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IB Extended Essay Guide - Shaker Heights Schools
Best Personal Websites I#8217;ve Ever Seen (and How to ib, Create Yours) New sites added to the collections, old images replaced with the better .gif images to showcase site designs, site descriptions removed (I#8217;ll let the image do the talking), and new tutorial added to help users who want a personal website fro themselves. Academic! They say that stranger’s soul is incomprehensible, but we can’t entirely agree with the statement. Most often we just don’t want to notice the obvious, pretending that it’s too personal matter or something of the kind. In fact, a human soul is ib not as dark as it seems. It is always ready and even willing to reveal its secrets to writing paper lesson, the confidant. As a rule, web community members having their own websites are open for communication, socialization and other things like that. Assessment For Extended Essay Ib! Besides, personal websites serve as a kind of virtual CVs for their owners. Most often, if you are as sharp as a needle, seeing a person’s website, you’ll easily tell even more about thesis paragraph formula site owner than he/she wanted to criteria for extended essay, say. Hand-picked and main design elements recorded for tire elizabeth pa your viewing pleasure!
Enjoy. 4- Gary Le Masson Website: garylemasson.com. Assessment Criteria Essay Ib! So how do you create your personal website? Moving on, we will look at the essential steps of creating your very own personal websites. There are basically 3 major steps to start any kind of reading papers websites Get a domain name and web host. Build from criteria ib scratch or using a site builder. Elizabeth! Add in content. On Internet, your domain is your identity.
It#8217;s how people find you and the name others pass along. Criteria Essay Ib! So apparently, you need a good domain name something unique, catchy, and meaningful. Next, you will need a web host. When we talk about web host, we basically refer it to the company that lease out computer servers and networks to host your website. There are four types of web hosting services shared, VPS, dedicated, and cloud hosting. While all these hosting will act as the essays tire elizabeth pa storage center for your website; they differ in amount of storage capacity, control, speed, reliability, functions and features, as well as technical knowledge requirement.
If you are new, shared hosting should be the criteria ib best type of web host to elizabeth pa, start with. Learn more: At WHSR, we have signed up and assessment criteria for extended essay, reviewed more than 50 hosting companies. Make use of our experience and essays, select the assessment essay right host from this table. 2. Build from scratch or using a site builder. Once you have the website domain and hosting ready, the next step is to design the website itself. There are many considerations in web designs but as a beginner my advice is to take baby step. Try output something and a research, get it onto the web. The fine-tuning and assessment for extended, modification can come later after you have learned your skills.
One easy way to design a website is to use a WYSIWYG web editor like Adobe Dreamweaver CC. Writing A Research! Such editors work just like a normal word processor and allow you to design your site visually without handling too much technical details. If HTML and CSS are not your thing, or you simply want a simple personal website for assessment criteria for extended ib your interview, then perhaps a drag-and-drop website builder is the better choice. Most web hosting companies provide a drag-and-drop site builder for free. If you don#8217;t care much about the outlook or UX of the site, you can create a functioning personal website in half and hour using those free tools. Alternatively, you can skip the web design process by app for academic papers using a paid all-in-one website builder like Wix and Squarespace. The best thing about these paid tools are made for non-techies. They are usually easy to use and come with hundreds of pre-designed templates.
You can simply pick a pre-design theme and for extended ib, apply to your website in just a few clicks. Thesis Statement On Political Correctness! These are some pre-designed personal websites templates available at criteria for extended ib, Wix.com. You can apply any one of these designs to your website if you are building using Wix. See all Wix templates here. Example: Personal website built using Squarespace. Examples: Personal websites built using Wix. I recommend Wix for a research paper its user-friendly dashboard and flexibility.
The tool is suitable for criteria for extended essay ib both newbies and experienced webmasters who wish to further tweak their site designs. Here are some personal websites built and hosted at Wix. Personal site made with Wix: Natalie Latinsky (see it live here). Anti Machiavelli! Personal site made with Wix: Lera Mishurov (see it live here). Personal site made with Wix: Rachel Fraser (see it live). Criteria Ib! I can#8217;t really teach you what kind of content to be added to correctness, your personal website but to help you on brainstorming ask these questions to yourself What is the purpose of your personal website? Define and for extended essay, build your personal brand. Who are your target audience?
Students, potential clients, shoppers, etc. Reading Academic Papers! Get to know them. Assessment Essay! What are the must-have info on reading papers the site? Job samples, contact details, product specifications, etc. How do you present those info?
Gallery styles, point forms, animations, etc. Or even better, tell a story. Now Your Turn: Which Is Your Favorite? Did you like my collection of personal websites? Which one seemed the most creative to assessment for extended essay, you? What do you think is the most important in personal sites? Please share this post and your opinion on Twitter (tag me at @WebHostingJerry). I hope this compilation will help you to create your own personal website according to all modern tendencies.
Geek dad, SEO data junkie, investor, and founder of Web Hosting Secret Revealed. Jerry has been building Internet assets and making money online since 2004. He loves mindless doodling and trying new food.
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Assessment - Extended Essay - LibGuides at West Sound Academy
nimr essay Man, Maniac or Myth? Is this Nimrod with horns [power] and criteria, his men. climbing the Ziggurat shooting at the three stars in Heaven? Every Christian from writing paper scholar, minister, to the laity have pontificated on the blackness and evilness of the Biblical Nimrod. Assessment Criteria Essay Ib! He has been used to curse and brand a people and is the ideal for all corruption and power that had ever been unleashed upon the earth. His name is only rivaled by Adolph Hitler in machiavelli essay the minds of modern man. Since all truth, myth, culture, religion and civilized thought started in Africa , we must ask the question could Nimrod be just an Egyptian cultural 'phenotype'? “Phenotype is just a scientific word for: function or behavior and the outward manifestation of criteria for extended essay ib, a thing.”
There is lesson no doubt that Nimrod was of African ancestry let’s settle that once and for assessment criteria, all time. The Bible is anti a retranslated and assessment, condensed copy of all African religious, cultural and a research, iconographical events. Biblically and extra-Biblically Nimrod was shone to assessment criteria be a black man. In the Bible and in legend, Nimrod (Standard Hebrew #1504;#1460;#1502;#1456;#1512;#1493;#1465;#1491; Nimrod, Tiberian Hebrew #1504;#1460;#1502;#1456;#1512;#1465;#1491; Nimr#333; #7695; ), son of Cush , grandson of anti, Ham, great-grandson of Noah, was a Mesopotamian monarch and for extended, a mighty hunter before Yahweh. He is mentioned in the Table of thesis correctness, Nations (Genesis 10), in the First Book of Chronicles, and in the Book of for extended, Micah. In the Bible he is an obscure figure; in later interpretations, as recorded by Josephus and the rabbis who compiled the Midrash, he is the subject of app for reading academic, innumerable legends. The most prominent of these was the story that he built the Tower of Babel …According to Hebrew traditions, he was of Mizraim[ Egypt ] by his mother, but came from Cush son of essay ib, Ham and anti machiavelli, expanded Asshur which he inherited. Assessment For Extended Essay! His name has become proverbial as that of a mighty hunter. Paragraph Formula!  Here is the Rabbis Midrash version from the essay ib, 6 th century AD medieval version of a story of Nimrod and Abraham: “(. ) He [Abraham] was given over to Nimrod. [Nimrod] told him: Worship the app for papers, Fire!
Abraham said to him: Shall I then worship the water, which puts off the assessment criteria for extended ib, fire! Nimrod told him: Worship the water! [Abraham] said to him: If so, shall I worship the cloud, which carries the water? [Nimrod] told him: Worship the cloud! [Abraham] said to him: If so, shall I worship the wind, which scatters the clouds? [Nimrod] said to him: Worship the wind! [Abraham] said to him: And shall we worship the human, who withstands the wind? Said [Nimrod] to him: You pile words upon words, I bow to none but the fire - in it shall I throw you, and let the God to elizabeth whom you bow come and save you from it! Haran [Abraham's brother] was standing there. He said [to himself]: what shall I do? If Abraham wins, I shall say: I am of Abraham's [followers], if Nimrod wins I shall say I am of Nimrod's [followers]. When Abraham went into the furnace and criteria for extended ib, survived, Haran was asked: Whose [follower] are you? and he answered: I am Abraham's!. [Then] they took him and threw him into the furnace, and his belly opened and he died and predeceased Terach, his father.” A lot happened between the time of the Biblical Nimrod and Abraham and the 6 th century Jewish Rabbi’s that dreamed up this scenario. The name Nimrod has also become synonymous with a 'fool' as the American Heritage Dictionary says: “The name Nimrod is either a hunter or a person regarded as silly or foolish.” Many people have tried to correlate Nimrod with all the initial evils, idolatry and ills in the world. Many have taught the whole world rebelled against anti machiavelli God because of Nimrod's rebellion.
His name, they say, means rebellion and assessment criteria for extended, it is said he was the first Idolater. But, what accounts of Nimrod came first? Mighty Hunter, Fool, Rebel? History is written by the victors and to him goes the spoils. Some Rabbinical scholars have identified Nimrod as part of the first of a family (Cush) and statement, ignorantly cast him as the first Homosexual who was licentious and practiced bestiality. It is also said that Noah wife was of the assessment criteria, offspring of Cain (another biblical sinner) who transferred all of those hateful characteristics to her son Ham [but not Shem and Japheth?] and from this evil hatred of God and disobedience to his word was transferred from the line that was considered African.
But is that so? In a word… Hell No! “In the absence of the real [truth] the counterfeit [lie] becomes reality.” Where did these racist notions come from? It came from of accepting as they a long line of those who wanted to control History and put fear in the hearts of men toward those who had the keys to all religions, the African. Rabbinic as well as Catholic and later Christian and Arabic leaders redesigned the nature of Nimrod to suit their racist paradigm. Notes from the Church fathers: “Fallen angels taught men the use of magical incantations that would force demons to obey man.
After the for extended ib, flood Ham the paper, son of criteria for extended ib, Noah unhappily discovered this and taught it to his sons. This became ingrained into the Egyptians, Persians, and Babylonians. Ham died shortly after the fall of the Tower of Babel . Nimrod , called Ninus by the Greeks, was handed this knowledge and by it caused men to go away from the worship of God and go into diverse and erratic superstitions and began to be governed by the signs in the stars and motions of the planets. Taken from Recognitions of app for reading academic, Clement 4.26-29.”  The Church Fathers were the assessment criteria essay, men who replaced the Apostles in authority of the CHRISTIAN church and were under the control of Rome , but did they all believe the same thing? The key to the Christian mindset and their beliefs about Nimrod lies with Rome . Rome became the site of Christianity and those who were not were killed were excommunicated, and others were branded heretics if the orthodox view of the Bible, and biblical events was not adhered to.
This view was ‘tweaked’ added to, and built over the course of man ecumenical councils, the first major conclave in Nice. Further commentary from the Church Fathers: Some modern information on Nimrod was developed and recently with the well-used and often quoted book: The Two Babylon's by Hislop. Here is an writing excerpt from many of his semi-orthodox viewpoint: 'The Two Babylon's, was written by the late Reverend Alexander Hislop in pamphlet form in Edinburgh in 1853, greatly expanded 5 years later and has since appeared in many editions in assessment criteria for extended both Great Britain and the United States. This book is considered by many Christians to be the classic in apologetics. See how a religion that was started by thesis Nimrod and his wife spread to various regions, taking on different names, but keeping the same pagan rituals and criteria for extended essay, trappings. These same rituals embody the Catholic church of today.' Many have taught that Semiramus was the wife of academic papers, Nimrod, and Tammuz was said to be their son, as was chronicled in the Two (2) Babylon 's by assessment criteria essay Alexander Hislop. But, is her personage really authentic? And if her's is formula not, then can she have married Nimrod and had a son?
“Semiramis: (s#277;m#300;r´em#300;s) , mythical Assyrian queen, noted for her beauty and wisdom. She was reputed to have conquered many lands and founded the city of for extended ib, Babylon . After a long and prosperous reign she vanished from over the importance of accepting earth in assessment criteria essay ib the shape of a dove and was thereafter worshiped as a deity, acquiring many of the machiavelli, characteristics of the assessment for extended essay, goddess Ishtar. The historical figure behind this legend is probably Sammuramat, who acted as regent of essay over the importance others as they are, Assyria from 810 to assessment for extended essay ib 805 BC.”  Assyrian Queen, 9th Century B.C. Let us compare the two women. Sammuramat is the writing a research lesson, subject of many myths about her reign as both the wife and for extended essay, mother of kings. She apparently accompanied her husband into battle, greatly expanded Babylonia's control over far-flung territories, irrigated the flatlands between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, and restored the fading beauty of her capital, Babylon. Semiramus conquered the whole of the essay of accepting others as they are, Middle East, invading Kush and India . Her consorts has little or nothing to do with government ( she did not have a king as a husband), she was the daughter of a goddess [mighty woman because of the matriarchal reign in families] Some said she castrated the males of the royal household, suggesting that she was a goddess whose temples were served by eunuch priests.
Most early Assyro-Bablyonian queens she embodied the spirit of Mari-Ishtar or ( Isis) and later the image of Mary the assessment, mother of Jesus [italics mine].  But, is there archeological and over the importance as they are, extra-biblical proof that? 1. Semiramus the mother of Tammuz and Nimrod the great-grandson of Noah lived in the same time frame? 2. Nimrod was said to be Ninus and later Baal? Some Rabbinic writers claim that Nimrod, because of his unrighteousness , was slain by Shem his great-uncle. Others say he was beheaded by Esau the assessment criteria for extended ib, son of Abraham.
H ow could that be? Did they live in the same time? 'Nimrod was slain by Esau, between whom and himself jealousy existed owing to the fact that they were both hunters (Targ. pseudo-Jonathan to thesis paragraph formula Gen. xxv. 27; Sefer ha-Yashar, section Toledot, p. 40b; Pir #7731; e R. El. Criteria For Extended! l.c.; comp. Gen. R. Anti! lxv. 12).W. B. M. Sel.' Nimrod was slain by Esau? Nimrod was in assessment criteria for extended ib Abraham's time? Obviously this is writing a research paper a game of confusion.
Here is the assessment for extended essay, mythical story again. Essay Over Others Are! Please note the similarities between this story and the story of assessment criteria, Daniel and the Hebrew boys in Babylon . “The punishment visited on the builders of the tower did not cause Nimrod to thesis change his conduct; he remained an idolater. He particularly persecuted Abraham, who by his command was thrown into a heated furnace; and it was on this account, according to one opinion, that Nimrod was called Amraphel ( = he said, throw in; Targ. pseudo-Jonathan to Gen. xiv. 1; Gen. R. xlii. 5; Cant. R. Assessment For Extended Essay Ib! viii. 8).” Note the similarities of Crossing the Red [Reed] Sea and the Egg of the Creation story in Egypt. “Nimrod was informed that Abraham had come forth from the furnace uninjured, he remitted his persecution of the worshiper of the Creator of all things, Yahweh; but on the following night he saw in a dream a man coming out of the furnace and over the importance as they, advancing toward him with a drawn sword. Nimrod thereupon ran away, but the man threw an egg at him; this was afterward transformed into a large river in which all his troops were drowned, only he himself and criteria, three of thesis formula, his followers escaping.” “Then the river again became an egg, and from the latter came forth a small fowl, which flew at Nimrod and pecked out his eye.
The dream was interpreted as forecasting Nimrod's defeat by criteria for extended Abraham, wherefore Nimrod sent secretly to kill Abraham; but the latter immigrated with his family to app for the land of Canaan .” Wait there’s more: “Ten years later Nimrod came to wage war with Chedorlaomer, King of Elam, who had been one of Nimrod's generals, and who after the dispersion of the builders of the tower went to Elam and formed there an independent kingdom. Nimrod at the head of an army set out with the intention of punishing his rebellious general, but the latter routed him. Assessment! Nimrod then became a vassal of Chedorlaomer, who involved him in anti machiavelli essay the war with the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah , with whom he was defeated by Abraham (Sefer ha-Yashar, l.c.; comp. Gen. xiv. 1-17)”
Wow…all of this is outside the Biblical cannon? Why? All we see of Nimrod is assessment criteria for extended essay ib a few lines in the Bible, but before we cracked open that ‘Holy Book’ we were told that Nimrod was Black and the epitome of evil. So the idea of those writings outside the Bible influenced our biblical perception and still do! So if the Bible is the inerrant word of God then why are we taking errant extra-biblical ideas from outside of thesis, that cannon?
Humm. sound like a kettle of fish to me. Here is what one writer said: Those who identify Nimrod with Marduk, however, object that the name of Izdubar must be read, as is now generally conceded, Gilgamesh, and that the signs which constitute the name of Marduk, who also is represented as a hunter, are read phonetically Amar Ud; and ideographically they may be read Namr Ud—in Hebrew Nimrod. The difficulty of assessment for extended ib, reconciling the paragraph, Biblical Nimrod, the son of for extended essay ib, Cush , with Marduk, the son of Ea, may be overcome by interpreting the Biblical words as meaning that Nimrod was a descendant of Cush . Orion the soul of Osirus. Two other theories may be mentioned: One is that Nimrod represents the constellation of Orion; the other is that Nimrod stands for a tribe, not an individual and writing a research paper, (comp. Lagarde, Armenische Studien, in Abhandlungen der Gttinger Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, xxii. 77; Nldeke, in Z. D. M. G. xxviii. 279). Orion and its seven stars. The possibility that Nimrod was a group of assessment ib, individuals is plausible.
Nimrod may have been a title of writing a research paper, royalty just like the term Pharaoh, Nebus [Babylon], Negus [Ethiopia], Shah [Iran], Tsar [Russia], Caesar [Rome], Rajah [India], Tenno [Japan], Ajaw [Mayan], Moi [Hawaii or King [European]. Another two prominent theories are now held in regard to Nimrod's identity: One, adopted by G. Smith and criteria essay, Jeremias, is that Nimrod is to be identified with the over the importance of accepting others as they are, Babylonian hero Izdubar or Gishdubar (Gilgamesh). The second that of Sayce, Pinches, and others, identifies Nimrod with Marduk, the Babylonian Mercury. The former identification is based on the fact that Izdubar is represented in for extended essay ib the Babylonian epos as a mighty hunter, always accompanied by formula four dogs , and as the founder of the first great kingdom in Asia . Others claim he was the builder of the Tower of Babel and because of assessment, his desire to 'Reach God' the languages of the world were confused, but the Bible does not exactly say that: Genesis 10. Cush became the father of Nimrod, who was the first potentate on earth.
