letter V. C. S. Lee have proposed a preliminary formulation of richard prompts gradient descent with data privacy preservation [13]. They present two approaches’stochastic approach and advanced higher english least square approach’under different assumptions. Four protocols are proposed for richard iii essay prompts, the two approaches incorporating various secure building blocks for both horizontally and vertically partitioned data. 2.2 The Limitations of Present Practices. In the Literature Survey, work is carried on privacy preserving Data Mining for performing data analysis on essay, distributed datasets. Further the solution proposed in the Privacy Preserving Gradient Descent Methods gives general formulation for preserving privacy of distributed datasets to solve optimization problems. There is prompts no any work done related to fire investigation essay gradient descent method applied for iii essay prompts, back propagation neural network with distributed datasets i.e. horizontal fragmentation and intelligence vertical fragmentation datasets.

It is therefore required that this solution for richard iii essay prompts, the privacy preserving gradient descent method needs to be applied to the Neural Network for solving classification problem. 3.1 PROBLEM DEFINITION. The researchers have the interest to obtain the result of essay intelligence cooperative learning of multiple parties’ data for solving classification problems, but some researchers are reluctant to release their data to be exploited by others because of privacy and richard security concerns. Therefore, there is a strong motivation for learners to intelligence develop cooperative learning procedure with privacy preservation. Hence the goal is to design and implement a privacy preserving gradient descent method applied for back propagation neural network with distributed datasets i.e. horizontal fragmentation and vertical fragmentation datasets for solving classification problems. Richard Prompts! We can train the neural network by using distributed datasets for solving classification problems. If unknown samples come for testing then we can easily classify it to investigation desired output. Goals of dissertation are: ‘ Apply a standard non privacy preserving algorithm on Back Propagation Neural Network with different datasets. ‘ Implementing cryptography technique for preserving privacy of richard prompts owner’s dataset.

‘ Implementing of intelligence Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. ‘ Implementation of Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertical partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. ‘ Analyze the results. SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION. In this dissertation work, focus is to implement the privacy-preserving distributed algorithm to securely compute the piecewise linear function for the neural network training process to iii essay prompts obtain the desired output. We can train the neural network by using distributed datasets for solving classification problems.

If unknown samples come for testing then we can easily classify it to desired output. The Gradient Descent Method is depression used for richard iii essay prompts, updating weight coefficients of edges in the neural network. This method has two approaches-Stochastic approach and Least Square approach. In this project we use Least Square approach of Gradient Descent Method. This chapter highlights on the architecture and implementation details of dissertation work. 4.1 ARCHITECTURE OF SYSTEM. Figure 4.1 shows System Architecture, different components and structure of proposed system. To train the system Standard Dataset from UCI Machine Learning Repository is used.

There are 3 Datasets are used for the implementation of Least Square Approach i.e. Iris Flower Dataset, Tennis Dataset and Wine Dataset. Modules in essay great canada, the proposed system are as follows. 1. Implementing a standard non privacy preserving algorithm on iii essay, Neural Network. 2. Implementing cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owner’s dataset. 3. Implementation of Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. 4. Implementation of Securely Computing the essay assessment test Piecewise Linear Sigmoid Function for Vertically partitioned dataset and iii essay Implementation of Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertically Partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. 5. Analysis of results. Figure 4.1 Architecture of System. 4.1.1 A standard non privacy preserving algorithm on Neural Network. Non privacy preserving algorithm for training dataset on back propagation neural network is implemented for essay great depression, analysis purpose.

4.1.2 A cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owners dataset. The main idea of the algorithm is to secure each step in the non-privacy-preserving gradient descent algorithm, with two stages i.e feed forward and back propagation. In each step, neither the iii essay input data from the other party nor the for gcse intermediate results can be revealed. Possible encryption mechanism is Elgamal Encryption Scheme, Deffie Hellman Scheme and Palliers Cryptosystem, etc. The work will make use of Elgamal encryption scheme. 4.1.3 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. In this module we implement Least Square approach algorithm for prompts, horizontal partioned dataset for effectively obtaining exact output for classification of data between two parties. 4.1.4 Securely Computing the Piecewise Linear Sigmoid Function for Vertically partitioned dataset.

In this module we implement sigmoid function to obtain exact output of dataset and to letter guarantee privacy-preserving product computation using cryptograpy techniques for iii essay, two parties. To hide the intermediate results such as the test values of hidden-layer nodes, the two parties randomly share each result so that neither of the two parties can imply the original data information from the intermediate results. 4.1.5 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertically Partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. The Gradient descent method uses Least Square Approach to determine Weight (w) to best fit training data in richard iii essay prompts, the Back propagation Neural Network to the student english obtain exact output by minimizing the error rates. After the richard iii essay entire process of private training, without revealing any raw data to each other, the two parties jointly establish a neural network representing the properties of the ict coursework for gcse union dataset used for solving classification problems.

4.1.6 Comparison study and analysis of results. ‘ Comparison of non privacy preserving algorithms with privacy preserving algorithms in terms of error rates required for obtaining desired output. ‘ Comparison study between horizontally partitioned cases and vertically partitioned cases in terms of prompts error rates required for obtaining desired output. ‘ To test the ict coursework for gcse accuracy of testing datasets for horizontal partitioned datasets and vertical partitioned datasets. 4.2 IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS. System consists of five modules as shown in Figure 4.2. Richard Iii Essay! System is initiated from essay three training datasets such as Iris Flower Dataset, Wine Dataset and Tennis Dataset which are standard datasets taken from richard prompts UCI Machine Learning Repository. Here for solving Classification problem we use Back propagation neural network model.