He was a mighty hunter by the grace of the LORD; hence the app for reading academic papers, saying, Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter by the grace of the assessment for extended essay ib, LORD. The chief cities of his kingdom were Babylon, Erech, and Accad, all of them in the land of Shinar. Over Of Accepting As They! From that land he went forth to Asshur, where he built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, and Calah, as well as Resen, between Nineveh and Calah, the latter being the principal city Mizraim became the father of the Ludim, the assessment criteria essay ib, Anamim, the Lehabim, the Naphtuhim, the Pathrusim, the Casluhim, and the Caphtorim from writing a research lesson whom the assessment criteria ib, Philistines sprang. The whole world spoke the same language, using the thesis paragraph formula, same words . While men were migrating in the east, they came upon criteria a valley in the land of Shinar and settled there . They said to one another, Come, let us mold bricks and essays tire, harden them with fire. They used bricks for assessment criteria essay ib, stone, and bitumen for mortar. Then they said , Come, let us build ourselves a city and pa, a tower with its top in assessment for extended ib the sky, and thesis formula, so make a name for ourselves; otherwise we shall be scattered all over the earth. Assessment Criteria Ib! LORD came down to see the city and the tower that the men had built. Then the LORD said: If now, while they are one people , all speaking the same language, they have started to do this, nothing will later stop them from doing whatever they presume to do. Let us then go down and over others as they are, there confuse their language, so that one will not understand what another says.
Thus the LORD scattered them from there all over for extended essay the earth, and they stopped building the tire elizabeth, city. That is essay why it was called Babel, because there the LORD confused the thesis statement on political, speech of all the world. It was from that place that he scattered them all over the earth. Hey -Did the Bible say Nimrod built the assessment criteria for extended ib, Tower of Babel? NO! It said MEN.
What men? The men migrating in the East that came to the Valley of thesis correctness, Shinar and settled there. In Genesis 10 it said the chief cities in his kingdom one was Shinar. But where was Nimrod? We are told he taught the people to rebel, but where is that story within the Bible? Nowhere! we got that from extra-biblical non-canonized writings from the for extended essay, 1st and 6th century AD after the death of Christ! Ask yourself: Why during those centuries after Christ were they trying to re-write the reading academic, story of Nimrod?
Cain, Ham an all the rest of the so-called black folks in the Bible? The key is in the statement ALL the people spoke one language, and assessment criteria for extended, said the same words. was this before or after Nimrod? Genesis 11 seems to be floating and because the chapters are one after another it makes it seem as though the events in Genesis 10 and 11 are Chronological but are they? Here in Chapter 10 we read this simple statement: The sons of Japheth:Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech and paragraph formula, Tiras.
The sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath and Togarmah. The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, the Kittim and the Rodanim. ( From these the maritime peoples spread out into their territories by their clans within their nations, each with its own language. What language were they speaking? Was it before Nimrod and Babel? But in Genesis 11 it said ALL the people spoke the same language. Was that just the sons of Nimrod or ALL people that lived in that area? The children of for extended ib, Shem, Ham and Japheth? I believe the writers of Genesis [yes I said writers] put this story in over of accepting as they as a separator to highlight the tribe of Shem to the reader and to add a codicil to the story Nimrod and Babel. By the Arab, Nimrod is considered as the supreme example of the tyrant (al-jabbar). There is some confusion among Arabian historians as to Nimrod's genealogy.
According to one authority he was the son of Mash the assessment criteria for extended essay, son of Aram , and consequently a Semite; he built the Tower of Babel and also a bridge over the Euphrates, and reigned five hundred years over the Nabatans, his kinsmen. But the general opinion is that he was a Hamite, son of Canaan the pa, son of Cush, or son of criteria essay ib, Cush the son of writing, Canaan ( #7788; abari gives both); that he was born at assessment essay ib the time of Reu (meaning: a bright idea), and thesis paragraph, was the criteria for extended essay ib, first to establish fire-worship. What was fire worship? the eternal spark the atom the thing that quickens us. Another legend is to the effect that there were two Nimrods: 1. Paper! The first was the assessment essay, son of Cush . 2. The second was the well-known tyrant and contemporary of Abraham; he was the son of Canaan and writing a research paper, therefore a great-grandson of the first Nimrod. According to Mas'udi (Muruj al-Dhahab, ii. 96), Nimrod was the first Babylonian king, and during a reign of criteria, sixty years he dug many canals in 'Irak. “After these adventures Nimrod continued to anti machiavelli essay reign wickedly.
Four hundred years later an angel in the form of a man appeared to him and exhorted him to repent, but Nimrod declared that he himself was sole ruler and challenged God to fight with him. Assessment Criteria Ib! Nimrod asked for a delay of three days, during which he gathered a considerable army; but this was exterminated by swarms of gnats. One of these insects is said to have entered Nimrod's nose, reached the chambers of his brain, and thesis, gnawed at it. To allay the essay ib, pain Nimrod ordered some one to app for strike with a hammer upon an anvil, in order that the noise might cause the criteria essay ib, gnat to cease gnawing (comp. the same story in connection with Titus in Gi #7789; . Of Accepting Others! 56b). Nimrod died after forty years' suffering.” Dang, he live a long time! But I thought all that century old living was stopped at a certain time according to the Biblical account. Others say he stole the for extended, ‘animal skins’ that God gave to Adam and Eve as a covering on their expulsion from the garden. But I believe that is code for the priesthood of Egypt/Africa. “The origin of the importance attached to the spotted fawn and its skin had evidently come thus: When Nimrod, as the app for reading, Leopard-tamer , began to be clothed in the leopard-skin, as the trophy (Triumph) of ib, his skill, his spotted dress and appearance must have impressed the imaginations of those who saw him; and he came to be called not only the Subduer of the Spotted one (for such is the precise meaning of Nimr--the name of the leopard), but to be called The spotted one himself. “A three-quarter length portrait of papers, a standing leopard-skin priest (Kuaar tuon) carrying a hollowed ambatch log used as a stool, headrest, container for tobacco and criteria for extended essay ib, other objects etc.
The leopard-skin priest (also known as Kuaar twac after the paper lesson, skin worn across the assessment for extended essay ib, shoulders) was a ritual rather than political authority, and paragraph, acted as arbiter in disputes and in ritual activities such as spirit possession and sacrifice. This print is from an original photograph by F. D. Corfield who Evans-Pritchard knew well since he was District Commissioner at Nasir on the Sobat River during his early fieldwork. The same priest features in the Corfield image reproduced as Plate XXIV in The Nuer (1940).”  Zulu ‘s with leopard skins in ritual. In actuality the assessment for extended ib, Leopard skin was a sign of the Egyptian Priesthood worn by the Sem [funeral] Priests. This leopard skin is studded with golden stars and attached to a leopard head made of wood and covered with a sheet of gold. A representation of the leopard's paws is still in statement on political place. [see Tassels/Tallit]. The leopard head once decorated a garment that imitated the animal's skin through the use of silver stars in place of spots.
Hebrew Tallit with Tzitzit [Tassels] with blue thread color from the Chilazon, a unidentified creature from the sea . This representation can be traced to the ancient concept of the leopard as a symbolic representation of the sky. The leopard skin was a distinctive garment of the Sem Priest who was charged with revitalizing the mummified body of the assessment for extended essay, pharaoh in writing a research lesson the ritual known as Opening the criteria for extended essay, Mouth. The Sem Egyptian priesthood wore leopard-skin mantles, or cloaks, while performing their official duties, marking them as high priest. Tutankhamun, who was in theory the high priest of every god, was buried with this mantle.  The Tallit with the blue color from the Chilizon: The Torah commands us to wear a thread of blue, techeilet, in the importance each corner of criteria essay, our tzitzit. While tzitzit serve as a visual reminder to do the mitzvot, the blue thread reminds us of Hashem: Techeilet resembles [the color of] the sea, and the sea the anti, sky , and the sky the throne of for extended essay, glory. The Gemara informs us that the techeilet dye comes from tire pa a bodily fluid (lit: blood) of the chilazon. At some point it became forgotten which species is the chilazon. Exactly when techeilet ceased to exist is unknown. Though some have suggested this happened sometime between 500-700 C.E., there is assessment essay evidence that techeilet continued to be dyed in some places for another several hundred years. Nimrod’s other name was the spotted Leopard and the became a spotted Fawn.
“We have distinct evidence to this effect borne by Damascus , who tells us that the Babylonians called the only son of the anti essay, great goddess-mother Momis, or Moumis. Essay Ib! Now, Momis, or Moumis, in Chaldee, like Nimr, signified The spotted one. Thus, then, it became easy to represent Nimrod by the symbol of the spotted fawn, and reading academic papers, especially in Greece , and wherever a pronunciation akin to that of Greece prevailed. Criteria Essay! The name of Nimrod, as known to the Greeks, was Nebrod.” What is the symbology of the spots? Power and Authority. The Bible fuses these two images of skin color and leopard or spotted fawn allusion: Can the academic papers, Ethiopian change his skin Or the leopard his spots? Then you also can do good Who are accustomed to doing evil.
Jeremiah 13:23. Let’s take a look at criteria essay ib what the Bible says about Nimrod and compare it to the extra-Biblical information to glean what may possibly be the essays tire, truth. Remember, we are dealing with an ancient story and in doing so, we must see what is truth and what is myth. We must also remember that the Greeks, Romans and later the Europeans used the actual [Kings, Queens , Priests, Sages] people of Egypt/Africa to make their myths and then embellished those myths and called it His-story. The story according to the Bible: ' Kush fathered Nimrod, who was the first powerful ruler on the earth. Hw was a mighty hunter before the Lord (Adonai) - this is why people say, 'Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the Lord (Adonai). His (Nimrods) kingdom began with Bavel, Akkad and Kalneh, in the land of assessment for extended essay, Shinar.' Gen. 10:8-9.
' Kush fathered Nimrod, who was a powerful ruler on earth.'1 Chron. 1:10. 'They will shepherd the land of Ashur with the sword, the and of Nimrod at its gates; he will rescue us from thesis on political Ashur when he invades our land when he overruns our borders. 'Micah 5:6. Nothin' negative . not like what we have been told. Without any extra-Biblical information Nimrod was just a powerful leader and the son of Cush . We need to sift through the ib, extra-Biblical information especially when it come from the Romanish, Greek, Medieval or European viewpoint because they have heavily influenced our thoughts about this man or group of men.
The Talmud is not helpful when it comes to the truth, it cast the same shadow on machiavelli essay, the Nimrod: Possibly named Nimrod as the one who caused the world to rebel [Limrod] against HaShem: Eruvin 53a; Pesachim 94b. Possibly named Amrafel as the one who threw Avraham into assessment for extended ib a fiery furnace: Eruvin 53a Also related to essays pa Nebuchadnezzer. Pesachim 94a-b. Yes, there was a similar story of Abraham like Daniel being thrown into the fiery furnace, and earlier we saw Nimrod suffer the same fate. But we see their explanations as possible an assessment criteria for extended ib not probable.
I t is either a possibility or it is not. Which one is it? It depends on the message you want to convey to those who believe everything they read. 'A lie can travel around the world 1000 times before the truth gets it boots on.' Ben Franklin. Here is one Rabbi's opinion on Nimrod using the essays tire elizabeth pa, Medieval Midrash. Nimrod a mighty hunter before Adonai [Yahweh/God] - The description is both unique and obscure. What is the Torah trying to tell us when it says that he was the first mighty one? What does it mean to be a mighty hunter before the Lord?
While the basic understanding of the criteria essay ib, text would imply physical prowess, Rashi opts for a more conceptual definition. Rashi #1512;#1513;#1497; is an acronym for #1512;#1489;#1497; #1513;#1500;#1502;#1492; #1497;#1510;#1495;#1511;#1497; ( Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi ),a rabbi born in 1040AD in France famed as the author of the elizabeth pa, first comprehensive commentaries on assessment criteria essay ib, the Talmud and Tanack. Acclaimed for his ability to present the basic meaning of the text in a concise yet lucid fashion, Rashi appeals to both learned scholars and beginning students, and his works remain a centerpiece of contemporary Jewish study. His commentaries, which appear in all printed editions of the thesis formula, Talmud and Torah (notably the assessment for extended ib, Chumash), are an indispensable companion to both casual and serious students of Judaism's primary texts. Rashi says that Nimrod was a manipulator who ensnared people with his words. Rashi is based on app for reading academic, the following Midrash:
Was then Esau a Cushite? [He is so called] because he acted like Nimrod. Hence it is assessment for extended essay written, Like nimrod a mighty hunter before the lord (10:9): it is not written, Nimrod [was a mighty hunter], but like Nimrod: just as the one snared people by their words, so did the other [Esau, i.e. Rome] snare people by their words, saying, ' [True,] you have not stolen, [but tell us] who was your partner in the theft; you have not killed, but who was your accomplice in the murder.' (Midrash Rabbah - Bereishit 37:2) He was a mighty hunter before the lord; wherefore it is on political correctness said: like Nimrod a mighty hunter before the lord. Truly he was a man of might, because he was clad in the garments of Adam, and was able by means of them to assessment criteria essay lay snares for mankind and beguile them. Essay Over The Importance Of Accepting Others! R. Eleazar said: 'Nimrod used to entice people into criteria for extended ib idolatrous worship by means of those garments, which enabled him to conquer the world and proclaim himself its ruler, so that mankind offered him worship. Statement! He was called Nimrod, for the reason that he rebelled (marad=rebel) against essay the most high King above, against the higher angels and against the lower angels.' R. Simeon said: 'Our colleagues are acquainted with a profound mystery concerning these garments.' (Zohar Bereishit Page 74a). So you can be a Cushite if you ACT evil?
Come o!. Anti Machiavelli Essay! So being a Black man was the standard of evil? When was this derived? While Adam gave names to the animals, and Hevel cared for the animals, Nimrod and Esav are hunters of animals. Another Rabbi from Spain in the born in 1092AD: The Ibn Ezra explains that Nimrod took these animals and offered them to God, and therefore the text speaks of Nimrod as being a mighty hunter before God. For Extended Ib! While later scholars have found difficulty attributing apparently positive gestures on the part of Nimrod, it has been explained that this was a part of a research paper, his manipulation. If others were impacted by the flood and now were in fear of God, Nimrod can show that he too is God-fearing.
If we take this logic one step further, we can posit that his original stated intention of the Tower was to build a shrine for the service of God. ' Huh. Where did they come up with this stuff? Some say oral traditions but from who? Where did all this didaction (instruction) come from? The Talmud : #1514;#1500;#1502;#1493;#1491;) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to the law, ethics, customs and history. The Talmud has two components: the Mishnah (c. 200 CE), the first written compendium of Judaism's Oral Law; and the Gemara (c.
500 CE). 1. The Talmud - The Talmud gets its name from the assessment criteria, word Lamud - taught, and means The Teaching. By metonymy it is taken to mean the book which contains the Teaching, which is called Talmud, that is, the doctrinal book which alone fully expounds and explains all the knowledge and teaching of the European Jews.. 2. The Midrash - The collection of mostly halakic Jewish traditions compiled about 200 AD and made the basic part of Talmud. Mishnah means teaching. It is the compilation of unwritten or oral laws which were passed down the centuries by the word of mouth. The compilation of the discussions on the articles of Mishnah is called the Gemara (which means complementary) The explanations in the Gemara have further explanations called Midrashim (exposition, explanation - A haggadic or halakic exposition of the underlying significance of a Bible text). But Midrashim are not considered a part of The Talmud. Mishnah had taken its final form as a result of 50 years of study by Judah Ha Nasi in Beth Shearim in essay Galilee . Judah Ha Nasi (The Prince-135-220 AD.) was a Palestinian Patriarch, a disciple of the assessment criteria, school of Rabbi Akiba . Judah Ha Nasi went through the Oral Law and organized it in six sections as established by Rabbi Akiba and his student Rabbi Meir. This work of Judah Ha Nasi became the foundation of the Talmud.
Nasi or Nesi mean BLACK. But, why would black man use Talmudical writing to disrespect black people? Did he or was his work was added to and rewritten over the years to statement reflect a negative African view-point? 3. The Mishnah - The Mischnah is the foundation and the principal part of the whole Talmud. This book was accepted by the Jews everywhere and was recognized as their authentic code of law. It was expounded in their Academies in Babylon - at Sura, Iumbaditha and Nehardea - and in their Academies in Palestine - at Tiberias, Iamnia and Lydda. As their interpretations increased with the passing of time, the disputations and decisions of the doctors of the law concerning the Mischnah were written down, and these writings constituted another part of the Talmud called the Gemarah. Thus, the Mischna, Gemarah, Tosephoth, the marginal notes of Rabbi Ascher, the Piske Tosephoth and the Perusch Hamischnaioth of Maimonides, all collected into for extended ib one, constitute a vast work which is called the Talmud. These writings spanned from 200AD until the middle ages of Europe or Medieval times.
So, in my book they are suspect in the sense that much of Africa/Moors/Ethiopia was hated by then. When referring to Nimrod we must keep in mind all the word that was spoken of in the Bible was in an African world - and if the brother was trippin', his African-ness was not the impetuous for his reputation. It may have been legend, myth and truth mixed into one. But, before we castigate him we need to see why he was labeled the 'Bad Seed' and one of the few Black men the European will point to as being clearly of 'African descent and anti machiavelli essay, pure evil' along with the others also of seeming ill repute are: Cain, Canaan, and Judas. Sounds kinda fishy to me.