In first module we train the neural network by using non privacy preserving gradient descent method using least square approach for analysis purpose. Thesis For The Letter! In second module we implement Elgamal Cryptograpy technique which is used for privacy preserving gradient descent method using least square approach for neural network on vertical partitioned datasets. In next module we implement privacy preserving gradient descent method applied for neural network with horizontal partitioned datasets. Finally we implement privacy preserving gradient descent method applied for neural network with vertical partitioned datasets. In analysis phase we analyze the accuracy of each technique by testing sample data values. Figure 4.2: DFD for proposed system. 4.2.1 A standard non privacy preserving Gradient Descent algorithm with Least Square Approach on Back propagation Neural Network. Work is carried out on first module implementation of Gradient Descent Algorithm with Least Square Approach. The back propagation is applied for Least Square Approach where the iteration is richard iii essay prompts decided based on the tolerable error allowed to stop the training process.

The literature behind the same and sample hand simulation is shown in fire, the below mentioned figure 4.3. Figure 4.3: Sample hand simulation of Neural Network. The connection we’re interested in is between neuron A (a hidden layer neuron) and neuron B (an output neuron)and has the weight WAB. The figure 4.3 also shows another connection, between neuron A and C, but we’ll return to that later. The algorithm works like this: 1. First apply the prompts inputs to the network and work out the output ‘ remember this initial output could be anything, as the initial weights were random numbers. 2. Next work out the error for essay intelligence, neuron B. The error is what you want ‘ What you actually get, in other words: ErrorB= OutputB(1-OutputB)(TargetB’ OutputB).

3. The ‘Output(1-Output)’ term is necessary in the equation because of the Sigmoid Function ‘ if we were only using a threshold neuron it would just be (Target ‘ Output). 4. Prompts! Change the the student weight. Let W+AB be the new (trained) weight and WAB be the initial weight. W+AB= WAB + (ErrorB x OutputA) Notice that it is the output of the connecting neuron (neuron A) we use (not B). We update all the weights in iii essay prompts, the output layer in this way. 5. Scarlet! Calculate the richard iii essay Errors for the hidden layer neurons.

Unlike the output layer we can’t calculate these directly (because we don’t have a Target), so we Back Propagate them from the output layer (hence the name of the algorithm). This is done by taking the Errors from the output neurons and running them back through the weights to get the hidden layer errors. For example if neuron A is connected as shown to B and essay intelligence C then we take the errors from B and iii essay C to generate an error for fire essay, A. ErrorA= OutputA(1 – OutputA)(ErrorBWAB + ErrorCWAC) Again, the factor ‘Output (1 – Output )’ is present because of the sigmoid squashing function.

6. Iii Essay! Having obtained the Error for the hidden layer neurons now proceed as in the student room dissertation, stage 3 to change the hidden layer weights. Prompts! By repeating this method we can train a network of any number of layers. Figure 4.4 shows detailed Flowchart of test Gradient Descent Algorithm with Least Square Approach on Back Propagation Neural network. Figure 4.4 Flowcharts for Least Square Approach on Neural Network Training. 4.2.2 ElGaml cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owners dataset. Work is carried out on second module Implementation of iii essay prompts ElGamal Encryption cryptography technique for essay, preserving privacy of owner’s dataset. The main idea of the iii essay algorithm will be secure each step in the non-privacy-preserving gradient descent algorithm, with two stages i.e feed forward and back propagation. In each step, neither the input data from the other party nor the ict coursework help intermediate results can be revealed. Possible encryption mechanism is Elgamal Encryption Scheme, Deffie Hellman Scheme and Palliers Cryptosystem, etc. The work will make use of Elgamal encryption scheme. In this module, we are concentrated towards implementation of ElGamal Encryption Mechanism and study its properties.

In cryptography, the ElGamal encryption system is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm for public-key cryptography which is based on the Diffie’Hellman key exchange. It was described by richard Taher Elgamal in 1985. The ElGamal cryptosystem is usually used in a hybrid cryptosystem. i.e., the message itself is essay encrypted using a symmetric cryptosystem and ElGamal is then used to richard iii essay encrypt the key used for the symmetric cryptosystem. This is because asymmetric cryptosystems like Elgamal are usually slower than symmetric ones for the same level of security, so it is faster to encrypt the symmetric key (which most of the time is quite small if compared to the size of the message) with Elgamal and the message (which can be arbitrarily large) with a symmetric cypher. 4.2.2.1 ElGamal encryption Algorithm:

The ElGamal encryption system is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm for public-key cryptography which uses secrete key to investigation essay compute private key of decryption algorithm. ElGamal encryption consists of three components: the key generator, the encryption algorithm, and the decryption algorithm. 1. Richard Prompts! Key generator. i. Generate large prime p and generator g of the multiplicative Group of the integers. ii.

Select a random integer a, 1 = a= p- 2, and compute ga mod p. iii. Public key is letter (p; g; ga); secrete key is a. i. Obtain public key (p, g, ga). ii. Richard Iii Essay! Represent the ict coursework for gcse message as integers m in the range . iii. Prompts! Select a random integer k, 1=k=p-2. iv. Compute ??=gk mod p and ?? = m*(ga )k. v. Send ciphertext c=(. Ict Coursework For Gcse Help! ??). i. Use secret key a to compute (??p-1-a) mod p. ii.

Recover m by richard iii essay computing (??a) * ?? mod p. 1. Key generation. e.g. Essay Intelligence! Public key (17, 6,7): Public key ga mod p = 65 mod 17 = 7. Message for richard iii essay, encryption is m=13. Chosen random k=10. Computed ??= gk mod p= 610 mod 17 = 15. Encrypted message ??= m*gk mod p = (13 * 710) mod 17 =9.

Sends ??=15 and ??=9 for decryption. It receives ??=15 and ??=9. Public key is (p, g, ga)= (17, 6, 7) Secret key is a=5. (??-a)*?? mod p= 15-5 mod 17= 1511 mod 17 = 9. (?? *9) mod p = (9*9) mod 17 =13. Decrypted message is: 13. 4.2.2.2 Properties of ElGamal Encryption Scheme: Homomorphic Property: For two messages m1 and m2, an encryption of can be obtained by an operation on essay assessment, E(m1,r) and E(m2,r) without decrypting any of the iii essay two encrypted messages. Probabilistic Property: Besides clear texts, the encryption operation also needs a random number as input. One encrypted message as input and outputs another encrypted message of the same clear message.

This is intelligence called re-randomization operation. 4.2.3 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on iii essay prompts, horizontal partitioned dataset for investigation, Back propagation Neural Network Training. In this module, we are concentrating towards implementation of Horizontal Partition Case for Least Square Approach. Iii Essay! This Horizontal Partition Case is experimented for room dissertation, two parties. Party One will contain some records of the horizontally partitioned dataset, whereas Party Two will contain remaining records of the partitioned dataset.

1. Applying least square approach for back propagation neural network at richard iii essay party one. Assessment Test! It will generate the richard iii essay prompts output weight vectors. These weight vectors are stored in .csv file format. 2. These files contain the weight vector values which can be transferred by Party 1 to Party two. Great Depression! These weight vector values will not disclose any sort of input to the other party and hence preserves the privacy of the data elements. 3. Party two further performs his training by reading this partial trained weight vector values using least square approach for back propagation neural network and the final generated weight vector values can be used by both parties for performing testing. 4.2.4 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertically Partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. 1. Every individual Party will perform ElGamal Encryption Mechanism to convert their set of data into encrypted form as explained in module 2.

2. All encrypted data is collected at iii essay a single repository. 3. Normalization of the record is made in the range of -1 to 1. For this we use following equation. In = (I-min) ((newMax-newMin)/(Max-Min)) +newMin. In our case newMin is -1 and newMax = +1. 4. Least Square Approach Training for Back propagation neural network is performed. For better understanding, the back propagation learning algorithm can be divided into two phases: propagation and weight update. Phase 1: Propagation. Each propagation involves the following steps: ‘ Forward propagation of a training pattern’s input through the neural network in order to generate the propagation’s output activations.

‘ Backward propagation of the ict coursework help propagation’s output activations through the neural network using the training pattern’s target in order to generate the deltas of all output and hidden neurons. Phase 2: Weight update. For each weight-synapse follow the following steps: ‘ Multiply its output delta and input activation to get the gradient of the weight. ‘ Bring the weight in the opposite direction of the gradient by richard iii essay subtracting a ratio of it from the weight. This ratio influences the speed and quality of learning; it is investigation essay called the learning rate. The sign of the gradient of prompts a weight indicates where the essay error is increasing; this is why the weight must be updated in the opposite direction.

Repeat phase 1 and 2 until the performance of the network is satisfactory. 4.2.5 Comparison Study and Analysis. In this module, we analyses the accuracy factor between Non Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach, Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach on Horizontal Dataset and Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach on Vertical Dataset. Also we analyses execution time of algorithms, Number of iterations and richard prompts Learning rates. 4.2.6 CLASS DIAGRAM. Figure 4.5 shows the class diagram of the system. System contains UtilClass class which contains main method. ANNLearner class which implements actual least square approach of essay great canada gradient descent method. Dataset class print input and iii essay output of dataset values.

Form class shows the graphical presentation of system. AttributeSet class print the attributes of datasets. Figure 4.5: Class Diagram of system. 4.2.7 SEQUENCE DIAGRAM. Figure 4.6 shows sequence diagram of the system.

The purpose of sequence diagram is to visualize the interaction behavior of the system. The sequence diagram shows the actual working of Least Square Approach of the student room advanced higher english dissertation Gradient Descent Method on Back Propagation Neural Network. Figure 4.8: Sequence diagram of system. This chapter elaborates the experimental dataset, results of the system and evaluation on these results. 5.1 Experimental Data. Several standard datasets are available for experimental purpose which are taken from UCI Machine Learning Repository. 3 Datasets are used for iii essay, the implementation of Least Square Approach of Gradient Descent Method on Back Propagation Neural Network. 1. Iris Flower Dataset- Numerical, Continuous and the student room english dissertation Multivariate.

Iris Iris-setosa Iris-versicolor Iris-virginica. 2. Tennis Dataset- Character, Weather Character Strings and Multivariate. Outlook Sunny Overcast Rain. Temperature Hot Mild Cool. Humidity High Normal. Wind Weak Strong. PlayTennis Yes No. 3. Wine Dataset ‘ Numerical, Continuous and Multivariate. Wine-class 1 2 3. 5.2 Experimental Results and Analysis:

The figure 5.1 shows GUI Interface for the implementation. Figure 5.1: GUI Interface. 5.2.1 A standard non privacy preserving Gradient Descent algorithm with Least Square Approach on Back propagation Neural Network. In this module we set Execution Parameters for the datasets as shown in Table 5.1. Sr.No Name of Dataset Number of Hidden Units Layer Structure Learning Rate Momentum Number of iii essay prompts Iterations. 1 Iris 2 4-2-3 0.25 0.1 450. 2 Tennis 2 4-2-1 0.25 0.1 450. 3 Wine 10 13-10-3 0.25 0.1 5000. Table 5.1 Execution Parameters for the datasets. The Results of the Testing Accuracy for the above mentioned parameters is essay as shown in iii essay prompts, Table 5.2.

Sr.No Name of Dataset Number of Test Samples Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Percentage Accuracy. 1 Iris 50 49 1 98% 2 Tennis 4 2 2 50% 3 Wine 13 9 4 69.23% Table 5.2 Testing Accuracy for the datasets. Figure 5.2 shows the graph of fire testing accuracy of richard iii essay non privacy preserving gradient descent method applied on different datasets. Figure 5.2: Percentage Accuracy on Datasets. The Percentage accuracy can be improved of any dataset by training the network for longer duration with less of learning rate.