The Trinity of Nimrod, Semiramus and Tammuz relates back to the Egyptians Isis, Osirus and Horus. Everything relates back to assessment for extended essay Egypt . Egypt was the first source of. EVERYTHING! Osiris, Isis , Horus and Set. Here is one last quote from thesis correctness a European Pastor in his research: 'There is one common element to assessment for extended Nimrod/Marduk in all his manifestations and that is the symbol of the snake/serpent/dragon. Nimrod took the dragon as his personal emblem, so that from him spring various dragon myths and their special association with apocalyptic events. Strikingly the only favorable accounts of dragons[serpents]are found among the Hamitic (black) peoples of the world (like Nimrod) including the Ethiopians, Hittites, Chinese, Japanese and American Indian. One thing on common element?
Just because we had a favorable snake image that means that Nimrod and all black people, Asian and Indians are evil and part of his mythical rebellion? Come on! What about America emblems? 'Don't tread on me' The seal from a 1778 $20 bill from Georgia. Anti Machiavelli Essay! The financial backing for criteria for extended ib, these bills was property seized from loyalists. The motto reads Nemo me impune lacesset, i.e.
No one will provoke me with impunity.] History and the evaluation and dissemination of it belongs to those with the pen and printer. The symbol of the snake or dragon was older an the Biblical Nimrod and used by all people of the earth. Thesis! It was and always will be a symbol of enlightenment and the coil a representation of DNA! Legendary monster usually depicted as a huge, bat-winged, fire-breathing lizard or snake with a barbed tail. The dragon symbolized evil in the ancient Middle East, and the Egyptian god Apepi was the great serpent of the world of assessment for extended essay ib, darkness. The Greeks and Romans sometimes represented dragons as evil creatures and sometimes as beneficent powers acquainted with the secrets of the earth. In Christianity the dragon symbolized sin and paganism, and saints such as St.
George were shown triumphing over it. Used as warlike emblems in many cultures, dragons were carved on the prows of Norse ships and app for papers, depicted on royal ensigns in medieval England. In the Far East the dragon was a beneficent creature, wingless but regarded as a power of the air. Criteria Ib! In China it symbolized yang in the Yin Yang of cosmology, and it served as the emblem of the royal family. Finally another quote: 'However, it is probably Mesopotamian in thesis statement correctness origin and most frequently suggested as equivalent to criteria for extended essay the word Ninurta, though this is not without philological difficulty or opposition. Paragraph! Ninurta, read apparently Nimurta in dialectic Sumerian, is presumably a polemic distortion of the origin of the assessment for extended ib, name Nimrod, the famous hunter of Hebrew mythology, which is incorporated in one of the essay over the importance of accepting as they, oldest Hebrew documents.
Of the form Ninurta is accepted, and essay, assumed, it would refer strictly to a mythic god, and point to the Babylonian deity, the war-god called the Arrow, the thesis paragraph, mighty hero whose cult assumed widespread importance in Mesopotamia during the late second millennium B.C. Assessment For Extended Essay! Nimrod would then border on the total concept of thesis formula, mythology. If it refers to a historical person, the Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta I (1246-1206 B.C.) could be an for extended ib accurate choice, since he was the first Assyrian monarch to rule over Babylonia and have cultic centers in Babel, Caleh, and others known cities of this time. According to Speiser (1924-1946), a leading authority on a research paper lesson, biblical lands, cultures and excavations of important Sumerian rites in Iraq, he notably felt Tukulti-Ninurta I served as a prototype for the composite Greek hero Ninus, associated with Nineveh, who became the character united with Semiramus of Diodorus Siculus' Antiquities of Asia; however, G.J. Whyfe-Melville in his book, Sarchedon: A Legend of the Great Queen, makes note that Ninus is an ancestral linage of criteria for extended ib, thirteen generation down from the essays tire, historical Nimrod.' Even Herodotus, another Greek writer, from assessment criteria essay his own personal observation describes this account in the first book of his history. Semiramus, by many opinions, is believed to the importance others be totally fictitious and never really did exist, however, there does remain a three-side standing wall between the ancient old and new palace where a detailed etching of a curious hunting-piece, in which Semiramus, on horseback is throwing her javelin at assessment essay a leopard, while her husband, Ninus is piercing a lion. It is elizabeth pa near this last palace that the famous Hanging Gardens were, and so commonly celebrated by both the Greeks and Italians. Although Semiramus may have similar characteristics to the ancient goddesses' of these earlier cults, it is a known fact that her legend should be placed separate, in reality, she is not a mythical goddess, since her story never mentions her ranked as an icon of worship. Semiramus was . Criteria For Extended Ib! a female prototype of Hercules . Unlike Hercules (Greek:Heracles) and Ninus, both fictitious characters originating from the minds of Greek folklore. Semiramus, is the essay over the importance as they, Greek name, originating from a real canonized queen Sammu-ramat, who was the assessment essay, mother of the Assyrian king Adad-Nirari III (reigned 810-783 B.C.) and paper, wife of Shamshi-Adad V (823-811B.C.) who was the son of Shalmaneser III (859-824 B.C.).
Her stela (memorial stone shaft) has been found at Ashur, while an inscription at Calah ( Nimrud ) shows her to criteria for extended essay ib have been dominant there after the the importance others are, death of her husband, before the rule of her son. Her regency was assumed roughly between 810-805 B.C., in the minority of her son Adad-Nirari III. Despite his boasts as the mighty king, ruler of the universe, he died amid revolts which broke out throughout the empire, with which his brother and successor had to contend. In this account the brother would have to be Shamshi-Adad V, husband of Sammu-ramat, mother of Adad-Nirari III. If there were any famous journeys or exploits of queen Sammu-ramat during her short reign, it would seem possible that historians and scholars would amplify her reputation more than what we know about her at assessment criteria this day and age. As to this fact, there is not a shred of evidence as to her influential power, nor the extent of her legacy that anyone, including Diodorus, could bring to light as factual; let alone create an antiquity solid enough to expand upon the audacious narrative of essay the importance of accepting others as they, this episode of Semiramus. And if his writings of Semiramus are examined very closely, it would seem that they match the conquering adventures of Alexander the criteria for extended ib, Great and King Nebuchadnezzar, combined with the paragraph, exploits of Shalmaneser III, Shamshi-Adad V and assessment, his wife, which in turn intertwine with the many mysteries of the ancient fertility deities; and implementing the excitement and flamboyancy of Greek rhetoric composition to form this Assyrian female counterpart. Statement Correctness! All this in order to give the reader the assessment for extended ib, intense drama of mystery, animation and glamour, for it is over are a conclusive contingency that Sammu-ramat could have had a likeness to the qualities of beauty, wit and charm in order to criteria expound this Greek legend into this effect. That would make sense because extra-biblical information has a duplicated fiery furnace situation for both Abraham and Daniel. It is blending myths of the events that were oral stories.
Since, there was no real single Semiramus married to a single Nimrod with a single child Tammuz? Is it just an allegory? Possibly or a myth or grand story for the amusement of the reader? But after 10 decades the humor was lost and the joke forgotten. The man [men] who was Nimrod was not the purveyor of evil and tire pa, the Biblical son of Cush who is called Nimrod is another character all together and may well have been the Hebrew name of a line of for extended ib, Egyptian kings and not one single man. The Nimrod of the Biblical account and the Nimrod of Myth are not the same individual. Over the essays, course of years the son of Kush - though a mighty man - has been given a bad rap.
What does history say? The Black Obelisk found in Nimrud records his military achievements against the western kings, and depicts the payment of assessment for extended essay ib, tribute by Jehu, king of thesis formula, Israel , humbly prostrating himself before him - an incident also passed over in silence in the Bible. Jehu, meaning Jehovah is assessment for extended he , was the tenth king of formula, Israel (that is, the northern kingdom of Israel, which was separate from the southern kingdom of criteria for extended, Judah - see Kings of Israel and Judah and Jews At War With Israel). He was the son of Jehoshaphat (2 Kings 9:2), and grandson of Nimsh i, although, according to ancient custom, he is sometimes referred to as the son of Nimshi. Jehu begins in essay the record of Bible History as a soldier in King Ahab's army (Ahab's wife was the wicked Jezebel), however God commanded Elijah to anoint him king over assessment ib Israel, which was later done through Elisha, who was designated by machiavelli essay God as Elijah's successor (see Where Did Elijah Go?) at the same time (1 Kings 19:16). Jehu's rise to assessment for extended essay power was one of the tire, bloodiest in Israel's history, although in obedience to God's command to destroy the corrupt and wicked from the land. NIMSHI.
A foolish fellow, or one who habitually acts in a foolish manner. Local in Connecticut. Schele de Vere's Americanisms (1872) on ib, the Making of America database has a similar definition: Nimshi, is the Connecticut term for app for academic, nincompoop. Nimshi is a Biblical name (father of Jehoshaphat, grandfather of Jehu). Could this have been an earlier version of essay ib, Nimrod, another Biblical name that came to denote a foolish person? Nimrod didn't appear as a term of derision until the 1930s, according to Jesse Sheidlower's RHHDAS citations (1). But perhaps both Nimshi and Nimrod started off as Sunday-school jokes, names that were vaguely evocative of ninny, nincompoop, nitwit, numbskull, etc.
So Jehu the man of God is the Grandson of Nimrod? Hummm. Most stories are recycled realities from Egypt . According to Gary Greenberg: 'Nimrod is the anti machiavelli essay, Pharaoh Sesotris who ruled Egypt in the 12 dynasty. Herodutus identifies him as Sostris where as the criteria, Bible calls him Nimrod. However, Sesotris was not the pharaoh's true name. It was a Greek corruption of the name Senusret or Senosret. Thesis Statement! The name Nimrod appears to be phonetically similar to the last part of Senusrets name and assessment for extended ib, the Hebrew rendition may be a slight corruption of the Egyptian, much as Sesostris is a Greek corruption.' Myths of the Bible. Religiously, Senusret contributed considerable attention to the cult of Osiris [The Messiah Cult], and over paragraph formula his long rule, this deity's beliefs and practices flourished in Egypt. Assessment Essay! Osiris was a god of the people and in expanding this cult, Senusret I gave his subjects what John Wilson has described as the anti machiavelli, democratization of the afterlife. The same message that Moses later preached! Egypt ruled the areas now called the Middle East, but over time the Hebrew writers Bible became sympathetic with the Babylonians and Persians and demonized the original peoples of the Bible.
Later the Catholic, Protestant Rabbinic and Islamic movements further eroded this text. Senusret [Nimrod] embracing Ptah. Did Nimrod exist? Was his legacy one of rebellion against God? No, I do not believe so from my research. It was not a the Bible simply states 'He was a mighty hunter BEFORE the Lord'. Context. context. context. Nimrod was a group of Great Black Men. Samara Ziggurat Mosque 800AD. To be continued.
The Babylonian Talmud.  Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, Copyright (c) 2004.  B. Walker - The Woman's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets.
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The Student's Practical Guide: Writing Term Papers for assessment for extended ib Anthropology (and Related Subjects) (originally written in 1981, with various updates since then. ) rendered into html with occasional comments by. (whose own two cents on this topic is summarized here) Dictionaries and encyclopedias. Indexes and abstracts. Yearbooks and review literature. You have not even started the paper -- somehow you have not managed to find the time for it. Essay Over Of Accepting Others As They. Other things always seemed more important or more fun. Assessment For Extended Ib. But you can't put it off any longer. You have to start right now.
You have to get it done as quickly and efficiently as possible -- and obviously you don't want to suffer any more than is necessary. Also, you don't want to take any chances with your GPA, so you want to write a good paper. Thesis Formula. But the criteria for extended essay, whole project seems confusing, dreary, and thesis on political, a little overwhelming. It doesn't have to be that bad. That is what this Guide is all about -- making the writing of anthropology term papers easier. There are ways to save time and effort. There are procedures and strategies that enable you to negotiate the necessary -but often tedious- process of assessment ib, finding the others, material you need in the library quickly and criteria for extended essay, effectively.
After finding the material you need, it is important to know the best way of organizing it in elizabeth pa your paper. Learning these techniques and skills frees you to concentrate on the quality of the paper--or maybe on the beach. This Guide is no substitute for your own effort and commitment. For Extended Essay. (Obviously we are not about to recommend that you wait six weeks to the importance of accepting as they begin your paper.) Certainly there is no way to guarantee success or scholarly ecstasy; writing a term paper may never be as much fun as mountain climbing, or reading Russian novels, or whatever your idea of fun is. And there is no final or definitive answer to the question of what a professor wants in a paper. But this Guide will inform you of some of the basic features of an anthropology paper which you can be sure your professor will want you to know. And it shows you how to make your paper a more polished and expert product. You may already have taken a writing course. The skills learned there will be useful in writing papers for assessment criteria essay anthropology. The ability to essays tire organize ideas effectively and express them clearly is an important survival skill in assessment criteria for extended the university environment.
Mastering this skill early in thesis paragraph your academic career can greatly increase your enjoyment of university life 2 . However, you probably did not learn the criteria for extended ib, citation and anti machiavelli, bibliographic format used by anthropologists. One of the criteria, goals of the Guide is to introduce you to that format. A Research Paper Lesson. A word of warning: you should set aside any ideas you have about using footnotes for essay ib documentation. (Documentation refers to methods of acknowledging the use of someone else's work.) You may also find that the writing style required for research papers is essay over the importance of accepting as they are not the same as the style you learned in assessment ib your writing classes. The style for research papers emphasizes the essay the importance as they, unambiguous, easily understood presentation of essay ib, information and ideas, rather than the a research paper lesson, expressive use of assessment for extended, evocative, complex, and richly ambiguous imagery and symbolism. Thesis. In other words, research papers require an expository, not a literary, style. THE STYLE AND ORGANIZATION OF TERM PAPERS: A QUICK REVIEW OF THE ESSENTIALS. Then what is a term paper? Like a report, a library research paper presents data and ideas (which are, however, typically drawn from several sources).
Unlike a report, a research paper presents your analysis and interpretation of the data and ideas found in a survey of the anthropological literature relevant to the topic of your paper. Analysis is the process of organizing and summarizing the data and ideas in assessment essay order to answer a question. Interpretation refers to a discussion of the meaning and implications of your answers for the issues, ideas, and problems that your paper addresses. Eight Magical and Wise Rules for the importance of accepting others as they Writing Term Papers. Kolb, Harold H. 1980 A Writer's Guide: The Essential Points . New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Strunk, William, and E.B.
White 1979 The Elements of Style . 3rd ed. Criteria For Extended Essay. New York: Macmillan. Turabian, Kate 1976 Student's Guide for Writing College Papers . 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. You should be able to find them all at the University Bookstore. Magical and Practical Rule Number 1: A paper should be organized around a clear problem. The problem is formulated in the course of exploratory reading in the anthropological literature. First, you should choose an appropriate topic and check it for feasibility by doing some preliminary research in over of accepting others as they the library and by consulting with your TA or professor. This exploratory reading helps you formulate a problem (or thesis) regarding your topic.
The problem you select then becomes the focus of your paper; it directs and limits your efforts. A good problem immediately raises certain questions and implies significant issues. You use your library know-how to find the data that answer these questions and to find the ideas of the scholars who have discussed these issues. You should use only the data needed to answer your questions. Assessment For Extended. Otherwise your paper will lack coherence and unity, and you will have done more work than you needed to. And, worst of all, you may not get your paper in on time.
The professor may then never get a chance to read it, because he has flown off to some delectable Pacific island, and essay over of accepting as they are, you may be stuck with an Incomplete. So subordinate your reading and note taking to a clear, well defined problem (or controlling idea), formulated in assessment ib your exploratory reading. Magical and Logical Rule Number 2: After you have selected a problem and essays tire pa, become acquainted with some of the literature on it, make a well thought out and fairly detailed outline . As you reading progresses, ask yourself what ideas and information are necessary for understanding your problem, and in what order they have to be presented, in order to have a logical and coherent presentation. Start out with a crude outline. Then revise and elaborate it as needed. A good outline is indispensable; it helps you figure out what information you need as you carry out for extended essay your research and in what order that information should be presented.
A few superstars can juggle complex ideas and quantities of machiavelli essay, data in their heads, but for ordinary mortals the use of an outline makes sense. (It is wise to figure that you, like Socrates, are an ordinary mortal.) Magical and Effective Rule Number 3: A term paper should be conceived of as a whole. It should have thematic unity and an integrated structure. If you stick to your problem and your outline, you should have no trouble writing a unified paper; unity just means sticking to the central idea of your paper and your plan for discussing it. Structure refers to the organization of the parts of criteria for extended essay ib, your paper. A paper consists of three main parts: an opening or introduction, the body, and a conclusion. Papers. But these parts must be tied together, and subordinated to the main purpose of the paper, which is to tell someone about your analysis and interpretation of the problem you have formulated and researched.
You want to make the paper as easy to assessment criteria ib understand as possible. So first you tell them what you're going to anti machiavelli say. The introduction clarifies the assessment criteria essay ib, nature of elizabeth, your topic; it states your research problem and your strategy for understanding this problem. Your opening ideally puts the reader in the mood for reading the paper; it serves to spark some interest. But mainly it prepares the reader intellectually for your main effort--the body of the paper. The best introductions are often written after the body of the for extended essay ib, paper is already drafted, so that they can lead to it as effectively as possible. On Political. Remember: one way to bomb on assessment criteria for extended essay a paper is to promise one thing and deliver something else. The body of the paper carries out your strategy or plan for analyzing and thesis, interpreting your material.
This part of the paper goes into details: it lays out assessment all the necessary information and thesis, ideas in assessment a logical order (that is, in the sequence in which the reader needs to know them in order to understand you). Academic Papers. The body is assessment criteria ib organized in terms of answers to questions, cause and effect, comparison and paper lesson, contrast; it supports generalizations with data, or derives generalizations from data. . and then you tell them what you've said. The conclusion wraps things up. Criteria Essay. It reminds the reader of the nature and significance of the problem you set out at the beginning, and sums up the meaning and implications of your analysis. It tells the reader what has actually been discovered and what it means. The conclusion concisely restates your intentions and plans, and tells the reader succinctly what happened when you carried out that plan.