This behavior can be analyzed using the statistics as shown in Table 5.3. Name of room advanced higher english dissertation Dataset: Tennis. Learning Rate Number of Iterations Percentage Accuracy Remarks. 0.25 450 50 Sample 1. 0.1 450 75 Improvement in richard iii essay, test results due to reduction of learning rate against Sample 1. 0.25 1000 75 Improvement in test results due to increase in number of iteration against ict coursework for gcse help, Sample 1. Table 5.3 Improvement of richard percentage accuracy of Tennis dataset.

The Execution Time of the algorithms is also recorded. We can easily see that the execution time increases with the ict coursework for gcse help increase in the number of iterations as shown in Table 5.4. Name of Dataset: Wine. Number of Iterations Learning Rate Execution Time (Nanoseconds) Remarks. 250 0.25 153.34 Sample 1.

250 0.01 158.22 Result1: The Time Increases with decrease in Learning Rate, slow learning requires additional time based on richard prompts, Sample 1. 250 0.001 164.21 Further reduction in Learning Rate increases the execution time based on above Result 1. 1000 0.25 544.69 Result 2: The Time increases with increase in number of room advanced higher dissertation iteration of the algorithm based on sample 1. 2000 0.25 1035.18 Further increase of number of iteration also increases the execution time based on Result 2. Table 5.3 Execution time of algorithm for Tennis dataset. 5.2.2 ElGaml cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owners dataset.

We apply ElGamal Encryption Scheme on richard iii essay, Iris Dataset. The results of ElGamal Encryption Scheme on for the scarlet letter, Iris Dataset can be seen as shown in Figure 5.3. Figure 5.3: ElGamal Encryption Scheme on Iris Dataset. In this module we concentrate on iii essay prompts, generating the truncated values dataset which is a basic requirement for ElGamal Encryption Scheme. Following Figure 5.4 shows the execution of the program implemented for converting the Dataset values to whole numbers and writing them into another file as a new dataset. Figure 5.4: Conversion of thesis scarlet letter dataset values to whole numbers. On this updated dataset if Neural Network Training is performed certain accuracy loss is observed. Let us compare this accuracy loss due to truncation of the dataset.

Table 5.4 indicates the Parameters used for normal and updated dataset for the sake of prompts training. Name of Dataset Iris. Total Number of Train Samples 100. Total Number of Test Samples 50. Number of Hidden Units 2. Learning Rate 0.25.

Number of iterations 450. Table 5.4 Execution Parameters used for normal and updated dataset. Table 5.5 indicates the essay canada Accuracy Factor involved in richard iii essay prompts, the training of iris and iris new dataset (as needed for ElGamal Scheme). Name of dataset Iris IrisNew(Encrypted) Number of Test Samples 50 50.

Number of Test Sample Correctly Calculated 49 48. Percentage Accuracy 98% 96% Table 5.4 Percentage Accuracy of datasets. From Table 5.4 we observed that small accuracy has to comprised to with ElGamal Encryption Scheme, which is acceptable figure. 5.2.3 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. In this module we implement Horizontal Partition Case for the student advanced higher english, Least Square Approach. This Horizontal Partition Case is experimented for two parties. Party One will contain some records of the horizontally partitioned dataset, whereas Party Two will contain remaining records of the partitioned dataset. Figure 5.5 shows the screenshot of number of records read by richard iii essay Party one. Figure 5.5: screenshot of number of records read by Party one.

Further the training is carried out with the parameters as shown in above figure 5.5. The weight vector values are generated accordingly on the 54 records of this iris dataset as shown in essay assessment, Figure 5.6. Figure 5.6: weight vector values generated for iris dataset. After the learning process at Party one is prompts completed, two files are exported. These exported files contain the investigation weight vector values which can be transferred by Party one to Party two. These weight vector values will not disclose any sort of input to the other party and hence preserves the richard iii essay privacy of the data elements as shown in assessment test, Figure 5.7. Figure 5.7: Screenshots of exported files containing weight vector values. The exported files are further given to prompts Party two for performing his set of training. Hence we transfer the essay file from Party one to Party two as shown in Figure 5.8. Figure 5.8: Screenshots of exported files containing weight vector values at Party two. Party two further performs his training by reading this partial trained weight vector values and the final generated weight vector values can be used by both parties for performing testing as shown in Figure 5.9.

Figure 5.9: Screenshots of richard prompts training performed at Party two. Testing Results either at Party one or Party two are shown in Figure 5.10. Figure 5.10: Screenshots of Testing performed at Party two. We executed horizontally partitioned case on multiple dataset and compared the results with Non Privacy Preserving Algorithms. The Results of the Testing Accuracy for thesis, the above mentioned parameters (Table 5.1) is as shown in Table 5.5.The result shows the comparison between Non privacy preserving algorithm and privacy preserving horizontal partitioned datasets using gradient descent method.

Non Privacy Preserving Algorithm. Privacy Preserving Horizontal Algorithm for Least Square Approach. Name of richard prompts Dataset Number of Test Samples Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy. Iris 50 49 1 98% 47 2 94% Wine 13 9 4 69.23% 9 4 69.23% Tennis 4 2 2 50% 2 2 50% Table 5.5 Testing Accuracy of datasets. Figure 5.11 shows graphical representation of the essay comparison between Non privacy preserving algorithm and privacy preserving horizontal partitioned datasets using gradient descent method. Figure 5.10: Comparison of testing results between non privacy and privacy preserving algorithm.

From Table 5.5 it can be seen that there is no significant loss in the accuracy if training is performed on ample number of iterations. With security of iii essay prompts data elements across horizontally portion can be achieved without much compromising on the accuracy factor of the algorithm. 5.2.4 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertically Partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. In this module, we are implemented Least Square Approach of gradient descent method for fire investigation, Vertical Partition Case. This Vertical Partition Case is experimented a dataset which is divided in two parties and they together want to train a neural network without revealing their actual content. We make use of ElGamal Encryption Algorithm for richard prompts, keeping the data integrity.In cryptography, the ElGamal encryption system is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm for public-key cryptography, which is based on the Diffie’Hellman key exchange. First, every party needs to encrypt their data using the great depression canada Elgamal encryption technique individually and send the data to trusted third party where the data will be collected in Encrypted.

To simulate this we have executed a code which converts the data values into richard iii essay Encrypted Form using ElGamal Encryption. Dataset used for the student advanced higher, ElGamal Encryption is richard prompts Iris Dataset. Train Record Set: 100 records. Test Record Set: 50 records. Figure 5.11 shows the screenshot of execution of ElGamal encryption algorithm on Iris Dataset. Figure 5.11: Screenshot of execution of ElGamal encryption algorithm on Iris Dataset. This Program produces the encrypted values for all the data records. This simulation can be done by individual parties. Once all these data records are made available in Big Integer data type in an encrypted form, then it will not reveal any of the information to the users as the data is in encrypted form. The learning trusted party will also be not able to thesis letter incur any information using this data records as shown in Figure 5.12.

Figure 5.12: Screenshot of Encrypted Iris dataset. Similarly the test records can also be encrypted. Figure 5.13 shows the screenshot of big integer data records. Figure 5.12: Screenshot of big integer data records. Further all the data records are needs to normalize because to richard iii essay prompts get higher accuracy of neural network. Normalization is carried out in the range of -1 to +1. For this we use following equation. In = (I-min) ((newMax-newMin)/(Max-Min)) +newMin.

In our case newMin is ict coursework help -1 and newMax = +1. Figure 5.13 shows the screenshots of iii essay normalized data records. Figure 5.13: Screenshot of normalized data records. Figure 5.14 indicates the result of Vertical Partitioned Dataset training for the Iris dataset. Figure 5.14: Screenshot of Vertical Partitioned Dataset training for assessment test, the Iris dataset. 5.2.4 Analysis of Work. We analyses the accuracy factor between Non Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach, Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach on Horizontal Dataset and prompts Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach on Vertical Dataset. Fire! Table 5.6 shows the comparison of percentage accuracy of testing datasets of three approaches. Non Privacy Preserving Algorithm. Privacy Preserving Horizontal Algorithm for Least Square Approach Privacy Preserving Vertical Algorithm for Least Square Approach.

Name of Dataset Number of Test Samples Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy. Iris 50 49 1 98% 47 2 94% 42 8 84% Wine 13 9 4 69.23% 9 4 69.23% 9 4 69.23% Tennis 4 2 2 50% 2 2 50% N.A N.A N.A. Table 5.5 Testing Accuracy of datasets. The Tennis dataset is a character based dataset. The ElGamal Security scheme works with numeric data type.

So in above Table 5.5 there is no result shown for vertical partitioned datasets. Although this can be taken as a future work as to extend the vertical partition case for richard iii essay prompts, a character type of data to work with Encryption mechanism. Figure 5.15 shows the graphical representation of comparisons of accuracy of testing datasets for assessment, three approaches. Figure 5.15: Graphical representation of comparisons of accuracy of testing datasets for richard iii essay prompts, three approaches. From Figure 5.15 it is observed that there is no significant loss in the accuracy if training is performed on ample number of iterations. The number of test iterations and the learning rate are modified for the Privacy Preserving Vertical Partition Case as the cryptographic implementation makes the data loss to happen. But still at the cost of some learning improvement the richard iii essay prompts data can be kept secured for Privacy Preserving Vertical Partitioned Case. Gradient descent method is the student room dissertation used for solving many optimizations and learning problems. In this dissertation work, we presented a secure gradient descent method for training of neural network for distributed datasets. Gradient Descent method contains two approaches i.e. stochastic approach and Least Square approach. For our work least square approach is used and it is well suited for training of neural network.

We use Back Propagation neural network for training purpose. We works on privacy preserving protocols for securely performing gradient descent method over vertically or horizontally partitioned data based on the least square approach between two trusted parties. Richard Iii Essay Prompts! Our experimental results show that the protocols are correct and preserving privacy of each data holders. We also conducted experiments to for the letter analyze the results of non privacy preserving least square approach with privacy preserving least square approaches for horizontal and iii essay vertical portioned datasets. The excremental results shows that proposed least square approach of gradient descent method for distributed datasets is securely preserving privacy of individual dataset holders. For future work, we will extend our dissertation work for distributed datasets i.e. horizontal partitioned and vertically partitioned datasets using the least square approach for multiple parities. Further, our work will extend the essay intelligence vertical partition case for a character type of data to richard prompts work with Encryption mechanism. [1] HIPPA, National Standards to Protect the Privacy of Personal Health Information, [Online].

Available: http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/hipaa/finalreg.html. [2] M. Fire Essay! Chicurel, ‘Data basing the brain,’ Nature, vol. 406, pp. 822’825, Aug. 2000. [3] D. Agrawal and R. Prompts! Srikant, ‘Privacy-preserving data mining,’ in letter, Proc. ACM SIGMOD. [4] Y. Lindell and B. Pinkas, ‘Privacy preserving data mining,’ in richard, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2000, vol.

1880, pp. 36’44. [5] N. Zhang, S. Thesis Scarlet! Wang, and W. Richard Iii Essay! Zhao, ‘A new scheme on privacy-preserving data classification,’ in essay, Proc. ACM SIGKDD Int. Iii Essay! Conf. Knowl. Disc. Data Mining, 2005.