In other words, it summarizes and a research lesson, synthesizes the assessment criteria for extended, progression of your understanding from the opening statement of your problem through the detailed development of the problem in the body of the paper. Magical and Essential Rule Number 4: Write with your readers in writing a research paper mind. Assessment Ib. Be clear and explicit so that they can follow your argument. Be concise and yet complete. You are writing something that will be read and evaluated by someone. Keep in mind that all your readers can know of your thoughts is what you put down on of accepting paper. Telepathy is rare even among anthropologists. So be explicit. Don't refer or allude to ideas or information not contained in your argument, unless you can reasonable expect the readers to be familiar with that material.
Make sure that the readers have all the information they need in essay order to follow you from point A to point B in your discussion. If your roommate doesn't understand how you argued your way from point A to point B, your TA or professor probably won't either. And choose your words with care. Tire Elizabeth. You don't want to obscure your reasoning by criteria for extended essay putting it into the wrong words. A brilliant logical argument can be lost for want of precise words 4 . Your outline will help you make the logical connections in your paper explicit. You may even want to essay others are use some subtitles in your paper (one or two per page) which serve up the assessment ib, points made on that page. These subtitles will correspond to your outline--or at app for academic papers least they will if you stick to it. Using subtitles can alert you when you start to stray from your plan.
Subtitles also have the advantage of reminding the weary reader (who has just read 137 term papers before starting yours and criteria essay, has 79 yet to go) where he has got to in your argument. (They also make fuzzy stuff look organized, keeping the opposition off guard.) However, if you allude extensively to material not included in your paper, or ideas not explained in statement your paper, or do not choose your words with some care, then even subtitles won't save you. You want to be clear, explicit and complete, but you don't want to bore your reader (or not very much anyway--not more than is necessary). So don't belabor the obvious. Put things in your paper because they're important in terms of assessment criteria ib, your argument, not because you feel you should explain everything--twice. Be as concise as you can, while still being clear, explicit and complete.
So, it is important to be clear and complete, but on the other hand, it is app for reading important not to be boring or obvious. That sounds a little like look before you leap but he who hesitates is lost! And yet these points are not as contradictory as they may seem. It's a question of balance, which, in writing term papers, as in learning to ride a bicycle (and practically everything else), is only learned through practice--by doing it until you don't fall down. Too much explanation and criteria for extended essay ib, qualification of your argument can distract the reader from the essays tire elizabeth, essential points you are trying to make. Too little explanation and elaboration makes a paper vague; the reader doesn't have enough information to judge the essential points of your argument, or see how they are connected--or even, sometimes, see what they are.
When in doubt, it is better to bore than to be vague. If you're boring, the professor may fall asleep, but at least you'll get credit for the work you did. Ib. If you are vague, on the other hand, you leave the app for academic, reader with no way of knowing what you meant. In this second case, there is nothing to base a grade on, except the essay ib, creeping suspicion that you haven't said anything. Vagueness is generally pretty boring anyway. It is paragraph better to work on being both clear and interesting; with practice and commitment, it is possible to be both. Magical and Reasonable Rule Number 5: The paper should reflect the theme of the course. You should be sensitive to the point of criteria for extended ib, view the thesis correctness, professor is trying to criteria essay ib present and to the scope of the course. A good paper should reflect the theme of the course in machiavelli essay some way, even if you do not agree with the professor's approach. 5 Consult your TA or professor before you invest a lot of assessment criteria essay ib, time and energy investigating a topic that might not be appropriate. For example, when you are writing for a research lesson a class that focuses on some aspect of cultural symbolism, and you find yourself discussing astrology, King Tut, and holistic hang gliding, then you're stretching the criteria for extended, boundaries of the app for reading academic papers, course.
You will probably find that you are stretching the boundaries of your GPA too. More realistically, if your professor has been talking for weeks about political conflict, then a paper in which you marvel at assessment ib the harmony and smooth integration of culture--and by formula implication deny the reality or significance of conflict--will probably raise some eyebrows, but not your grade. But a paper about the problems of political leadership in Arab villages in territory occupied by Israel, or about lineage feuding in classical China, would more appropriately reflect the theme of the course. Magical and Indispensable Rule Number 6: Revise, Rewrite and Proofread. You should always plan on assessment doing some revision and rewriting. App For Reading Papers. But how much?
And how do you know when it is assessment criteria for extended ib necessary? Here again, if a friend (or enemy) has trouble understanding your paper or any part of it, you need to do something about thesis, it. You need to rewrite the foggy and fuzzy sections. And even if your paper is more or less comprehensible, revision and rewriting will nearly always improve it. Assessment Essay Ib. Basically, a sense of when and what to revise, what to throw out, and what to rewrite is developed through the practice of thesis formula, writing and assessment criteria for extended essay, through receiving feedback on your papers. With your research problem, outline and the limitations of readers firmly in mind, go through your outline with a certain ruthlessness. Cut out any jumbles of excess or imprecise words. Others Are. Don't be afraid to throw away sentences and whole passages which don't do the job of communicating your ideas. Clean up the grammar. Rewrite as necessary. Now you can type or print your final draft.
And then you should proofread it. You don't want to leave any little but distracting errors or typos uncorrected. (A typo can change the comment Kroeber's theory is not considered adequate into Kroeber's theory is now considered adequate. Assessment For Extended. But any type can eb distracting.) 6 Most word processing programs will check the spelling, and even simple grammar, automatically if you ask, so use these features. However, always read the paper yourself before you print the final copy--the Kroeber typo cited above is neither misspelled nor grammatically incorrect, but it is a mistake that will be noted. Magical and Risk Avoidance Rule Number 7: If you use a computer, save your files often and make multiple backup copies. Nothing is so debilitating as following the first six rules and then losing the lesson, whole work to criteria for extended essay ib a cyber-space demon. Saying you lost your work to the computer, or that it will not print out, now runs well ahead of dogs eating homework in the excuse category. It may be true, but it is very difficult to prove and, if the TA or professor is on a tight schedule to turn in final grades, you may not get the essay of accepting others as they are, benefit of the doubt. Save your files regularly, especially after making extensive revisions, and when you are finished be sure to copy your files onto assessment criteria essay a separate disk that can be stored in a drawer and moved to another machine if disaster strikes.
Magical and Unwritten Rule Number 8: Make a rule to fit in this space. This is a freebie. Experience is the best teacher, so develop your own. Sound like a lot of work? You're right. But in grade points per app for academic hour the magical rules are the best term paper bargain going.
THE CITATION FORMAT OF ANTHROPOLOGY PAPERS. I think this format is easier to use than other formats. Once you familiar with it, I think you'll agree. Anthropologists document the use of other people's work--the sources of ideas or data used in a paper--by placing citations in criteria essay ib the text of the paper. Documentation , for our purposes, means providing bibliographic references to sources.
A citation is a bibliographic reference to essay a specific source--a book, an article, or other source of assessment essay, information. Correctness. In-text citation simply means placing citations in the text of the criteria ib, paper, instead of in footnotes. Essays Tire. In-text citation documents the assessment for extended essay, use of reading papers, sources of data and ideas, just as reference (bibliographic) footnotes do, but in-text citations are used instead of assessment essay ib, such footnotes in anthropology. You do not use reference footnotes or endnotes when you write a paper using the in-text citation format. You were probably taught to use reference footnotes to document your use of paragraph formula, sources, and the world is full of people who say footnote when they mean citation. Hang in there; things will become clearer as we go along. Assessment Criteria Ib. For now, do the best you can to forget about a research paper, using footnotes as a method of documentation. 7.
The important thing to understand, then, is assessment criteria for extended ib that in-text citation replaces reference footnotes . Over Of Accepting Are. Here's what in-text citation looks like: The evidence for this hypothesis is suspect (Burns 1969:32). Tonkinson (1978:27) notes that the Aborigines of the Western Desert. As you can see, the in-text citation supplies, in parentheses, the name of the criteria ib, author, the year of publication, and the page(s) on which the material cited can be found [NOTE ADDED BY JM: when citing journal articles in the natural sciences, page numbers are usually omitted unless it is a direct quotation--most articles are short and over others as they, if the reader wants to find the assessment criteria essay, item, s/he can read the article. Not true for a 300 page book. ]. Note the punctuation: this is exactly how it should appear in all your anthropology papers. Also note that when the name of the author is used as part of the text, as in the second example, only the machiavelli, year of publication and page numbers are placed within the parentheses. Now, if I'm your inscrutable TA and I'm interested in finding out more about something I read in your paper (because it is just so bizarre or wonderful that I have to know more about it), then I turn from your citation to your reference list at the end of your paper.
This list of all the criteria, works cited in writing a research paper your paper provides information needed to locate sources in the bookstore or library. The citations and the reference list make it possible for the reader to track down material that may be useful. As your TA, I can find interesting stuff simply by tracing your citation back to your source. In that source are more citations, leading me back to your source's sources (squared as it were). These in turn have citations and essay, reference lists leading to their sources (sources cubed?).
Your paper becomes a link in a citation chain when you cite from publications connected in this way. Thesis On Political. (TAs have funny ideas about how to spend their time.) The citation format used in anthropology is less work than the footnote format because you only have to type out the complete bibliographic information for a source once--in the reference list. Assessment Criteria Essay Ib. (Complete bibliographic information includes titles, publisher, place of publication, and so on. Essays Tire Elizabeth. We'll get to that.) In a paper using reference footnotes, you have to assessment for extended essay ib type that information twice--once in the footnote itself, and then again in the reference list. This seems like extra work to me. I would rather not be typing footnotes when I could be out hang-gliding or otherwise exercising my hormones. I think in-text citations are quicker and easier than reference footnotes, and they do exactly the same thing in terms of documenting the use of a source and providing access to that source. Since anthropology term papers do not use reference footnotes, you never have any reason to use Latin abbreviations such as ibid or op cit. In the footnote format, you use these expressions when you refer more than once to a single source. But when you use in-text citation, you give the same information every time that you refer to a source: the author's last name, year of publication of the work cited, and the page(s) on which the idea or data you use appears. What if you refer to two different books or articles by the same author?
How do you let the reader know that two different publications are being cited? You simply use the year of publication to distinguish them. They will be listed chronologically under the author's name in the reference list. Formula. What if they were published the same year? Then you can add lower case letters after the publication date. (Stone 1979a) (Stone 1979b) What happens if two authors have the same last names? In that case, you use the initials of criteria essay, their first names, or their full names if they have the same first names, so that it is clear in your text which author you mean. Thesis Correctness. So, if you cite both Karl Marx and Groucho Marx, you would use the initials of the assessment for extended ib, first names in the citations, even though the years of publication are different. (K. Marx 1853:334) (G.
Marx 1949:24) If two sources have the same first and last names, then you may have to of accepting as they use middle initials, if available. The general rule is always to criteria try to give enough information so that the reader will know exactly what individual or publication in the reference list you are referring to. If there are two authors for a publication you wish to cite, you cite them this way: (Stone Burns 1956) If there are more than two authors, then you can probably get away with using the app for reading, name of the assessment ib, senior author--the one whose name appears first in an article, or under whose name a book is cataloged--followed by et al. which means and others. Smith, Burns, Garcia, and Sullivan 1980:87 can be cited as (Smith et al.
1980:87). Smith is the app for reading academic papers, senior author; do not use the alphabetical order of authors' names in deciding what names to use in a citation. (Note: American Anthropologist , a major journal, now prohibits the use of criteria, et al. in machiavelli essay the text, because it is undemocratic. I recommend the use of et al. Assessment For Extended Essay Ib. --not because I'm undemocratic, but because it seems to me that a citation with three or more names interferes with the ease of reading the text, and I do not believe many instructors would object to this use of et al. in term papers. In your reference list, you must use the names of all the authors. Unless you are undemocratic.)
An Exception to thesis formula the Ban on Footnote: Multiple Citations. There is an assessment for extended essay, exception to a research lesson the rule against using reference footnotes for criteria for extended citing your sources. If you have many citations for one sentence (in other words, many sources for a research lesson one piece of information), then you may use a footnote to avoid cluttering the text and disrupting the reader's attention to your reasoning. Beagles are fond of bagels (Collins 1967:67; Crenshaw 1934:98; Morton 1978:81-89 1979:97). This means that. Beagles are fond of bagels. 1 This means that. 1. see Collins 1967:67; Crenshaw 1934:98; Morton 1978:81-89 1979:97. Ib. Using the thesis, reference footnote makes this easier to read without losing the sense of the text.
The idea is to avoid doing anything to distract the reader's attention from what you have to say. Unless an idea is very complex or profound --like Beagle bagelphilia- or the data very technical or surprising, you rarely need to use many citations for one particular chunk of information. A single citation will generally do. Sometimes you may wish to use several citations in essay order to direct the reader to correctness a particular literature or to for extended essay ib important examples of something. A footnote is paragraph formula appropriate in assessment essay ib such cases. For example, for the statement Beagles are fond of bagels, you might use this footnote: 1. The best references on Beagles and. bagels are Collins 1967, Crenshaw 1934, and Morton 1978 1979.
Footnotes should go at the bottom (foot) of the page. Some publishers put them at the end of the book. They claim this saves typesetting money (although with computerized typesetting that is no longer true). The real reason is that they hate readers. In any event, term paper footnotes should go at the bottom of the page. It not only keeps the professor from cursing your future posterity as he fumbles his way to the back in paragraph formula search of a note, it also improves the chances that he will actually pay attention to them. (Nothing is more infuriating, by the way, than to make one's way to the back of the book in search of footnote 73 from chapter fourteen only to find that it says op cit in reference to something last discussed six chapters earlier.) Cite corporate authors (organizations or groups) by their corporate names. (National Anthropological Institute 1989) A very long corporate name may be abbreviated. The National Institute of Mental Health can be cited in the text as NIMH. However, the full corporate name must be used in the reference list.
And you must be sure that you always provide enough information that a reader can find the criteria essay ib, source in the reference list without problems. If an individual can be identified as the author, the person rather than the organization should be cited. Occasionally, you will run across a work that has neither a personal nor corporate author. In that case you can use a few identifying words from the machiavelli essay, title of the assessment criteria for extended essay, source, which are placed in the author position in the entry in the reference list. There are as yet few employment opportunities in the field of Martian anthropology (Martian Anthropology 1986:569).
This citation corresponds to the following reference list entry: Martian Anthropology: An Overview of a Non-field. 1986 Encyclopedia of the Inner Planets. Abridged. Space City L-5:L-5 Publishing Matrix.
Other people's exact words must be placed within quotation marks, or set off from the text by indentation and single spacing. A citation must be placed near the beginning or at the end of the anti machiavelli, quotation, so that it is clear who is being quoted. Assessment Essay Ib. You could acknowledge a quotation from Clifford Geertz as follows: Culture is the fabric of statement, meaning in terms of assessment for extended essay ib, which human beings interpret their experience and guide their action; social structure is the form that action takes, the actually existing network of social relations (Geertz 1957:533). Here's another way to essays cite this quotation: In an article critical of criteria for extended essay, functional analysis, Geertz (1957:533) distinguishes between culture and social structure: Culture is the fabric of meanings in terms of which human beings interpret their experience and guide their action; social structure is the form that action takes, the actually existing network of writing, social relations. Note that no citation is needed at essay the end of the quote. Finally you might choose to incorporate Geertz's works into your text in essays tire elizabeth pa the following manner: According to Geertz, culture is the fabric of meaning by which people interpret their experience and guide their action (1957:533).
Note: when you put somebody's words inside quotation marks, be sure to quote exactly--spelling, grammatical errors--everything must be just as it is in the original. Paraphrase or Summary. Even when you put other people's ideas or information into assessment for extended essay ib, your own words, you must cite the source of the idea and thesis statement, date. For example, suppose that for essay a paper on socialization or cultural transmission I want to use T.R. Williams' idea that children take an active part in their own socialization into society. Williams calls this the generative function of machiavelli essay, socialization. He defines this as. comprising all of the ways children reflect upon, think about, and sort out the content of culture, in order to for extended essay develop for themselves a cognitive map of adult culture (Williams 1972:224). I don't want to quote him, though, because I know using too many quotations is anti machiavelli essay a cheap trick. It's my paper, after all, so I paraphrase him as follows: Williams (1972:224) notes that children are active agents in assessment for extended their own socialization.
They do not merely absorb the norms and values of adult behavior in a passive manner. Rather, they think about their experience of cultural behavior, and develop their own theories about their position and roles in the system of social interactions that surround them. Data and tire elizabeth, Specialized Knowledge. All specialized knowledge--anything that cannot be considered common knowledge in the field in which you are writing--must be documented. Data from a source must be cited. Naraun society is divided into three status classes.
The highest rank (temonibe) consists of criteria essay, descendants from the eldest daughter of the formula, woman who founded the clan (Alkire 1972:44). Data from an ethnography on assessment criteria essay a group is often specialized knowledge --anthropologists are specialists on the people they study. How do you know if something is common knowledge? There are fuzzy areas, of course. Generally, though, you can rely on common sense. You don't have to thesis statement on political document the for extended ib, fact that the Plains Indians hunted buffalo on paper horseback in criteria for extended the nineteenth century. But if you describe the life of the Sioux before they got horses or moved onto the Great Plains, or describe a fight the Pawnee had with the Sioux while on a buffalo hunt in 1858, then you need to provide a citation referring the reading academic, reader to the source of your information. Common knowledge means common in assessment criteria ib the field in which you are writing. (That anthropologists are mostly geniuses is a research paper lesson common knowledge--among anthropologists. For Extended. Others may disagree--but they don't know the field.) Most anthropologists know what clans, lineages, cross cousin marriage, and classificatory kinship are, but only statement on political correctness specialists can be expected to know the difference between Aluridja and Kariera type kinship systems, and so if you write a paper on how a particular group of Australian Aborigines combine features of both, a reference citation is called for, such as: A pretty good rule of assessment criteria essay, thumb is over the importance of accepting others are that if you knew it before you started your research, you probably don't need to provide a citation, unless you read about it recently.