[6] G. Investigation! Jagannathan and prompts R. N. Wright, ‘Privacy-preserving distributed k-means clustering over arbitrarily partitioned data,’ in thesis scarlet, Proc. ACM. [7] O. Richard! Goldreich, Foundations of Cryptography. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2001. [8] R. Wright and Z. Yang, ‘Privacy-preserving Bayesian network structure computation on essay great depression canada, distributed heterogeneous data,’ in Proc. 10th ACM SIGKDD. [9] H. Yu, X. Jiang, and J. Vaidya, ‘Privacy-preserving SVM using nonlinear kernels on horizontally partitioned data,’ in Proc. Iii Essay! Annu.

ACM Symp. Appl. Comput., 2006. [10] A. C. Yao, ‘Protocols for secure computations,’ in Proc. 23rd Annu. Symp. Found. Comput. The Student Room Higher English! Sci., Chicago, IL, Nov. 1982. [11] M. Barni, C. Orlandi, and A. Piva, ‘A privacy-preserving protocol for neural-network-based computation,’ in Proc.

8th Workshop Multimedia Security, New York, 2006. [12] A. Yao, ‘How to richard generate and exchange secrets,’ in Proc. 27th IEEE Symp. Found. Comput. Sci., 1986, pp. 162’167. [13] L.Wan, W. K. Ng, S. Han, and V. C. S. Depression! Lee, ‘Privacy-preservation for gradient descent methods,’ in Proc. IEEE Transactions on Knowlede and Data Engineering, 2010. Search our thousands of iii essay essays:

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essay on richard iii essay nabby adams [an error occurred while processing this directive] Jim Olson's Essay on Abigail Adams. At first she did not give it much thought, noticing it now and then when she bathed or dressed. Nor did she talk about it. She was a shy, somewhat withdrawn woman, quiet and cautious in her expressions, most comfortable with people who guarded their feelings. She blushed easily and rarely laughed out loud, allowing only a demure, half-smile to crease her face when she was amused. English Dissertation? She had a pleasant disposition and a mellow temperament, both endearing to family and friends. Richard Prompts? Nabby was a striking woman, with long, red hair, a round face, deep-blue eyes, and a creamy, porcelain complexion.

She commanded respect, not because of an essay test, aggressive personality but simply because of the quality of her mind and her unfailing dignity. She was born in Quincy, Massachusetts, in 1766. Iii Essay? Her parents named her Abigail Adams, but they began calling her Nabby when she was still an infant. Nabby had an extraordinary childhood. Her father was John Adams, the future president of the United States, and depression, her mother Abigail Adams, the richard iii essay prompts, most prominent woman in early American society.

Her younger brother John Quincy was destined to win many honors, among them the presidency of the United States. From the time of her birth, Nabby's parents busied themselves with colonial politics, eventually playing leading roles in the American Revolution. They raised her on a steady diet of political talk about freedom, liberty, rights, despotism, and foreign policy. Nabby absorbed it all. An only daughter, she enjoyed the special attentions of her father, who felt the need to intelligence protect and pamper her. Abigail doted on her, dressing her up in the latest fashions when she was little and counseling her when she was an richard iii essay prompts, adolescent. Their relationship evolved into a deep friendship. Nabby took it all in stride, never becoming spoiled or self-indulgent. She was even-handed, thick-skinned, and unafraid of responsibility. In 1783, when Congress appointed her father as minister to England, Nabby was seventeen-years-old. The family took up residence in a house on Grosvener Square in London.

Caught up in essay a whirlwind of richard prompts, social and political activity, they met King George III at court and other prominent politicians at parties and banquets common to the life of an ambassador. After a few months, Nabby became acquainted with William Smith, a thirty-year-old veteran of the Continental Army and secretary to the American legation in test London. A dashing, handsome figure, Smith raced around London in a two-seated carriage, the iii essay prompts, eighteenth-century equivalent to a modern sports car. He dressed well and kept company with people in London's expatriate community, especially Latin American liberals and radicals interested in securing independence from Spain. He was bold and impetuous, inspired by courage and limited by poor judgment.

Because of his work with the U.S. legation, and his role as secretary to Minister John Adams, he saw a great deal of the Adams family, and canada, Nabby fell secretly in love with him. Drawn to iii essay Nabby's beauty, grace, and letter, intelligence, he soon felt the same way about her. They married in June 1786, after a courtship which John and iii essay, Abigail Adams felt was too short. Ict Coursework? They accepted it, however, because a soldier is prompts, always more expeditious in his courtships than other men. But Colonel William Smith was a soldier without a war, a has-been at the age of thirty, and Nabby, an essay intelligence, innocent victim of what her brother John Quincy called fortune's treacherous game, faced a difficult life. Colonel Smith was not cruel. In fact, he always loved and iii essay prompts, cared for Nabby and their three children. For The? With a stoicism that would have made the most devout Puritan proud, she accepted her fate and made a life for her family wherever Smith settled.

The problem was that Smith never really settled down. He wasted his life away, winning and losing political appointments, dabbling in Latin American coup d'etats, dragging Nabby and the children back and forth between New York and London in search of a new power broker or another promising deal. He spent more money than he ever earned, and Nabby worried constantly about bills and the family reputation. Early in the new century, Smith tried his hand at real estate speculation, but he lost everything. In 1809, when Nabby first noticed the lump in her breast, they were living on the edge of the frontier, on a small farm along the Chenango River in western New York, where Smith spent his days behind a walking plow and a mule.

Nabby was a well-informed woman, and breast cancer was as much a dread disease in the early 1800s as it is today. Richard Prompts? No records exist describing her initial reaction to the lump, but it is safe to say that concern about the dimple flared into essay, gut-twisting fear. Like so many women, then and today, she tried to iii essay prompts ignore the lump, hoping that in the busy routines of running a small farm and household she would not have time to essay depression think about prompts, it. But cancer has a way of asserting itself, finally obliterating even the most elaborate denials. Fire Essay? Nabby was no exception. The lump grew ominously, in spite of the efforts of local healers and their potions.

She wrote home to John and Abigail Adams in February 1811 that her doctor had discovered a cancer in richard prompts my breast. As soon as they received the letter, the Adams wrote back urging her to come to fire investigation Boston for medical advice. In June 1811, with the lump visible to the naked eye, a desperate Nabby returned to Massachusetts, accompanied by her husband and daughter Caroline. Richard Prompts? As soon as she arrived in Quincy, she wrote to help Benjamin Rush, describing her condition and seeking his advice. When Abigail Adams first looked at her daughter's breast, she found the condition allarming. The large tumor distended the breast into a misshapen mass. John and Abigail took Nabby to see several physicians in iii essay Boston, and they were cautiously reassuring, telling her that the situation and her general health were so good as not to threaten any present danger. They prescribed hemlock pills to poison the disease. Soon after those reassuring examinations, however, the family received an unsettling reply from fire investigation essay Benjamin Rush.

In her initial letter, Nabby told Rush that the richard, tumor was large and growing, but that it was movable--not attached to the chest wall. Rush found the assessment test, news encouraging, as would most cancer specialists today. Richard? Malignant tumors which are movable are better candidates for advanced surgery, since it is more likely that the richard prompts, surgeon can get what is termed a clean margin--a border of non-cancerous tissue surrounding the essay intelligence, tumor--reducing the odds that the richard prompts, cancer will recur or spread. Knowing that Nabby had already traveled from western New York to Boston to seek medical advice, Rush wrote to John and Abigail, telling them to break his news gently to fire Nabby: I shall begin my letter by replying to your daughter's. Richard Iii Essay? I prefer giving my opinion and advice in her case in this way.

You and Mrs. Adams may communicate it gradually and in such a manner as will be least apt to distress and alarm her. After the experience of more than 50 years in cases similar to ict coursework hers, I must protest against all local applications and internal medicines for richard iii essay relief. They now and then cure, but in 19 cases out of 20 in thesis for the scarlet tumors in richard the breast they do harm or suspend the disease until it passes beyond that time in which the only radical remedy is ineffectual. This remedy is the knife. From her account of the moving state of the tumor, it is now in a proper situation for the operation. Should she wait till it suppurates or even inflames much, it may be too late. I repeat again, let there be no delay in flying to the knife.

Her time of life calls for expedition in this business. I sincerely sympathize with her and with you and for the scarlet letter, your dear Mrs. Adams in this family affliction, but it will be but for a few minutes if she submits to have it extirpated, and if not, it will probably be a source of distress and pain to you all for richard years to come. It shocks me to essay test think of the richard iii essay prompts, consequences of procrastination. Mastectomy was Nabby's only chance, but first the family had to convince William Smith, who was in an advanced state of fire investigation essay, denial. When he learned of Rush's recommendation, he reacted indignantly, heading for libraries to richard prompts learn whatever he could about the depression, disease and hoping to spare her the operation. He convinced himself for richard iii essay a while that perhaps the tumor would just go away, that it was not so bad. Nabby's mother had more faith in the student higher english Rush and prompts, wrote to Smith: If the operation is necessary as the Dr. states it to be, and as I fear it is, the sooner it is done the better provided Mrs. Smith can bring herself along, as I hope she will consent to it. She even asked her son-in-law to be with Nabby through the painful tryal.

Smith finally agreed. They scheduled the operation for October 8, 1811. The day before the essay, surgery, John Warren, Boston's most skilled surgeon, met with the iii essay prompts, family in intelligence Quincy. He gave Nabby a brief physical examination and told her what to expect. His description was nightmarishly terrifying, enough to make everybody reconsider the richard iii essay prompts, decision. But Rush's warning--It shocks me to think of the ict coursework for gcse, consequences of procrastination in her case--stuck in their minds.

Nabby had no choice if she ever hoped to prompts live to see her grandchildren. The surgery took place in an upstairs bedroom of the Adams home in Quincy, Massachusetts. Assessment Test? It was as bad as they had all feared. John Warren was assisted by his son Joseph, who was destined to become a leading physician in his own right, and prompts, several other physicians. Exact details of the operation are not available, but it was certainly typical of early nineteenth surgery. Essay Depression? Warren's surgical instruments, lying in a wooden box on a table, were quite simple--a large fork with two, six-inch prongs sharpened to a needle point, a wooden-handled razor, and a pile of compress bandages.

In the corner of the room a small oven, full of red-hot coals, heated a flat, thick, heavy iron spatula. Nabby entered into the room as if dressed for a Sunday service. She was a proper woman and richard, acted the part. The doctors were professionally attired in frock coats, with shirts and ties. Modesty demanded that Nabby unbutton only the top of her dress and slip it off her left shoulder, exposing the essay, diseased breast but little else.

She remained fully clothed. Since they knew nothing of bacteria in the early 1800s, there were no gloves or surgical masks, no need for Warren to scrub his hands or disinfect Nabby's chest before the operation or cover his own hair. Warren had her sit down and lean back in a reclining chair. He belted her waist, legs, feet, and right arm to the chair and had her raise her left arm above her head so that the iii essay prompts, pectoralis major muscle would push the breast up. A physician took Nabby's raised arm by the elbow and held it, while another stood behind her, pressing her shoulders and neck to the chair. Warren then straddled Nabby's knees, leaned over her semi-reclined body, and went to work. He took the two-pronged fork and ict coursework for gcse, thrust it deep into the breast. With his left hand, he held onto the fork and richard iii essay, raised up on ict coursework it, lifting the breast from the chest wall. Iii Essay Prompts? He reached over for the large razor and started slicing into the base of the breast, moving from the middle of her chest toward her left side. When the breast was completely severed, Warren lifted it away from Nabby's chest with the essay depression, fork.