But if you learned it in the course of your research you'd better cite it. 8 When in doubt, go ahead and cite. A citation must identify quotations. This can be done in several ways. Short quotations can be incorporated in essay ib a paragraph by using quotation marks and a citation.
If you have more than a couple of lines, you can show that you are quoting by indenting and using single spacing. Here is an example of a longer quotation in a sample text: Language requires and reinforces shared understandings. There has to be some level of app for reading, agreement concerning the meanings and use of assessment criteria essay ib, words and sentences in order for app for academic communication to essay ib be possible. So it is reasonable to assume that language in some sense standardizes the understandings of individuals. However, Sapir, for one, notes in this context that although language acts as a socializing and uniformizing force, it is, rather paradoxically, at the same time the most potent single factor for the growth of individuality (1933:27).
Remember, using citations is just like so many other things; it takes some practice. So don't worry if it doesn't feel right at anti essay first. You'll get the hang of it, and for extended essay ib, soon you will be doing it automatically. Now what about essays pa, paraphrases? A paraphrase is criteria essay ib a rewording of someone's ideas or information. Suppose I want to use some information I find in app for academic Tools for Thought by C.H. Waddington, for a paper describing the criteria essay, impact of the information explosion on anthropological research. In a section of Waddington's book entitled Complexity of Information in the Modern World, he discusses the number of scientific journals published as an index of complexity.
Here is the passage I'm interested in. The first two journals wholly devoted to science-- The Philosophical Transactions of the others as they, Royal Society of London and the French Journale des Savants --were both started in 1665. A number more were started at regular intervals during the next century. The process really got under way in earnest around 1760; since then the number of new journals established has doubled every fifteen years. By now well over 100,000 scientific journals have been founded. Not all have persisted, and assessment criteria essay, nobody knows quite how many journals are being published at the present time. As long ago as 1938, Bernal estimated that they were some 33,000 current scientific publications. Another estimate in the late 1960's put the number at 50,000, containing about 1 million separate scientific papers per year. One attempt to handle this mass of material has been the foundation of secondary journals, whose function it is to summarize and abstract the papers published in the primary journals.
The first of these appeared as long ago as 1714 in Germany. By the time there were enough of them to thesis statement correctness form a representative sample, they also started to criteria for extended essay ib multiply, at the same exponential rate as the primary journals, doubling in numbers every fifteen years, and reaching a total of 1,900 by the mid 1960's. By this time there had been developed a tertiary level of periodical publications, giving information about the abstracting journals (Waddington 1977:32- 33). I want to use some of these facts in formula a paper on how this flood of criteria for extended essay, information affects anthropological research. First I make a point and then I paraphrase Waddington in support of that point. Then I go on to cite another source.
The library is a sophisticated information retrieval system. It is designed to give us access to the information we need. Writing Paper Lesson. But we have to learn how to use it strategically, not haphazardly. This is assessment criteria essay especially true in on political anthropology, where the literatures used are both extensive and diverse. The general need for assessment for extended sophisticated library research strategies becomes apparent when we consider the volume of information that confronts us. Waddington reports that the first scientific journals were established in 1665. Since 1760 over 100,000 journals have been established; it was estimated in the 1960's that as many as half of that number were still being published. These 50,000 surviving journals publishsomething on the order of one million papers a year. Efforts to paragraph manage this flood of information include the assessment criteria for extended essay ib, use of statement on political correctness, secondary journals to condense and make accessible the contents of the primary journals. By the 1960's there were at least 1900 of these secondary journals (Waddington 1977:32-33). The situation in anthropology is the same.
In 1875- 76, the library of the criteria for extended essay, Peabody Museum, perhaps the tire elizabeth pa, first specialized anthropological library in the United States, had less than 1000 publications in for extended essay its collection; by 1975 it had 130,000 (Currier 1976:16). The third edition of Murdoch's Ethnographic Bibliography of North America, published in 1960, contained 17,3000 entries for books and reading papers, articles; the assessment for extended essay, fourth edition, published in anti machiavelli essay 1976, contains an additional 28,000 entries for books and articles published between 1959 and 1972 (Currier 1976:27). Assessment Criteria For Extended Essay Ib. Note how the app for, citations identify the source of the information. A citation is not needed for every sentence; a series of sentences (or passages) may only for extended essay require a single citation, as in the paraphrase of Waddington above, if it is clear that the information contained in the entire passage is from a single source (and from only a few pages of the reading papers, source). If you pull together information from different places in a book or long article (as I did from the article by Currier), then you need to use a citation within the paraphrase to indicate the different pages in the source where the material you used can be found. Transitions from one source to another obviously require you to position a citation in such a way that the reader can see that you have switched from one source to another. The crucial thing is that it must always be clear what ideas came from where.
If it is not clear, then it is wrong. When discussing a single book at length, you do not have to assessment criteria for extended essay ib acknowledge the general concepts, concerns, or themes in it each time you mention one. But it must be clear to the readers that you are in fact discussing an idea or theme from that particular book. You must, of course, cite the pages where more specific data or concepts are found, when you use them, so that the reader can find them. For example, you don't have to cite page numbers every time you state or imply that Frederik Barth, in writing a research paper his book Political Leadership among Swat Pathans , is interested in assessment for extended ib political leadership and a research, authority, because that is the grand theme of the criteria, book. It runs all through it. Therefore, you don't have to cite specific pages when you say something non-specific about thesis statement, Barth's book. Barth shares this concern about the problem of political leadership. His study of the Swat Pathans (1959) is a good early example of an approach to politics developed within social anthropology. Once you have clearly established that you are discussing Barth's 1959 study of the Swat Pathans, you can drop the (1959) --as long as the reader knows you are referring to criteria Barth's general theme or conceptuali- zation. Anti Essay. But as soon as you go on to discuss Barth's specific formulations, then you have to provide the reader with page numbers.
Barth states that among the Swat Pathans, Politically corporate groups are created by the actions of leaders (Barth 1959:72). These corporate groups are person-centered. The leader is the focus of the group; the group only exists in terms of and by virtue of his authority. The group includes anyone the leader can get to assessment for extended ib join him in collective action in response to threat, crisis, or conflict. Note that since the quotation and paraphrase come from the same page, one citation is adequate to identity both. Compare the thesis paragraph, paraphrase with the original:
Politically corporate groups are created by the actions of leaders. Any such group consists of all the persons whom a leader is able to mobilize in the event of conflict. Its limits are undefined except in relation to the leader, and its solidarity derives from the assessment for extended ib, latter's authority (Barth 1959:72). Papers. In theory, if you are not indebted to someone for an idea or date, you do not have to cite him or her, even if you come across their statement of that concept or information. However, in practice, it is usually better to go ahead and cite such a source, if the material is pertinent. If nothing else, you strengthen your argument by for extended essay indicating that reputable scholars have made the essays tire, same point. Besides, citing a source entitles you to list it in your bibliography and shows the professor how hard you worked. You don't want the professor to think you have done a slap dash job of research because you have failed to use a significant source. Also, you don't want to risk an unfair suspicion of plagiarism--more on that in the next section. Plagiarism is the use of assessment essay ib, someone's work without acknowledgment, as if it were your own.
If in your term paper you were to use someone's dates, ideas, or words without documenting that use with a citation, then you would be guilty of plagiarism. Plagiarism is essay cheating. The penalties for plagiarism include an F on a paper, failing the class, and probation or suspension from the university. To avoid plagiarism, you have to know how to document your use of other people's work. This is what we went over in the last section; in-text citation is the system of documentation used in anthropology.
Documentation is more than a good thing to know--it is your responsibility to know how to document your use of sources, and to make sure that you do so in every paper that you write, whether you use in-text citation for an anthropology paper, or reference footnotes for a literature paper. It is assessment criteria pretty easy to tell when a student has plagiarized. Professors and TAs are not dummies (or anyway not total dummies, or anyway not always total dummies). 9 They've had lots of experience in reading student papers, and they know what to expect. It is not always easy to tell whether a student meant to cheat (although some cases are so outrageous that there can be no doubt) but most professors and TAs can tell whether he did cheat. Read this section and the section on the use of citations with care, so that you never unintentionally fail to document the source of material you use in your papers. It is a research not all that hard to avoid plagiarism once you know what is assessment essay ib involved.
I'll advise you on how to avoid unintentional plagiarism. The main thing is to know how to thesis statement document any use of sources correctly. A quotation, the use of assessment criteria for extended essay, someone's words, not only requires a citation, but must be set off from essay over the importance others as they your writing by quotation marks or by indentation and criteria for extended, single spacing. This is statement true of for extended ib, phrases as well as of essays tire, whole sen- tences and passages. Consider the following example from African Religions of Brazil by Robert Bastide. The original is: All religion is a tradition --a dual tradition of stereotyped actions and rites and of mental images and myths. It has often been claimed that the criteria ib, two elements are inseparable, myths being a definition or justification of the ceremonial action (Bastide 1978:240). And here is the same passage plagiarized almost word for word in student paper. (The paper is hypothetical.
If a student did this, he would find his graduation getting pretty hypothetical too.) This religion is paper a dual tradition, like any other; a tradition both of stereotyped actions and rites and of psychological images and myths. The two elements are inseparable, with myth being the definition of ceremonial action. Only a few, very minor, changes have been made; essentially it consists of Bastide's words. Here is an ib, example of how to use this passage properly: According to Bastide, all religion is a tradition and as such consists of stereotyped actions and essays tire elizabeth pa, rites and criteria, mental images and myths. He notes that it is possible to elizabeth pa view ritual and myth as a unitary phenomenon in which myth is a statement of the assessment criteria for extended essay, purpose or meaning of ritual (Bastide 1978:240). It is clear that Bastide is being quoted, so a single citation at the end of the passage does the trick. Remember: it is still plagiarism even if you put someone's thoughts or data into your own words (in a paraphrase or summary) and do not acknowledge that use with a citation.
Plagiarism occurs whenever a citation is required, but is not given, whether for quotes or paraphrases, ideas or data. Besides confusion about the writing, purposes and methods of assessment criteria ib, documentation, the major cause of unconscious plagiarism is probably lousy note taking. Whenever you take a note you should record whether it is a quote, a paraphrase, or summary. You should also immediately take down all the bibliographic information you will need, should you later decide to incorporate that material into writing, your paper. If you don't do this, and you need to use that material, you'll have to haul yourself kicking and screaming back to assessment criteria for extended essay ib the library to get this information. That will look pretty silly. (You would be wise if you also wrote down the call numbers of library materials you use, so that you can find that stuff again without having to look it up in the computer card catalog.) If you photocopy pages from something, you should immediately write down complete bibliographic information on the copy or, better yet, photocopy the title page. Otherwise in a couple of weeks you may want to use it, but have only a vague notion of where it came from.
And so you won't be able to use it, until you go back to the library and thesis on political correctness, get the information you need to document your use of it. 10. The Bibliographic Format of Anthropology Papers: THE REFERENCE LIST. A reference list is not a real bibliography in the sense of seeking either to cover a subject comprehensively, or to identify sources which share certain special qualities (as in a select bibliography). A reference list is less ambitious; it is an inventory of assessment, sources actually used rather than of all sources or selected sources. (Some people refer to reference lists as bibliographies, and others don't. Personally, I don't think it matters what you call it as long as you know how to construct one.)
A reference list gives the necessary bibliographic information in a particular format. The bibliographic format presented here is derived, for the most part, from the journal American Anthropologist and from the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences . The format may be somewhat different in other journals, and still more different in other disciplines. The reference list follows the lesson, text of the paper. It can be headed at the top of the page References Cited or Works Cited. The entries in the list are organized alphabetically by the last names of the authors. Assessment Criteria Essay Ib. Here is what an entry for a book looks like:
Geertz, Clifford. 1973 The Interpretation of paper lesson, Cultures . New York: Basic Books. and for a journal article: Keesing, Roger 1979 Linguistic Knowledge and Cultural Knowledge: Some Doubts and Speculations. American Anthropologist 81 :14- 36. The above examples give the general form for entering sources in a reference list. You should use the criteria ib, same layout and punctuation. Start typing from the regular margin. Notice what bibliographic information is required: 1. Last name of author, then first name (and middle initial).
[NOTE ADDED BY JM: In the natural sciences (that goes for BioAnthro), first names are not generally used, just initials. There are about paragraph formula, a gazillion nuances and styles; in general, use the style that is used by most of the sources you are citing--i.e., pay attention to assessment criteria for extended essay your sources and do like they do .] 2. Paper Lesson. Date of assessment for extended essay ib, publication. 3. Title. 4. Information about the publisher or periodical, or other information about the source of the publication. a. Essay. If a book, then the city of publication and name of the publisher. b. If an article, then the name of the periodical, volume number, and pages on which the assessment criteria for extended ib, article appears. The Importance Others As They. (Note: if the journal or periodical does not number pages consecutively for the entire year, you also need to give the issue number. See point 7 below.) The above form will work for essay most entries.
But there are a variety of little details and special problems that you will encounter from time to time. Let's consider these one by one. 1. Book, single author. Include complete subtitles. Tonkinson, Robert. 1978 The Mardujara Aborigines: Living the Dream in Australia's Desert . New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. 2. Book or article, more than one author. Only the name of the first author is reversed.
Berger, Peter, and Thomas Luckmann. 1966 The Social Construction of Reality . New York: Doubleday. Harrison, G.A., J.S.Weiner, J.M.Tanner and N.A. Barnicot. 1977 Human Biology: An Introduction to Human Evolution, Variation, Growth, and Ecology . Over Are. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Remember that it is for extended ib (usually) acceptable, in a reference such as the one above, to paragraph use the principal author's name followed by et al in your in-text citation, but that you must give all of the authors' names in the reference list entry.
3. More than one publication by same author. In this case, you list the works chronologically (by date of publication). Assessment Criteria Essay Ib. The earliest work is cited first. Bailey, F.G. Essays Elizabeth Pa. 1963 Politics and Social Change . Berkeley: University of California Press. 1969 Stratagems and Spoils: A Social Anthropology of Politics . Criteria. Oxford: Blackwell.
If more than one work was published in thesis on political correctness the same year, list them alphabetically and use lower case letters to distinguish them, as in the in-text citation (1963a, 1963b). 4. City and State of Publication. If a book was published in some little known city or town--Tuba City, Arizona, or Weed, California, for example--then you should note the state, as well as the city, of publication. Rosenberg, G. and D. Anspach 1973 Working Class Kinship . Lexington, Massachusetts: Lexington Books. Place of publication is not required for periodicals, except to avoid confusion, as when journals with the same of similar names are published in different places. 5. Editor or compiler.
Hunt, Robert, ed. 1967 Personalities and Cultures: Readings in Psychological Anthropology . Austin: University of Texas Press. 6. Chapter or article in book. Williams, T.R. 1972 The Socialization Process: A Theoretical Perspective. In Primate Socialization . Frank E. Criteria Essay. Poirer, ed. Pp. 207-260. New York: Random House. Notice that in is underlined (or italicized in print).
This is to make sure that no one thinks it is part of the title of the book. Also, note that the name of an thesis paragraph, editor, when not in assessment criteria for extended ib the author position, is not inverted. 7. Journal Articles. If the periodical has continuous pagination, you omit the issue numbers. Singer, M. 1980 Signs of the Self: An Exploration in Semiotic Anthropology. American Anthropologist 82 : 485-507. Nowadays, most scholarly journals do not start off each issue with new pagination; rather, pagination is continuous throughout a volume, so providing an issue number would be superfluous. However, some periodicals start each issue with page one, in which case you must give the issue number in tire elizabeth pa your entry. Criteria For Extended Ib. Whenever you are not sure whether pagination is continuous, provide the issue number, in parentheses, after the volume number. Washburn, Sherwood L. 1978 The Evolution of Man. Scientific American 239(3) :194-211.
If you read Helen Sebba's translation of a book by Roger Bastide, the complete entry would be as follows: Bastide, Roger 1978 The African Religions of Brazil: Toward a Sociology of the Interpenetration of Civilizations . Thesis Formula. Helen Sebba, trans. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. (Original: Les Religions Afro-Brasiliennes: Contributions a une Sociologie des Interpenetrations de Civilisations, Paris, 1960). All of the above information is not always available, in which case you have to make do with what is available. There are also variations in assessment criteria essay ib what is done. For example, sometimes the language of the tire, original is given: Translated from the Nahuatl by. Assessment Criteria Essay. . 9. Essays Pa. Corporate Author. Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition 1978 Cognition as a Residual Category in Anthropology.
Annual Review of Anthropology 7 :51-69. 10. Reprints of Older Works. You should give the ib, original publication date in brackets, if available, as well as the writing a research paper lesson, date of the reprint. Smith, Arthur H. 1971  Village Life in China . Assessment Criteria For Extended Essay. Boston: Little, Brown. You probably should cite this in anti machiavelli essay the text by both dates, at least on its first use, so the reader will be aware of the criteria for extended essay ib, historical context of the source. Lesson. Your page citation should be to criteria the edition you used. Blom, Frans and pa, Oliver LaFarge 1926 Tribes and Temples . New Orleans: Tulane University Press.
Collier, Jane F. Criteria For Extended Essay Ib. 1973 Law and Social Change in Zinacantan . Correctness. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 1974 Women in Politics. In Women, Culture and Society . M. For Extended Ib. Rosaldo and L. Lamphere, eds. Pp. 89-96. App For Reading Academic. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 1977 Political Leadership and criteria essay, Legal Change in Zincantan. Law and paragraph, Society Review 11 :131-163. Emerson, Richard 1962 Power-dependence Relations. American Sociological Review 27(1) :31-40.
Levi-Strauss, Claude 1975 La Voie Des Masgues . 2 vol. Assessment For Extended Essay Ib. Geneva: Editions Albert Skira. Strickmann, Michel 1974 Taoism, history of. The New Encyclopaedia Britannica . 15th ed. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britanica. Vol. 17. Pp. 1044- 1050. Part of what makes a library confusing is the anti essay, fact that it has to organize tons of different kinds of stuff-- books, magazines and journals, government publications--from all over the world, about everything from the anthropology of art to zymurgy, in a way that can be used efficiently by everyone from assessment ib anthropology students to zymurgists. Anthropology uses an extremely wide range of library materials.
If you go into a research paper, the library blind, you won't find most of them. To use the library effectively for criteria for extended ib anthropological research, you have to essays tire pa know the functional relationship between critical reference works (that is, various indexes and bibliographies) and the anthropological literature. And, of course, you have to know how to use each individual reference work, when you find it. Using a reference work, such as the Social Sciences Citation Index , is not simple. But with practice it becomes automatic. Librarians are not uniquely gifted superstars; they have simply taken the time to learn how the library works. Assessment Criteria For Extended Ib. If you take a little time, you can become fluent at using the library too (not as good as the librarians, but pretty good).
11 This Guide will get you started, and will, we hope, be something you can refer to as needed, whenever you do research in the University Library, for anthropology or allied disciplines. The Library: How to Get Started. So you walk into the library. App For Reading Papers. What do you do first? Encyclopedias are good places to ib begin your exploratory reading, if you have some idea for statement a topic. (But term papers are never based solely on for extended encyclopedia articles.) I suggest you go either to elizabeth pa the Encyclopedia Britannica , 15th ed., or to the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences , or to a specialized area or subject encyclopedia, if one is available for your topic. Assessment Criteria For Extended Essay. (See the next section for descriptions of tire pa, individual reference works, including the ones mentioned here, plus directions on how to assessment essay ib find them in the reference areas.) Encyclopedias and handbooks are the best way to get a quick introduction to a topic--to see if it really interests you and to formula check it for feasibility. Criteria Ib. And you can use their reference lists to identify good sources. When you find a source in a reference work you then have to go to the computer card catalog (a now archaic reference to the time when you actually consulted the paper cards directly) and find its call number, so that you can locate it in the stacks.
The stacks are all those shelves of books that really make up a library. The reference area is a kind of map of the stacks. Paragraph Formula. Using the reference works shelved in the reference area enables you to find that dingy brown book on for extended essay ib the far end of the bottom shelf on the east side of the sixth floor which is just what you need for your paper. (It beats starting with the first book on reading academic the first floor and flipping through every book until you find the one you need.) After you have a call number, you can go find the book you want. When you find it--or the place where it would be if it were on the shelf--take time to look at the books next to it on the shelf. Since they are in the same call number sequence, they may be relevant to assessment criteria ib your topic. This kind of browsing (by call number sequence) is thesis statement correctness often an essay, effective way of finding useful sources. The same type of browsing is also possible to do electronically, but then you can't actually flip through the books themselves. Once you lay your hands on one good source, you can use its citations and reference list to identify additional sources. Paragraph. These sources will lead you on to their sources, and so on--this is the method of assessment ib, pursuing a citation chain, which was mentioned earlier, in the section on the use of citations. (Incidentally, many sources will use old fashioned reference footnotes instead of in-text citations, and may omit a reference list on the theory that the information was already given in footnotes. That is a pain, and we are inclined to think dark thoughts about their ancestry, but we're not so prejudiced that we'd pass up a good source on essays tire elizabeth that account.) Since each source can cite only for extended essay earlier sources, a citation chain normally leads from recent to earlier and earlier publications.
But it is also possible to pursue it in paper the opposite direction, i.e., from earlier to later citations. This is done by means of assessment essay, a remarkable set of reference tools called the Social Sciences Citation Index . We'll get to that. Reference Works: Encyclopedias. Encyclopedias attempt to tire summarize the for extended essay ib, knowledge in an area. Reading Papers. Here are two of the best encyclopedias for anthropological research. (Also see the for extended, section on more specialized handbooks.) The New Encyclopedia Britannica (1990) 15th ed. Tire. 30 vols. For Extended Ib. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. There are three parts to this encyclopedia. The first is a one volume outline of knowledge entitled the Propaedia. It is also a guide to thesis statement correctness the encyclopedia.
Then there is a ten volume Micropaedia which briefly summarizes knowledge in a subject. It is criteria intended to function as a ready reference, and as an machiavelli, index to the last nineteen volumes. It doesn't give the kind of in depth information needed even for exploratory reading on a topic, but it may give you ideas for a topic and leads to follow. The final nineteen volumes are the ib, Macropaedia. They give what the editors (pretentiously) call knowledge in over the importance of accepting others depth. Often the articles in the Macropaedia are written by scholars famous in their fields. (The articles are initialed, and the initials are identified at the end of the criteria essay ib, Propaedia volume if you get curious.) These selections are the ones you are most likely to find useful.
The reference lists are good. Note: one of the distinctive features of the 15th edition is its excellent cross indexing. The Micropaedia is a splendid index to the Macropaedia. Formula. It is always best to start there. The Propaedia also indexes the Macropaidia, though less obviously. Don't skip them.
International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (17 vols.) edited by David Sills, New York: Macmillan, 1968-79. Volume 17 is the index volume. USE IT! It is much better than relying on the broad subject headings used in assessment ib the encyclopedia proper. Essays Tire. The index volume lists specific topics--going to it first saves you time.
Page 84 of the index gives a list of the articles on anthropology. This encyclopedia has signed articles by criteria for extended essay ib heavyweights in their field. For example, Melford Spiro wrote the article on Culture and Personality. The reference lists are excellent. Reference Works: Indexes and Bibliographies. Social Sciences Index. As you turn from the world of general encyclopaedias, this is essays probably the index you will want to turn to first.
It is selective about the material it covers, and so the sources you find by assessment criteria ib using it have a pretty good chance of being high quality. It is easy to use. For example, suppose you are interested in Brazil. You look in the index for 1980 under the paragraph formula, subject heading Brazil and find that it says, among other things: Brazil see also. You then turn to the anthropological research heading. There, under Brazil, a journal article is listed. The title, author, journal name, and volume and page numbers are given: Final report on the meeting of anthropologists and Indian experts.
R. Cordoso de Oliveira. Cur Anthrop 20 :451-4 Je' '79. Cur Anthrop is the abbreviation used in this index for the journal Current Anthropology. (You can tell because there is a list of abbreviations used in the front of the index.) The volumes in which the article appears is criteria for extended ib 20, on pages 451-454, in June 1979. The article was written by R. Cordoso de Oliveira. To get your hands on the article itself, look up the journal name in anti machiavelli essay the serials record . This is a list of the assessment essay ib, journals and magazines in the library, and gives their call numbers. The serials record is found both in print and on computer at various locations--one is near the reference desk.
The serials list also tells you what volumes the library has. Volumes that are bound are shelved in the stacks. Unbound periodicals may be located in the Current Periodicals room. Some unbound periodicals are also shelved in the stacks. Armed with the call number for the journal and the volume and page number from the Social Science Index reference that you found, you may now march confidently into the stacks, walk right to the the shelf, and pull out the paragraph, volume you need, flip it open, and assessment criteria for extended essay ib, voil?: the desired article. (Remember, that if that article is statement correctness useful, the sources it lists in its reference bibliography may also be useful.)
Essay and General Literature Index. This index identifies the contents of books (for example, essays in criteria essay collections). The computerized card catalog does not do this. In the essay over of accepting are, index for 1970-74, under the heading Brazil, you find nothing interesting. You turn to the anthropology heading.
Again nothing seems useful. Assessment Criteria For Extended. But it refers you (see also) to various other headings, including ethnology. Under ethnology, you strike out. But it says see also kinship. Turning to the kinship heading, you find an article on kinship in Brazil. This is how it is listed in the index:
Kinship Levi-Strauss, C. Social Structures of Central and Eastern Brazil. In Gross, D.R., ed. Peoples and Cultures of Native South America . p. 263-74. Thesis On Political. You could not have found this particular article in the card catalog, but you can look up the book edited by Gross. You would jot down the above information, and turn to the back of the index, where there is a section which lists alphabetically all of the books which have had their contents indexed.
Under Gross, D.R., you find the following information. Gross, Daniel Russel (ed) Peoples and Cultures of Native South America: An Anthropological Reader . Ed. with introductions. Published by the American Museum of criteria for extended, Natural History Press 1973. You use this information to look up the book. The big advantage of this index is that it indexes the contents of books. The fact that an article or essay has been selected for inclusion in a collection means that there is a research paper lesson a fair chance that the article is of high quality.
Catalog of the Library of the Peabody Museum of Archeology and Ethnology, Harvard University. This is a reproduction in book form, of the card catalog of the Peabody Museum Library. It is perhaps the best retrospective bibliography for anthropological research. 12 It also indexes the contents of selected journals and books. It is divided into an author catalog and a subject catalog. The catalog is periodically updated with supplements which index works acquired since the main catalog was published. 1. Assessment For Extended Essay Ib. Subject Catalog The subject catalog of the Peabody Museum Library is organized by topical divisions (ethnology, technology), by human groups (political, linguistic, and social) and by geographical areas. App For Reading Academic Papers. The human groups headings, such as Basques and Berbers, have subject sub- headings, such as Basque-Sociology-Economics. The broader topical divisions may be broken down into subtopics (Anthropology-Theory). Publications under a particular geographical heading, like those for human groups, have subject sub-headings. For Extended Essay Ib. So you can look first for the geographical area that interests you, and statement on political, then you look for the subject headings that interest you.
Keep in mind that some of the subject headings in assessment the catalog may be out of date, since they were set up years ago. Suppose I am interested in Bali, an machiavelli, island in assessment criteria for extended essay ib Indonesia. Under Bali in the fourth supplement to the catalog are reproduction of thirty-one cards in the catalog of the Peabody Museum Library. Lesson. Subject headings follow the geographical headings; there are cards that say Bali Island--Ethnology, meaning that the publication listed on that card concerns the eth- nology of Bali. Essay. Here are some of the subject headings that appear under the app for reading, geographic heading of Bali: Sociology--Acculturation and Culture Change. The Peabody catalog indexes the contents of many books and journals.
For example, on assessment a card headed Bali Island-Sociology-Authority and Leadership, we find a chapter in a book listed: Hobart, Mark Orators and Patrons: Two Types of Political Leaders in Balinese Village Society. ( In : Political Language and app for reading academic, Oratory in Traditional Society . London: New York: Academic Press. c.1975, p. 65-92.) Notice that this entry does not give you the name of the editor of the volume in which this work appears; it does give you page numbers. We also find a journal article on marriage (under the subject heading Sociology-Marriage). Boon, James A. The Balinese Marriage Predicament: individual, strategical, cultural. ( In : American Ethnologist . 1976 v.3 no.2 p.191-214; diagrs.) Both of the criteria for extended essay, above appear in the fourth supplement , which updates the catalog. The fourth supplement was published in 1979, and catalogs 100,000 entries not cataloged in the third supplement.
You should use both the main catalog and each of the supplements in your search of the literature. Otherwise you can miss valuable sources. For example, if I had not looked in the main catalog under Bali, I might have missed the following older, but classic, work: Bateson, Gregory Balinese Character: a photographic analysis ; by Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead. New York, 1942. Machiavelli. xvi, 227 p. Assessment For Extended. 100 illus. (Special Publications of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. II.) Remember, this catalog is the best place to tire pa locate many older works; it is an excellent retrospective bibliography. 2. Author Catalog. Suppose you already know that a particular author has done major work on your topic. For example, maybe you are interested in some aspect of your topic.
For example, maybe you are interested in criteria ib some aspect of the work of Alfred Kroeber on California Indians. Under Kroeber, Alfred Louis, in the Peabody author catalog are listed 126 entries on app for reading academic papers works by Kroeber, covering the course of assessment, his career from 1900 through the thesis paragraph, 1950's. There are numerous articles on California Indians. After the publications by Kroeber are listed various works about Kroeber, which may also be useful. The first supplement to the author catalog had another thirty-two entries by or about Kroeber--many of these are reprints of works also listed in the main catalog. These reprints may be more accessible to you than the original publications, so it may pay off to assessment criteria ib check the supplements even on older authors. Social Sciences Citation Index. The Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) is the elizabeth, versatile and sophisticated index we mentioned before. It consists of three different kinds of for extended, indexes, which are designed to be used together: the Permuterm Subject Index , the Citation Index , and the Source Index . This is one of the major accomplishments of modern library science, and it's well worth the time it takes to get acquainted with it. 1. Subject and Source Index.
If you have a topic, and want to find articles about it, you can use the SCCI Permuterm Subject Index . Permuterm means that the words in titles have been used to index articles; an article will be listed under various combinations of the formula, words in the title, which are called terms and co-terms. For example, suppose that you have a topic in the area of criteria for extended, psychological anthropology. Reading Academic Papers. You know that culture and personality studies are an essay, important part of this field. So it makes sense to pick culture as you Primary Term and a research, personality as a Co-Term. In the Permuterm Subject Index for 1980, under the primary term culture and the co-term personality the name Shweder is listed.
Now you turn to the Source Index for 1980 and look up Shweder. This turns out to be a bonus: not one, but three articles by Shweder are listed. (There was even a little symbol in criteria the Subject Index which indicated that.) The SSCI Source Index gives you the following information for the first of Shweder's articles: Shweder, R.A. Rethinking Culture and Personality Theory 2: Critical Examination of two more Classical Postulates. This is machiavelli essay basically the same bibliographic information you find in assessment criteria ib a reference list: author, title, journal, volume and issue number, page numbers, and date of publication. Only the order is different from the format given earlier. Formula. The only mystery here is the 77R. Assessment For Extended Ib. That indicates the number of sources that Shweder cites. Seventy-seven sources is a lot. When you find a journal article with more that thirty or forty works listed in its reference list, you can be pretty sure that it is a major review of a subject. The article by Shweder is probably a review of some aspect of culture and personality theory, and so may be quite useful--for its reference list, if nothing else.
One beautiful thing about the SSCI is that in the Source Index it lists the essay of accepting are, reference sources of every article indexed. So you not only have a reference to Shweder's article in Ethos , you have a list of all the sources he cited, even before you go look at his article. His reference list is given right below the entry for criteria for extended his article. Essay. Let's look at one of Shweder's sources, as listed in the Source Index. Bateson G. 67 AM Behavioral Sci 10 29. Bateson is the author. 67 means 1967. For Extended. The name of the thesis on political, journal in which the for extended essay ib, article appears is American Behavioral Scientist. (The Index has a listing of all abbreviations used.) 10 refers to the volume number of the journal, 29 is the page number. The Citation Index of the SSCI enables you to find out which authors are being cited by others. Over The Importance Others Are. The authors who cite Shweder's articles on essay ib culture and personality, for example, are probably writing about the essay, same or related issues. Assessment Ib. The person who cites Shweder may provide follow-up work or an evaluation of Shweder's work.
So by essays tire elizabeth pa using the Citation Index , you can listen in to the dialogues being carried on by various groups of scholars who are interested in the stuff that interests you. When you find a good article on your topic, you can find other sources by finding out who has cited that article (or author) since its publication. The Citation Index lets you pursue citation chains in a new direction. Assessment Criteria Essay. Before, you could only writing a research lesson trace sources cited in an article you had your hands on, which meant you could only find works published before the date of publication of the article you have. But with the Citation Index you can find sources published after that date, because this index tells you who has cited the article you have since its publication. So not only for extended ib can you find a lot of potentially useful sources fast by using the SCCI, you can also keep up with the most recent developments and ideas in a field, and check to see how a work was later evaluated, a theory revised, or a conceptual framework expanded, modified or given up as worthless. This kind of library research is likely to pay off a lot faster than paging through journals one by one. Here's how you go about using the essays tire, SSCI Citation Index : First you look up the author in the index. The titles of the assessment for extended essay, author's articles are listed, by statement correctness year of publication, under his or her name. Under the titles are listed the names of the authors who cite that article, along with the bibliographic information you will need to look up these new sources.
Book Review Digest. Suppose you want to know whether or not African Political Systems , edited by Meyer Fortes and E.E. Evans-Pritchard is worth using in your paper. Criteria Essay Ib. You can use the Book Review Digest to find out. First, look up Fortes in the author/title index which is published in thesis formula separate volumes (Author-Title Index 1905-74). This provides the title and year of publication of all books included in the Digest . You will find that African Political Systems was published in 1941. Turning to the volume for 1941, you will find digests (that is, summaries) from several reviews of this book which appeared in assessment various periodicals, including American Anthropologist and American Political Science Review . If a book is not reviewed by a major journal, it may not be worth using. There are a lot of pretty funny people writing pretty funny books, and it is embarrassing to base part of a term paper on a book which seems to be scholarly and the importance of accepting as they are, rigorous, only to have the professor tell you that the results were considered impossible, or that fraud was involved, or that the assessment for extended essay, author is essay over the importance famous for being an idiot.
Therefore any book which seems to for extended essay contain startling or controversial information or interpretation is worth checking out in the Book Review Digest . If you find no summaries there, be sure to check the Book Review Index . Here you can find the citations to a much larger number of book reviews but without summaries. Essay. You will have to look them up yourself. For Extended Essay Ib. Since academic journals are nortoriously slow about reviewing books, you may find that a book published in 1990 has the essay over the importance, bulk of its reviews appear in 1991 while others will straggle in over the assessment essay ib, next couple of years, so do not confine yourself just to the year the book was published. Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) The Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) are a microfiche collection of books, articles and unpublished papers on more than 300 ethnic, religious, cultural and national groups worldwide. They are particularly valuable if you want to do a cross-cultural comparison quickly since each piece of writing is intensively indexed by topic.
Materials are arranged according to a classification system based on the following manuals: Outline of app for reading academic, Cultural Materials . 5th ed. 1982. Subject index to the HRAF files. Assigns a numerical designation to more than 700 categories of human culture. It is used in conjunction with the Outline of World Cultures to locate information in the HRAF files. It is advisable to use several reference works when surveying the literature in assessment preparation for a research paper. And remember that indexes and thesis, bibliographies organized by geographical areas index sources that focus on ib particular subjects (such as culture and personality or political systems), and the subject indexes will include sources that focus on ethnographic areas. This is not an exhaustive list of reference works useful in anthropological research. I have tried here to list only the ones you will probably find most useful.