But the tumor was larger and richard, more widespread then he had anticipated. Hard knots of tumor could be felt in the lymph nodes under her left arm. He razored in there as well and pulled out essay test, nodes and iii essay prompts, tumor. Nabby grimaced and groaned, flinching and twisting in the chair, with blood staining her dress and Warren's shirt and pants. Her hair matted in sweat. Abigail, William, and Caroline turned away from the gruesome struggle. To stop the bleeding, Warren pulled a red-hot spatula from the fire investigation, oven and applied it several times to the wound, cauterizing the worst bleeding points. With each touch, steamy wisps of smoke hissed into the air and filled the room with the distinct smell of burning flesh.

Warren then sutured the wounds, bandaged them, stepped back from Nabby, and mercifully told her that it was over. The whole procedure had taken less than twenty-five minutes, but it took more than an hour to dress the wounds. Abigail and Caroline then went to prompts the surgical chair and helped Nabby pull her dress back over the student advanced higher, her left shoulder as modesty demanded. The four surgeons remained astonished that she had endured pain so stoically. Nabby endured a long recovery. She did not suffer from post-surgical infections, but for months after the richard prompts, operation she was weak and feeble, barely able to get around. She kept her limp left arm resting in a sling. Going back to the wilds of western New York was out of the question, so she stayed in Quincy with her mother, hoping to regain strength.

What sustained all of them during the ordeal was the faith that the operation had cured the cancer. Within two weeks of the surgery, Dr. Rush wrote John Adams congratulating him in for gcse the happy issue of the operation performed upon prompts Mrs. Smith's breast. her cure will be radical and durable. I consider her as rescued from for gcse a premature grave.

Abigail wrote to a friend that although the operation had been a furnace of richard, affliction. what a blessing it was to have extirpated so terrible an enemy. In May 1812, seven months after the surgery, Nabby Smith felt well again. Great Depression Canada? She returned home to the small farm along the richard iii essay prompts, Chenango River. But she was not cured. Breast cancer patients whose tumors have already spread to the lymph nodes do not have good survival rates, even with modern surgery, radiation treatments, and chemotherapy. In Nabby's case, long before Warren performed the mastectomy, the cancer had already spread.

Nabby suspected something was wrong within a few weeks of arriving home in New York. She began to complain of headaches and pain in her spine and intelligence, abdomen. A local physician attributed the iii essay prompts, discomfort to rheumatism. The diagnosis relieved some of her anxiety, since she was already worried that the pain had something to do with cancer. But it was not the rhemuatism. That became quite clear in 1813 when she suffered a local recurrence of the tumors. When Warren amputated her breast and excised tissues from her axilla, he thought he had gotten it all. Essay Depression? But cancer is a cellular disease, and richard, millions of invisible, microscopically-tiny malignant cancers were left behind. By the spring of 1813 some of them had grown into tumors of essay, their own--visible in the scar where Nabby's breast had once been and on the skin as well. Her doctor in New York changed the diagnosis: the richard, headaches and now excruciating body pains were not rheumatism.

The cancer was back--everywhere. She declined steadily in help the late spring, finally telling her husband that she wanted to die in her father's house. William Smith wrote John and Abigail in May that the cancer had returned and that Nabby wanted to spend her state of convalescence within the vortex of your kindness and assiduities than elsewhere. Richard Iii Essay Prompts? The colonel was back in denial. Since the the student room higher english dissertation, country was in the midst of the War of 1812, he told his in-laws he had to go to Washington, D.C. for a military appointment, and that he would return to Quincy as soon as Congress adjourned. John and Abigail prepared Nabby's room and iii essay, waited for her arrival.

The trip was unimaginably painful--more than three hundred miles in a carriage, over bumpy roads where each jolt stabbed into her. The Student Room Higher? Nabby's son John drove the carriage. When they finally reached Quincy on July 26, she was suffering from richard grinding, constant pain. Her appearance shocked John and Abigail. She was gaunt and thin, wracked by a deep cough, and her eyes had a moist, rheumy look. She groaned and sometimes screamed with every movement. Huge, dark circles shadowed her cheeks, and essay great depression, a few minutes after she settled into bed, the smell of death fouled the air. Nabby's pain was so unbearable, and misery so unmitigated, that Abigail slipped into a depression so deep she could not stand even to visit her room. It was John Adams who ministered to their dying daughter, feeding her, cleaning her and seeing to her personal needs, combing her hair and holding her hand. He tried to richard iii essay prompts administer pain killers, but nothing seemed to help. Smith returned from Washington, and the deathwatch commenced.

On August 9, Nabby's breathing became shallow and the passage of time between breaths lengthened. Essay Canada? The family gathered around her bedside. She drew her last breath early in the afternoon. A few days later, in a letter to Thomas Jefferson, John Adams wrote: Your Friend, my only Daughter, expired, Yesterday Morning in the Arms of Her Husband her Son, her Daughter, her Father and Mother, her Husbands two Sisters and richard prompts, two of essay assessment, her Nieces, in iii essay prompts the 49th. Year of Age, 46 of which She was the healthiest and firmest of Us all: Since which, She has been a monument to Suffering and to Patience. Jefferson understood his friend's pain: I know the room english dissertation, depth of the richard, affliction it has caused, and can sympathize with it the more sensibly, inasmuch as there is no degree of affliction produced by the loss of those dear to us, while experience has not taught me to estimate. time and silence are the only medicine, and these but assuage, they never can suppress, the deep drawn sigh which recollection for ever brings up, until recollection and great canada, life are extinguished together.

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