There are many other useful reference sources. Try browsing in the reference area sometime to get a feel for the diversity of available reference works. 13 There is machiavelli essay a list available in the reference area devoted just to reference works in anthropology, and there are similar lists for other subjects as well. Obviously, if you have any questions or problems, consult your librarian. Cultural Anthropology: A Guide to Reference and Information Sources . Assessment For Extended. 1991. Guide to thesis reference literature in cultural anthropology, as well as libraries, publishers and organizations. Introduction to for extended essay ib Library Research in Anthropology . Essay The Importance As They Are. 1991. Guide to research tools, library services and criteria ib, the mechanics of term paper writing in anthropology. The Social Sciences: A Cross Disciplinary Guide to Selected Sources.
1989. Consult the Anthropology chapter for tire pa an annotated list of recent reference sources in assessment criteria for extended essay anthropology. Sources of Information in the Social Sciences . 3rd ed. 1986. The Anthropology chapter contains an exhaustive annotated bibliography of the literature of this field. [probably] Available at the Reference Desk. International Bibliography of the Social Sciences--Anthropology . 1955-91+ This has an author-subject index at thesis on political correctness the back of each volume. It breaks the discipline into sub-areas in a clasification scheme-- for example, General Studies, Materials and Methods, Ethnographic Studies (by area), Social Organization (by area and by institution and type of behavior, e.g., sexual relations, inter- racial and inter-ethnic relations). The IBSS also includes bibliographies in political science, economics, and sociology. Criteria For Extended Ib. The anthropology part covers archeology and reading papers, physical anthropology as well as cultural and social anthropology. DICTIONARIES AND ENCYCLOPEDIAS. Dictionary of Anthropology . 1986.
Covers 1100 terms, theoretical concepts, and assessment ib, biographical profiles in social and cultural anthropology. Includes bibliography. Dictionary of essay the importance of accepting are, Concepts in Cultural Anthropology . 1991. Contains definitions, historical origins and developments, and bibliographic references for essay 80 key concepts in cultural anthropology. Dictionary of essays tire, Concepts in Physical Anthropology . 1991. Consists of brief definitions, historical origins and developments, and sources of additional information for concepts in physical anthropology.
Encyclopedia of Anthropology , 1976 This is assessment essay really a dictionary rather than an encyclopedia. Encyclopedia of Evolution: Humanity's Search for its Origins . 1990. Popular encyclopedia containing 600+ articles on evolution and its impact on society, from Bonzo to biogenetic law and from Planet of the Apes to plate tectonics. Encyclopedia of Islam , New Edition. vol 1-4 Covers most major aspects of paper, Islamic history and religion. Encyclopedia of Human Evolution and Prehistory . 1988.
Covers 1200+ topics in criteria for extended ib human evolution. Contains photographs, drawings and charts. Entries include bibliographies. Encyclopedia of World Cultures . 10 vols.[in progress] 1991- . Ten-volume encyclopedia, arranged by geographic region, provides descriptive summaries on world cultures. International Dictionary of Anthropologists . 1991. Biographical dictionary of anthropologists born prior to 1920. Essay Others. The scope is worldwide. International Encyclopedia of Psychiatry, Psychology, Psychoanalysis, and Neurology, 1977 Volume 12 is the index volume.
The articles are signed and have reference lists. The International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences would also be useful in doing research in psychological anthropology. Women Anthropologists: A Biographical Dictionary . 1988. Biographical profiles of women anthropologists born between 1836 and 1934. For Extended Essay Ib. Profiles include a selected bibliography of works by or about each individual. INDEXES AND ABSTRACTS. Abstracts in Anthropology . 1970 - . Abstracts are brief summaries of the anti, contents of a publication and index journal articles in a subject arrangement. Abstracts, unlike book reviews, are non-evaluative.
Most social sciences have their own abstracts. You may also find Psychological Abstracts and Sociological Abstracts useful. Divided into four sections: archaeology, physical anthropology, linguistics, and cultural anthropology. Essay Ib. Does not index book reviews. Africa Bibliography . Essays. 1984 - . Index to articles, books and essays. Arranged by region and country, following a general section. Consult the social and cultural anthropology/sociology and criteria for extended, anthropology/ archaeology/prehistory subject headings. Alternative Press Index . Writing A Research Paper. 1970 - . Index to alternative and radical publications. Consult this index for articles on Australian aborigines, native Americans and other groups. Index America: History and Life . 1964 - . Table This work indexes and abstracts periodical articles in the field of North American history and culture. Assessment Criteria Essay Ib. Includes articles on native American history, prehistory and culture.
Includes book reviews. Anthropological Index to Current Periodicals in the Museum of Mankind Library . 1980 - . Statement On Political. Indexes more than 600 periodicals in for extended essay a geographical arrangement, subdivided by general, physical anthropology, archaeology, cultural anthropology, ethnography, and linguistics. No subject index. Annual author index published separately. Does not index book reviews. Anthropological Literature: An Index to Periodical Articles and Essays . 1979 - . Indexes over 1000 periodicals and 150 edited books from materials received at Harvard's Tozzer Library. Does not index book reviews. Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts . 1987 - . Index to journal articles in statement correctness the applied social sciences.
Includes social and cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistics and ib, physical anthropology. Index Arts and Humanities Citation Index . 1975 - . On Political. Table Provides author, subject and citation access to the literature in folklore, linguistics and archaeology. Includes book reviews. A Current Bibliography on African Affairs . 1962 - . Quarterly index to books, articles, government documents and assessment for extended ib, visual aids, arranged by general subject or geographical area. Geographical Abstracts: Human Geography . 1989 - . Index to 1000 geographical journals, books, proceedings, reports, theses and dissertations covering the literature of human geography. Classified subject arrangement. Handbook of Latin American Studies , 1935- Publishes separate volumes on humanities and essay the importance others, social sciences. Assessment For Extended Ib. Annotated. Handbook of reading academic, Middle American Indians . 16 vols.
1964-1976. Contains essays on the ethnography, archaeology, physical anthropology and social anthropology of the Indians of Middle America. Updated by recent supplements. Handbook of North American Indians . 20 vols. [in progress] 1978 - . When completed, this work will be the standard source of information on the prehistory, history and cultures of the native peoples of North America north of Mexico. Each volume contains essays on specific aspects of Native American life with an extensive bibliography and for extended essay, detailed index. Handbook of Social and Cultural Anthropology . 1973. Surveys the state of essays tire pa, knowledge and assessment for extended, reviews research in reading academic the various branches of anthropology. Handbook of South American Indians . 7 vols. 1946-1959. Survey of tribes of South America, with emphasis on the European contact period.
Medical Anthropology: A Handbook of Theory and assessment criteria, Method . 1990. Presents the anti, state of the art in medical anthropology, core theoretical issues, ethnomedicine, biomedicine, health issues in human populations, methodology and assessment, policy issues. Anthropological Bibliographies: A Selected Guide . 1981. Essays Tire. Extensive list of bibliographies arranged geographically with a final section of criteria essay ib, topical bibliographies. Anthropological Fieldwork: An Annotated Bibliography . 1988. Contains 700 entries on anthropological fieldwork from the early twentieth century to 1986. Includes geographical and subject indexes. A Bibliography of a research, Contemporary North American Indians: Selected and Partially Annotated with Study Guide . 1976 Organized by topics--for example, the anthropology of development, culture and personality.
Cumulative Bibliography of African Studies . 1973 This is a reproduction of the author and subject catalog of the IAI. Subject headings are organized under geographical Folio areas. Criteria. It has a table of contents. The IAI has several other bibliographies which might be useful. Cumulative Bibliography of Asian Studies . Thesis Paragraph. 1941- These are two titles in the same continuous series. Assessment For Extended. Broken down by topic and country, they cover an extraordinarily large range of publications and therefore runs four or five years behind (i.e., volume covering 1986 was published in 1991). Ecce Homo: An Annotated Bibliographic History of thesis, Physical Anthropology . 1986.
Contains 2340 references from ancient times to on the history of physical anthropology. Arranged chronologically. Ethnographic Bibliography of North America . 4th edition, 1975 (supplement 1990) Organized by areas. It has 40,000 entries on articles and books, and covers the field through 1972, supplement takes it through the 1980s. Ethnographic Bibliography of assessment for extended essay ib, South America . 1963 Organized by area, then by tribe. Has tribal index.
The History of Anthropology: A Research Bibliography . 1977. Contains more than 2400 entries on the development of essay over the importance of accepting others as they are, anthropology as a science and assessment for extended essay, profession. Index Islamicus: A Catalogue of Articles in Periodicals and Other Collective Publications . 1958-85. Organized by subject and by over the importance of accepting as they are area. Includes section on assessment essay ib ethnology and anthropology (more current supplements issued periodically) Modern Chinese Society: An Analytical Bibliography . 1973 Good source for older work, but much new research has been conducted since it came out. Native American Basketry: An Annotated Bibliography . 1988.
Comprehensive bibliography includes books, articles, theses, dissertations and newspaper articles. Organized by culture area. Contains author and writing a research paper lesson, subject indexes. Pacific Bibliography: Printed Materials Relating to assessment essay the Native Peoples of Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia . Writing Lesson. 1965. Assessment For Extended Ib. 2nd ed.
This has author, subject, and group indexes. The Social System and Culture of formula, Modern India: A Research Bibliography . 1975 Organized by subjects--covers sociology and assessment criteria essay, social and cultural anthropology, although all of the subject headings refer to sociology. YEARBOOKS AND REVIEW LITERATURE. Annual Review of Anthropology . 1972- This gives critical reviews of tire elizabeth, recent research in selected areas of anthropology, such as political and economic anthropology, symbolic studies, culture change, and area studies. The biblio- graphies for each article are generally quite extensive. Reviews in Anthropology . 1974 - . Quarterly journal which publishes long reviews on important new publications in anthropology. Atlas of Mankind . 1982. Contains general background information on peoples of the criteria, world, including issues such as migration, race, kinship, language, and environment. Atlas of World Cultures: A Geographical Guide to Ethnographic Literature . 1989.
Geographical guide to anti essay ethnographic books, articles, reports, archaeological materials, maps and atlases for 3500+ cultures. Cultural Atlas of China . Assessment Criteria Essay. 1983. Visual representation of the culture history of elizabeth, China, with maps, photographs, tables and text. There are similar volumes on Africa and assessment criteria for extended, Japan. AAA Guide . A Research Paper. Current year. Describes anthropology departments in 485 institutions, lists American Anthropological Association members, recent PhD dissertations in anthropology, and student statistics. Biographical Directory of Anthropologists Born Before 1920 . 1988 Entries include biographical data, major contributions, and published sources of biographical information. Return to contents Nowadays a fair amount of your library research can be done without ever entering the library (not all of it; after you identify sources using an online catalog, you still need to criteria for extended essay get them--with some nifty exceptions!). This brief section on electronic searching is NOT intended to cover the topic in as much detail as the paper lesson, rest of this document; it merely points out a couple of things I find many UCSD students are not aware of. ROGER seems to be where most students begin their online research; this is criteria essay a great resource and a research, has an ib, easy-to-use interface, but has a critical limitation : it only covers BOOKS. Now, at first you might think, well, duh--libraries house books, I'm looking for books, so like what's the limitation line all about?
It's about periodicals . Using ROGER, you can locate which library subscribes to which journal, which is useful, but now what? To find an article on a particular topic, what do you do? You bag ROGER, that's what. [Jan. 2001 update: The new millennium has brought changes to as they are the system, and assessment for extended essay, the rate of change is increasing.
Much of the following is based on the old 1998 MELVYL interface (which is essays still available); resources today are vastly greater. Assessment Criteria Essay Ib. Start your online library search for journals at the California Digital Library (http://www.dbs.cdlib.org/. The pull-down menu asks you to select a database. If you are looking for a book, choose MELVYL; for a bioanthro article my suggestion is start with Current Contents. Experiment! The Really Cool Thing is that if you are logging on from a campus computer, for many journals you can read/download the entire article online!
Save yourself that trip over to BioMed or SIO. DO skim through the rest of this, though; the exact commands and of accepting as they, interfaces change, but the search strategies do not. Instead, use MELVYL and get into one of the periodical databases: CC, MED, or MAGS (by typing CC, MED, or MAGS at criteria for extended ib the MELVYL prompt--not difficult!) The search syntax is a little different in each but each has a complete users guide--type help or e med [or e mags etc; e is for explain]--and it is worth learning because with these you can locate any article written by a particular author or that contains a given word (or words) in the title. Thesis Paragraph. For example, say you found an assessment essay, interesting article by Richard Wrangham that he wrote in 1980, and you want to tire elizabeth pa see if he's written anything else since then. Tell CC (the Current Contents database) to f ind all articles by the p ersonal a uthor R. Wrangham: CC: f pa wrangham, r. and for extended essay ib, you'll get a list. Or, you need to write a paper about Australopithecus anamensis and you've no idea where to find anything on it; if you search ROGER you can find plenty of books on hominids etc, but 99.9% of that will say nothing about anamensis , a recently-described species that won't even be in any older books. So -- ask CC to on political correctness find all articles with anamensis in the t itle w ords: CC: f tw anamensis and you're away. Note that this will miss an article about anamensis that happens to be titled A new hominid from Kanapoi, Kenya; hey, no single system is perfect (once you know who discovered the fossil, you can do an author search to get everything else by that person. ). Now--what's the difference between CC, MED, and MAGS? CC covers a wide variety of scientific journals across many fields; MED is more specialized to journals that carry articles related in criteria essay ib some fashion to medicine (this covers a surprising number of topics that might seem fairly peripheral to medical topics). Essays Pa. Finally, MAGS covers--surprise--magazines (like Discover or Time ).
OK, what's the difference between scientific journals and magazines? PEER REVIEW . When an article is submitted to a peer-reviewed journal, the editor sends it to assessment criteria essay ib from 2-8 (supposed) experts on the topic, who tear it apart and let the editor know if there is any merit to anti essay the article. For a magazine article, the for extended ib, editor decides whether to tire pa accept it on the basis of . well, whatever -- for example, an editor might include an outrageous story knowing that sales will go up as people argue about it. (The same can apply for books.) This doesn't mean everything in peer-reviewed journals is true and correct, but it's at least plausible, most of the time. Finally, a nifty feature of criteria for extended essay ib, MED and tire elizabeth, MAGS is criteria essay that for some articles you can access the abstract and (in MAGS), sometimes even the tire pa, whole article online. In response to a search, output looks like: 3. Evans, Dylan. Criteria Ib. The arbitrary ape. (human intelligence and the ability to think randomly)
New Scientist v159, n2148 (August 22, 1998):32 (3 pages). Type D 3 AB to see abstract. AT: UCSD S E Q 1 N5496 Current Journals Bound in Stacks. which is pretty self-explanatory (I've highlighted the statement on political, relevant bit, the display won't be in essay ib color!). This can be an immense timesaver. I'm not going to attempt to cover research on writing paper lesson the web; just want to make two points: First, refer back to the difference between peer-reviewed journals and assessment criteria for extended ib, popular magazines, and remember: at least with those, at least one person other than the author read it before accepting it . Reading Papers. Surprise: you can't trust everything you read on essay ib the web. Second, while the web has everything on it, you may not be able to find it.
I recently wanted statistics on timber exports from Gabon, and figured it was a natural for a web search. Two frustrating hours later, nothing. On a whim, I tried MELVYL and within 3 minutes had the call number of a recent book on paper African timber trade, that had everything I could ask for and more on the subject. (A week later, an expert I'd contacted finally got around to emailing me with a couple of criteria ib, urls to websites with superb statistics on worldwide logging--like I said, it's there , just need to find it. ) No single search strategy will get everything, and the importance of accepting as they, failure to assessment criteria for extended ib find information using one resource means try another one-- not but there's nothing on my topic! 1 Literature as used here refers to the body of published material on writing some subject or topic--not to Russian novels. For example, there is a literature on medical anthropology, on Afro-American religions, on the kinship systems of Australian Aborigines, on assessment for extended essay ib witchcraft and magic and so forth. back. 2 Writing skills are also useful in the world at large, of course. One of the practical aspects of anthropology courses is their frequent emphasis on writing.
You will find the writing and research skills as taught in anthropology useful in thesis formula the REAL WORLD--more useful than an ability to ace multiple choice exams. And research and writing are not really so hard, once you've had enough practice. back. 3 Data are pieces of information that can be used in for extended essay ib analysis. Correctness. Technically, data is the plural of datum, that is, of criteria, one of the pieces of information. But, so many people use data as a singular form that you probably won't get into too much trouble if you find yourself using it in the singular. Thesis Statement On Political Correctness. Other common singular/plural confusions: criteria (pl.)/criterion (sing.); phenomena (pl.)/phenomenon (sing.) -- if you mix these up someone may accuse you of illiteracy. Assessment For Extended. So when in doubt, consult a dictionary or a writing handbook on word usage and essay, words commonly misused. back. 4 That may sound trite, but it is significant, and worth working on. Assessment Essay. A professor once remarked that he found some kind of wrongheadedness in the first sentence of almost every paper. If that's true--and who am I to argue with a professor? [Steve wrote this while still a grad student, now he can argue]--then there is probably an awful lot of poor word choice going on.
If you are careful to pick the best words for the ideas you want to express, you will probably be one of the academic papers, few who do--that doesn't guarantee an A, but it comes closer to guaranteeing it than any other writing habit I can think of.back. 5 If you are not belligerent and unreasonable, most professors have no objections to assessment for extended ib a little disagreement. Thesis Paragraph. (A lot of them are flattered anyone was paying attention!) You probably have a reason for disagreeing, after all, and assessment criteria essay, if it is on political correctness a good reason it might work into the basis of a good term paper.back. 6 That's an on porpoise typo.back. 7 You can still use content footnotes, if you like. Content footnotes discuss ideas, issues, or details that are pertinent (or, occasionally, important) but not a necessary or direct part of the exposition or argument of the paper. This type of footnote is for discussion and elaboration. Unlike reference footnotes, content footnotes do not (usually) provide bibliographic information.back.
8 However, if you suspect that your audience will not be familiar with an idea or some body of information, then even if you have thought or known it for years, it is advisable to use a citation.back. 9 You can get pretty dummy-like after reading 100 term papers in a row.back. 10 The best advice on taking notes--library notes or field notes--is to include everything necessary for someone else to be able to use them. Figure that by the time you actually use them you'll be older and wiser (or will have forgotten enough) that for assessment all practical purposes you will be someone else. Making notes self explanatory is never a bad policy. back. 11 The reference librarians are always going to know more about the library than anyone else, so if you can't find what you need, don't assume the elizabeth pa, library does not have it until you have asked a librarian. back. 12 Retrospective means covering older publications; looking back on past work.back.
13 I think I already told you that TAs have funny ideas about how to spend their time.back. One of the big buzzwords (OK, concept more than words) in for extended ib primatology/cognitive science these days is a research paper theory of mind (TOM). There are folks who are devoting major research energy, if not careers, to establishing whether apes (or monkeys, or dolphins, or beagles. ) have TOM -- i.e., are they capable of criteria for extended, thinking about other individuals as separate social actors with their own separate knowledge, motives, desires, or do they simply respond to thesis stimuli without being able to assessment criteria take account of another's viewpoint? The classic experiment is what Christine Johnson calls the Sally - Anne test. Experimenter puts a big treat inside a box while Sally is watching, then Sally leaves the room (the experimental subject is watching all this). Anne comes in and switches the treat for something nasty, then leaves. Sally returns. Now: ask the papers, subject What does Sally think is in the box?
Small children answer something nasty!, being unable to distinguish between their own knowledge and for extended, that of Sally. Older humans have TOM and know that Sally incorrectly expects a treat. Writing Lesson. Monkeys don't seem to ever get it, and people argue about apes. The interesting thing to me is that while normal adult humans are all capable of employing TOM, they do not always do it. When writing papers, remember that the reader is another person, who may or may not know all the criteria for extended ib, things you know, and almost certainly has not organized them in the same way you have. Essay. You need to assessment for extended ib develop logic, present data, explain ideas.
If you've read this far, you are almost certainly human and lesson, capable of employing TOM. Do it on papers (and in seminar presentations. ) and you will earn delighted surprise (and points) from your audience. For further Moore's meanderings on the topic of research papers (including a set of assessment criteria essay ib, classic errors in paper types), click here for the Research Paper handout (in a new window).
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How to Make an criteria for extended essay ib Acting Resume With No Experience. Thesis Paragraph! Putting together an actor resume is probably the essay, first and easiest thing an aspiring actor should do. But here#8217;s the conundrum: how do you make an writing a research paper lesson acting resume with no experience ? If you#8217;re in this position, don#8217;t sweat it. It#8217;s not a big deal. Really, it#8217;s not. Assessment For Extended Essay Ib! I remember myself having this exact same thought when I was just embarking on the acting journey. In reality, almost every single actor has been in thesis on political correctness, a position of having an empty actor resume.
We#8217;ve all started out acting with no credits. As a newcomer, you#8217;ll have to get comfortable with the idea that you#8217;re a fresh face on the block, you won#8217;t be signed by any top talent agencies in assessment criteria for extended ib, Los Angeles (yet) and a research paper lesson, you#8217;ll have to work with what you have. Below, I will quickly walk you through what an assessment for extended ib actor resume is, what purpose does it serve, what resume you need for voice over jobs, the standards for an acting resume in Los Angeles, and the best way to go about writing your actor resume when you have no experience to list. Before we begin, would you like a sample standard LA acting resume that you can edit with your own details? Share some social love and you can download an anti machiavelli essay editable PDF. Let#8217;s start at the beginning. Criteria Essay! After reading through this acting resume guide, if you have any questions, drop your comments here and app for reading academic papers, I will try to answer them the best I can.
What#8217;s an acting resume, and assessment criteria for extended essay ib, why do you need one? I#8217;m sure everybody knows what a CV (curriculum vitae) is. It#8217;s that piece of essay others are, paper that people use to show to for extended ib their potential employers. Paragraph Formula! Surprise surprise, an actor#8217;s resume is the criteria, exact same thing that you use when they#8217;re looking to book acting auditions in LA. It serves the same purpose, and is even structured similarly. Alongside your headshot, an acting resume is one of the most important actor#8217;s marketing tools that every aspiring thespian needs to have. It#8217;s your calling card. Reading Academic Papers! You will list all of your acting experience, education, acting training and special skills that you have alongside your contact information, and a few physical stats.
Look to the right. This is what a Los Angeles based working actor#8217;s resume looks like. I removed the name and assessment for extended essay ib, contact info. When you submit for an acting job, a CD will receive your full actor#8217;s package: actor resume, headshot and, if you have it, your demo reel. The CD will look at your headshot first (!) and if you look the part, they will turn it over to writing paper see your acting resume on the other side. They#8217;ll scan through your physical stats, your credits and, sometimes, your special skills if that applies. Say your resume looks professional, your look fits the part, and essay, the CD is happy with your experience and essay are, credits. In this case, you#8217;re going to get a call about an audition. Congratulations!
You just got your first audition. For Extended Essay Ib! Now back to the real world#8230; Even if you have not done any acting work whatsoever, you can still put together an actor resume with no experience, and send it over to CDs with confidence . Despite your worst delusional fears (we#8217;ve all be there, trust me), nobody#8217;s going to think of you poorly if you have little or no acting experience. CDs understand that every actor has to start somewhere, thus you may get by on your looks, physical stats, training and/or special skills alone. Most importantly, don#8217;t get discouraged if you don#8217;t. Simply move onto the next project. Bottom Line : An acting resume is statement on political correctness, what every actor needs to put together as soon as they#8217;ve decide to enter show business. It#8217;s their calling card.
Basics of a professional actor resume. Even though you have no credits under your belt yet, you still want to assessment criteria keep your actor resume looking clean and professional. Statement Correctness! Here are some basics to go by when structuring an assessment essay acting CV: An acting resume is ALWAYS only one sheet of app for reading papers, paper. No exceptions. It must have enough white space to be read easily (hey, you#8217;re perfect for it!) It should be sized to fit a 8?10 headshot so that you can staple it to the back. Use standard fonts such as Arial or Times New Roman. Do not cram the assessment for extended ib, resume with too many things. App For Reading! Keep it simple and assessment criteria essay, relevant.
Do not use any colors. It#8217;s just black and white, plus headings for sections. Never lie on essay others are your resume. You#8217;ll be surprised how quickly that gets out. Assessment Criteria For Extended Essay Ib! #8220; DON’T lie on your resume. Actors do this all the time and they always get caught. If you claim to have booked a guest star role on “NCIS,” it stands to reason you would have footage from the show on your reel. If you don’t, I’m going to ask why. And that’s where the lie will start to fall apart. #8221; Secret Agent Man , Backstage.com. These are the primary #8220;rules#8221; for a professional looking acting resume. Follow them and you#8217;ll be alright. If you download the formula, sample acting resume above , you#8217;ll notice that it#8217;s slightly different from the resume in the picture, but the difference is irrelevant.
In fact, most casting directors prefer the simplicity because it#8217;s easier to read and remember. What matters the most in assessment for extended, an acting resume is the basic information that#8217;s easy to see: personal details at machiavelli the top, followed by credits and for extended essay, then training. You can choose either format, just keep it clean and easy to thesis read. And now for the acting resume format technicalities. I suggest you opening that resume sample from above so that you understand better what#8217;s what. Bottom Line : Your acting resume should look clean, professional, adapted for quick reading, and with the most recent and most relevant credits.
Your personal information . As you can see in the acting resume template I#8217;ve linked to above, and the provided Los Angeles actor resume example, we#8217;re supposed to start with some personal details. For the purpose of assessment criteria, this article, let#8217;s assume that you#8217;re a non-union actor with no talent agent representation, which is most likely the case anyway. Actor#8217;s name . This is where your stage name (not your legal name) goes. Simple. Union title. If you#8217;re not affiliated with any actor#8217;s union, then skip this part. Phone number . Machiavelli Essay! Always use the number by which you can be reached any time. Physical stats . Self-explanatory.
NEVER put your age or date of birth on the resume. After the basic personal information, we#8217;re moving onto the credits and what acting experience you have. Your acting experience. Normally, this is where you would list all your credits, from television to film to theater to new media. Assessment Essay Ib! If you#8217;re pursuing acting in paper, Los Angeles, most of your work will be focused on Film/TV, thus one resume is usually enough. However, people in New York City, for assessment for extended essay example, will often have at least two actor resumes: one focused on screen work, one on paper stage work. If you don#8217;t have much acting experience, then one acting CV will be enough. Film credits . In this section, start with the assessment ib, name of the show , followed by the type of role (NOT your character#8217;s name; see below) you did, then production company and finally director#8217;s name . Paragraph Formula! Television credits . Similarly to film credits, start with the name of the show , then the type of role (different to film type roles; see below), followed by assessment criteria for extended, television network and the director#8217;s name . Essay! The same applies to Web Series/Webisodes productions. Theater credits . Criteria Ib! Again, begin with the name of the production/play , followed by your role/character#8217;s name (this time it#8217;s the other way around), then the theater company#8217;s name and the location of where the production took place. A few quick tips: Always, always list film and thesis statement, television credits under separate sections.
You#8217;ll see some bad actor resume examples where they#8217;re filled under #8220;Film/TV.#8221; DO NOT do this, because it will make your acting resume look very unprofessional. The reason is mostly because role types work differently on assessment ib film and TV (see below). Once you get more experience under your belt, try to remove some of the reading, older and/or less important stuff from the resume. Keeping it clean will make you look more professional. You also want to have casting directors focus on your best and most important work. You can list your credits any way you want. Some people list them chronologically, but I usually suggest listing your best work at the top so that it catches peoples#8217; attention. Assessment For Extended Essay! Never put extra/background work on thesis your resume. The reason being is that extra work is not considered acting.
Some people will do so anyway to fill the space, but I strongly advise against assessment criteria ib, that. If you#8217;re ever asked about that part, and you have to say that you were actually a background on papers the set, that will make you look very unprofessional. When listing theater credits, you don#8217;t usually name the director. However, if the director#8217;s name is really well-known, I would list that either alongside the theater company#8217;s name, or instead of the location if you#8217;re short for assessment criteria space (similar to a research paper lesson Film/TV credit format). Assessment For Extended Ib! Your training and education . In this section, list all the relevant acting training that you#8217;ve had so far. That usually includes: acting classes, workshops, formal theater/acting education and other informal acting/drama training. Begin by listing the name of writing lesson, your acting teacher (for private/group classes) or the institution where you#8217;ve studied acting. Right next to it you#8217;ll list what type of acting classes those were, which you#8217;ll know after you#8217;ve taken them.
There#8217;s too many for me to list, but the criteria essay ib, most common are Scene Study, Cold Reading, Audition Technique, Improv, and On-Camera Class. In the writing lesson, third column of this section, it#8217;s the location. Now in terms of what goes where vertically. For Extended Ib! Normally, you#8217;ll have your formal and probably oldest acting education at the bottom, which is the college or drama school that you went to. Even if you think it#8217;s the best type of training you have received, that#8217;s usually not how casting directors and agents think. Keep the essay over the importance, classes that you#8217;re currently taking at the very top of this section, and add #8220;(ongoing)#8221; right next to them. After that, list any other acting class or workshop that you#8217;ve taken chronologically with the oldest class at the bottom of the list. Your special skills . For Extended Essay Ib! The least useful section of machiavelli, your acting resume is the one that actors truly obsess over. You don#8217;t have to, because agents rarely even look here, unless there#8217;s something very specific that they want from an actor. With that in mind, don#8217;t over-complicate this part and assessment for extended, list the things that you#8217;re most proficient in. App For Reading Academic! My advice for essay the special skills section would be to on political be honest with yourself.
If you#8217;ve only strummed a guitar a few times in your life, don#8217;t put Guitar on for extended there. If you#8217;ve played basketball in writing paper, high school which was 10 years ago, don#8217;t put Basketball in there. Also, don#8217;t write down things like Running and assessment criteria essay ib, Whistling, unless you#8217;re a professional. The same goes for listing languages. Machiavelli! Over-exaggerating about your special skills used to be a thing back in the day, but in 2015, agents think this just looks dumb. #8220; I want all of you to assessment criteria look up the meaning of the word “fluent.” Make sure you understand what it means before you claim you’re fluent in any language. I’m fluent in three, and essays tire elizabeth, I always test actors when I see one of those languages listed on assessment essay ib their resume. Care to guess how many couldn’t respond to a simple question in paragraph formula, the language they’re supposed to be fluent in? #8221; Secret Agent Man , Backstage.com.
As you can see, agents do care and essay, they do their due diligence. Bottom Line : Always stick to the standard actor resume format, and app for, don#8217;t reinvent the assessment for extended ib, wheel. Agents and casting directors should be able to scan through your resume fast. Let me give you quick breakdown of film and television role types. This is something every aspiring actor in Los Angeles has to know. You#8217;ll be surprised how often you#8217;ll soon be using these terms. Series regular Main character(s) on the show under contract for a certain period of time, usually for the duration of the whole show/season. Recurring Second most important TV acting role type. These are usually signed to appear on the show on multiple episodes. Guest star Third biggest part where the character is directly involved with the plot of the TV show, usually for a single episode, but sometimes several episodes.
Co-star A small speaking part that will only be involved in one episode for a small period of screen time. Under 5 (U5) Normally applicable only to anti daytime dramas where the criteria for extended, character will have less than five lines. Lead Protagonist. Main character of the story on paragraph formula whom the whole film is centered. Supporting Secondary character which can be just as important to the film/story. Assessment Criteria For Extended Essay Ib! Principal A small part with spoken lines where the character will usually interact with one of the above characters for a short period, but doesn#8217;t add much to the story.
Featured A non-speaking part where the character gets enough facetime. This is not the anti machiavelli essay, same as an Extra, but sometimes Extras are promoted to Featured roles. And that wraps up the whole technical part of an actor#8217;s resume. Ib! Please feel free to come back to this article when you#8217;ll need help with structuring your actor resume format. I#8217;ve already mentioned this, but don#8217;t stress about not having any acting experience. Yes, it is Catch-22 where you can#8217;t get work because you have no experience but you can#8217;t get experience without acquiring work.
Welcome to Hollywood. A) The first thing you may want to do is papers, think about whether you definitely have no experience. Maybe you#8217;ve been in some small plays, or student films, or even indie films with your friends? List them all! Anything where you have actually done acting can go on your resume, even if it#8217;s a small part in a silly project. B) The next step is obvious: you need to search for opportunities to act.
The easiest way to acquire some credits for your resume is to visit your local community college for some stage work. Criteria Ib! You can also browse through free casting websites, Craigslist, filmmaking websites and forums where people are looking for actors who would work for free. If you#8217;re willing to do some work for no reward, that means you#8217;ll find opportunities faster. C) The third thing you can do is produce something yourself. I#8217;ve already talked about the importance for actors to create their own projects, and the earlier you start, the better. Statement On Political Correctness! All you need is criteria for extended, a few bucks, a smartphone with a decent camera and tire, some time. You can gather up a couple of friends, write a screenplay for assessment criteria for extended essay a short film, shoot it on your phone and anti machiavelli, put it up on criteria YouTube. That#8217;s your first credit.
I would advise against buying memberships on casting websites just yet. If this is anti machiavelli essay, your first time venturing into the world of performing arts, give it some time, and criteria for extended, see if you even like the craft of acting before spending money. You will be surprised how quickly your resume will start growing if you dedicate some time to this, and if you#8217;re willing to thesis paragraph work for criteria for extended essay free. There are a lot of academic papers, opportunities out there, especially if you move to for extended a big city such as Los Angeles, New York City, Atlanta, Vancouver in Canada or London in England. Once you start receiving some acting work, remove your older, #8220;silly#8221; credits and replace them with the anti essay, most recent stuff. Finally, try to have fun.
People often forget about assessment this myself included but it#8217;s an integral part of succeeding as an actor. After all, don#8217;t we all want to thesis formula become actors so that we can have fun instead of work?
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Top 148 Successful College Essays. Get into the college of your dreams! We hope these essays inspire you as you write your own personal statement. Just remember to be original and essay creative as you share your story. Enlist the expert help of one of our Ivy-League editors.
Get individual coaching to make your essay stand out among the crowd. Learn more. 1. Describe the world you come from. Most children acquire the same eye color or a similar shaped nose from their parents, but I’ve inherited much more: a passion for the importance others as they are, learning and an insatiable curiosity which has served me well throughout my academic career. My father, an essay, electrical engineer, taught me to essay over the importance are explore the world with inquis. 2. Incredible Stanford Hitler Essay. Adolf Hitler applied twice to essay The Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna, before doing what he did.
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October 29th, 2011: I am alone. Assessment For Extended! I am tired. I am at a Snoop Dogg concert. The drumbeat rattling my teeth is nearly overpowered by my deafening crash onto rock bottom. The 2011 school year cut me to pieces.
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Sometimes I get tired of it and I'll go outs. 141. Intellectual Vitality Essay - Technology consulting A command window pops onto my laptop screen; “C:UsersAdmin” is written in white against a black background as I stare curiously at what this means. Just at the end of 10th grade, I applied to intern for a technology consulting firm, COMPANY_NAME. As it was a newly founded company, t. 142. What matters to you, and criteria for extended essay ib why? - Nurturing Kitties
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Landing an offer in a tough economy requires considerable effort. If you can demonstrate you can make an for extended, impact in your interview, your name will rise to the top of the pack. Copyright Curriculum-Vitae.In 2013 - Contact : webmaster curriculum-vitae.in. All the Curriculum Vitae templates are at your disposal without any guaranty. The use of these Curriculum samples is at your sole risk.